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ascular Plants or ine oiacK niiis 

f South Dakota and Adjacent Wyoming 



5DA Forest Service 
Bsearcli Paper RM-71 




Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 

Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Fort Collins, Colorado 



ABSTRACT 



This checklist gives the scientific name and botanical authority, 
the plant family (and tribe for Gramineae and Compositae), an 
alphabetical symbol adapted for computer coding, and a life-form 
designation for 1,759 plant taxa of the Black Hills of South Dakota 
and Wyoming. Listing is alphabetical: by genera, by species 
within genera, and by variety or subspecies within species. A 
discussion of the environment and vegetation types of the Black 
Hills is included. 

KEY WORDS: Vascular system (plants), vegetation 



USDA Forest Service j^^^ ^97^ 

Research Paper RM-71 



Vascular Plants of the Black Hills of 
South Dakota and Adjacent Wyoming 



by 



John F. Thilenius 
Plant Ecologist 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station^ 



^Central headquarters maintained in cooperation with Colorado State Uni- 
versity at Fort Collins; research reported here was conducted in cooperation 
with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology at Rapid City. Author is now 
located at Laramie, in cooperation with the University of Wyoming, 



Contents 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Botanical References Consulted 1 

Environment and Vegetation Types 

of the Black Hills 2 

Symbols for Family and Tribe 5 

Alphabetical List of the Vascular Plants 

of the Black Hills 7 



Vascular Plants of the Black Hills 
of South Dakota and Adjacent Wyoming 



John F. Thilenius 



Introduction 

This checklist of the vascular plants of the 
Black Hills of South Dakota and immediately 
adjacent Wyoming is a revision of the checklist 
pubUshed by A. C. Mcintosh (1949). Major 
changes are: (1) revision of the nomenclature 
to a currently more acceptable system, (2) 
reduction of synonomy, (3) inclusion of new 
taxa reported by vai'ious workers, (4) incor- 
poration of an alphabetical plant symbol code, 
and (5) inclusion of life-form classes. 

Taxa are ai-ranged alphabetically by genera, 
and then alphabetically by species within genera. 
Vai-ieties or subspecies follow species. 

For each taxon the appropriate alphabetical 
plant symbol is given, followed by the scientific 
name of the genera and species and the author- 
ity; an alphabetical symbol for the scientific 
name of the family (and tribe for the Graminae 
and Compositae); and a life-form symbol. 

Alphabetical symbols have been determined 
as follows: For genera, the first five letters of 
the generic name; for species, the first two 
letters of the genus name and the first two 
letters of the species name (subspecies and 
varieties are indicated by including the first 
letter of the subspecific or varietal name in 
the symbol); for family, the first six letters 
of the family name (tribes are indicated by 
the parenthetical insertion of a three-letter 
symbol composed of the first three letters of 
the tribal name after the family symbol). 
Where symbols are duplicated, a number 
(starting with 2) is used as part of the symbol. 
Only capital letters are used for symbols. 

Five life-form classes are included: (1) 
L = Peridophyta; (2) ('. = (iraminoids: Chami- 
nae, Cyperaceae, and Juncaceae; (3) F = Forbs: 
all other herbaceous plants; (4) S = Shrubs: 
woody, usually multi-stemmed, perennial plants 
generally under 10 feet tall when mature; (5) 
T = Trees: woody, perennial plants, usually 



with an elongated, single, central stem, and 
generally over 10 feet tall when mature. 

Wherever possible, nomenclature follows 
the New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora 
(1963 edition) except for Graminae, which fol- 
low the Manual of Grasses of the United States 
(1950). All references used are listed under 
Botanical References Consulted. 

Common names have not beenincoiporated 
in the list; the reader is referred to Standard- 
ized Plant Names (1942, 2d edition) for them. 

Botanical References Consulted 

Budd, A. C, and K. F. Best. 

1964. Wild plants of the Canadian prairies. 
Canada Dep. Agr., Kes. Branch Pub. 
983,519 p., Ottawa. 
Davis, R. J. 

1952. Flora of Idaho. 828 p. Dubuque, 
Iowa; Wm. C. Brown Co. 
Froiland, S. G. 

1962. The genus Salix (willows) in the 
Black Hills of South Dakota. U. S. 
Dep. Agr. Tech. Ikill. 12(39, 75 p. 

Gleason, II. A. 

1963. The New liiitton and Brown illus 
trated flora of the northeastern United 
States and adjacent Canada. 3 vols. 
Bronx, New York: The N. Y. Botanical 
Garden. 

Harrington, II. D. 

1954. Manuid of the plants of (.'olorado. 
666 p. Denver: Sage Books. 

Hitchcock, A. S., and Agnes Chase. 

1950. Manual of the grasses of the United 

States. U. S. Dep. .Agr. Misc. Pub. 

200, 1051 p. 
Hitchcock, C. Leo, Arthur Cronquist, Marion 
Ownbey, and J. W. Thcjmpson. 

1955. Vascular plants of the Pacific North- 
west. P:ut 5. Compositae. 343 p., 
illus. Seattle: Univ. Wash. Press. 



, Arthur Cronquist, Marion Ownbey, 

and J. W. Thompson. 

1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific North- 
west. Part 4. Ericaceae through Cam- 
panulaceae. 510 p., illus. Seattle: Univ. 
Wash. Press. 

, Arthur Cronquist, Marion Ownbey, 

and J. W. Thompson. 

1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific North- 
west. Part 3. Saxifragaceae to Eri- 
caceae. 614 p., illus. Seattle: Univ. 
Wash. Press. 

, Arthur Cronquist, Marion Ownbey, 

and J. W. Thompson. 

1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific North- 
west. Part 2. Salicaceae to Saxifraga- 
ceae. 597 p., illus. Seattle: Univ. 
Wash. Press. 

Mcintosh, A. C. 

1949. A botanical sui^vey of the Black 
Hills of South Dakota. Black Hills 
Eng. 28(4): 1-75. 

Peck, M. E. 

1961. A manual of the higher plants of 
Oregon. Ed 2, 936 p. Portland: Bin- 
forts and Mort. 

Stevens, O. S. 

1950. Handbook of North Dakota plants. 
324 p. State Agr. Coll., Fargo, N. Dak. 

Winter, John M., Clara K. Winter, and Theo- 
dore Van Bi-uggen. 

1959. A checklist of the vascular plants 
of South Dakota. 176 p., Bot. Dep., 
State Univ. of S. Dak., Vermillion. 



Environment and Vegetation Types 
of the Black Hills 

The elliptically shaped mass of the Black 
Hills covers an area of over 2,900 square miles 
in extreme western South Dakota and eastern 
Wyoming. Physiographically, this ai-ea is an 
islandlike uplifted dome which declines in 
general elevation from northwest to southeast. 
The drainage pattern is radial-dendritic, but 
the majority of the permanent streams flow 
eastward. Although there ai'e no natural lakes 
in the Black Hills, three manmade impound- 
ments of several hundred acres have been 
constructed, and there are many smaller 
artificial lakes and ponds. 

The most conspicuous topographic features 
of the Black Hills are: 
1. The Hog-back Ridge— a single ridge of hard 

sandstone, encircling the periphery of the 

Hills. 



2. The Red Valley- which lies between the 
Hog-back and the main mass of the Hills 
and has soils of very reddish hue, which 
are also high in gypsum. 

3. The Limestone Plateau— another encircling 
formation, most extensive in the north- 
western portion and along the western edge 
of the Hills. 

4. The Central Area— a highly dissected region 
of metamoiphic material which forms the core 
of the Black Hills. 

5. The Granite Spires — an isolated, intrusive 
massif of extremely steep spires and cliffs, 
in the south-central Black Hills. The highest 
elevation in the Black Hills, Harney Peak 
(7,242 feet) occurs here. 

6. The Igneous Cones— which intrude through 
the Limestone Plateau and Central Area 
along the northern edge of the Black Hills. 

Annual precipitation in the Black Hills 
ranges from 28 inches at high elevations on the 
northwestern Limestone Plateau to less than 
16 inches in the surrounding foothills. June 
is the wettest month. Snowfall on the Lime- 
stone Plateau averages over 110 inches a year. 
Temperatures vary with location and elevation. 
Table 1 summarizes climatic data for five selected 
stations in the Black Hills. Temperature in- 
versions are common during the winter; the 
temperature at 5,000 feet may be over 20° F. 
warmer than at 3,000 feet. These inversions 
are often accompanied by strong chinook winds. 

While the flora of the Black Hills region 
is rich in species, there are relatively few 
vegetation types. An outline of the more 
important vegetation includes: 
I. Coniferous forest or woodland types 
A. Major extent 

1. Pinus ponderosa forest 
B . Moderate extent 

1. Piceaglauca forest 

2. Junipenis scopulorum woodland 
C . Minor extent 

1. Pinus contorta var. latifolia forest 

2. Pinus flexilis forest 

II. Deciduous forest or woodland types 
A. Major extent 

1. Populus treniuloides - Betula papyri- 
fera forest j 

B . Moderate extent 

1. Quercus macrocarpa woodland 

2. Acer negundo - Fraxinus pennsyl- 
vanica riparian woodland 

III. Shrub types 
A. Major extent 

1. Cercocarpus montanus shruhland 



Table 1. --Climatic data for the Black Hills region 



Station 


Location 


Elevation 


Precipitation 


Temperature 


Growing 








Max. 


Min. 


X 


Max. Min. 


x 


season 






Feet 




Inches 




°F. 




Days 


Lead 


North 


5152 


40.1 


12.8 


23.8 


101 -40 


44 


129 


Rapid City 


East 


3259 


27.7 


7.5 


17.5 


106 -34 


47 


154 


Hot Springs 


South 


3426 


32.0 


8.6 


18.4 


112 -31 


48 


142 


Newcastle 


West 


4317 


23.9 


9.2 


12.9 


108 -37 


46 


136 


Custer 


Central 


5309 


27.9 


9.3 


18.5 


96 -31 


41 


NA 



B . Minor extent 

1. Artemisia trident ata shrubland 

2. Symphoricarpos occidentalis meadow 

3. Salix bebbiana riparian shrubland 

4. Ceanothus velutinus shrubland (old 
forest fire burns) 

IV. Grassland types 
A. Major extent 

1. Andropogon scoparius bunchgrass 
prairie 

2. Agropyron smithii - Stipa comata 
mid-grass prairie 

3. Bouteloua gracilis - Buchloe dacty- 
loides short-grass prairie 

4. Poapratensis meadow 
B . Minor extent 

1. Carex - Juncus m.end.O'w 

These vegetation types have all been 
disturbed to some extent. Logging, mining, 
livestock grazing, fire, protection from fire, 
or a combination of these influences are com- 
mon throughout the Black Hills. Thus, all 
types are in serai condition, and the assign- 
ment of a successional status rating such as 
"climax" to any of them would be highly 
subjective and not particularly relevant. 
Furthermore, although distinct examples of 
these vegetation types are present, many of 
them intergrade. The intergrades may be caused 
by intergrades in effective environment, by 
succession, or both. 

Pinusponderosa forest is the most common 
vegetation type in the Black Hills. About 
95 percent of the forested area is dominated 
by this species, and the general appearance 



of the Black Hills is of a monoculture of this 
species. There is a great deal of variation 
in the Pinus ponderosa forest, however, es- 
pecially in the understory. Some of the more 
important subtypes are given below. The species 
listed are the dominants in the tree, shrub, 
and herb strata. 

1. Pinus ponderosa/ Andropogon scoparius — 
Common in the southern Black Hills and on 
exposed, rocky, south-facing slopes at lower 
elevations in the Central Area. Yucca glauca, 
Artemisia frigida, Amorpha canescens, Leu- 
cocrinum montanum, Stipa spp., and Bou- 
teloua spp. are common associated species. 

2. Pinus ponderosa/ Arctostaphylos uva-ursi — 
The dominant vegetation in the Central Area; 
occurs on a variety of exposures and sites. 
Symphoricarpos albus, Rosa fendleri, Dan- 
thonia intermedia, Carex concinna, and 
Oryzopsis sp. are also abundant. 

3. Pinus ponderosa/ Symphoricarpos occiden- 
talis— Occurs on deeper soils, especially on 
the ecotone between forest and meadow, 
in the Central Area. 

4. Pinus ponderosa/Juniperus communis/Ber- 
beris repens— The dominant forest type at 
higher elevations (-1-6,000 feet) on the north- 
western Limestone Plateau. Sheperdia cana- 
densis, Bromuspumpellianus, Elymusglauca, 
and Trifolium spp. are the more common 
associates. 

5. Pinus ponderosa/Quercus macrocarpa — Best 
developed at low to moderate elevation (4,000- 
5,000 feet) in the northern Black Hills. 
Associated species are Prunus virginiana, 
Berberis repens, and Schizachnepu rpurascens. 



6. Pinus ponderosa/Cercocarpus montanus— 
Occurs on the western edge of the Black 
Hills. Intergrades into Cercocarpus montanus 
shrubland at lower elevations. Confined to 
calcareous parent materials. Ribes spp., 
Rhus trilobata, and Andropogon spp. are 
also present. 
Picea glauca forest is found as a dominant 
type in the most mesic sites in the Black Hills. 
It is best developed on north-facing slopes at 
high elevation in the northern Limestone 
Plateau, and on the Igneous Cones that intnade 
through the Limestone Plateau. Relatively 
extensive stands also occur in the Granite 
Spires region and along streams in the Central 
Area. Vaccinium scoparium, Juniperus com- 
munis, Goody era decipiens, and Chimaphila 
umbellata are common, but the understory 
is, in general, rather sparse. 

The Juniperus scopulorum woodland type 
is best developed in the southern Black Hills 
and on river breaks in the northern Great 
Plains to the east of the Black Hills. Pinus 
ponderosa is often an overstory codominant. 
Ribes spp. and Rhus trilobata are important 
shrubs. The herb layer has distinct prairie 
affinities. Stipa spp., Bouteloua gracilis, and 
B. curtipendula are common. 

The Pinus contorta var. latifolia forest type 
is represented by a single stand of approxi- 
mately 90 acres in the Central Area. This 
stand is apparently of natural origin because 
it includes trees over 100 years of age. The 
closest stands of P. contorta var. latifolia are in 
the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming over 200 
miles to the west. 

The Pinus flexilis forest type is similarly 
represented by a single stand, but it is only 
about 5 acres in area. The stand is in the 
Granite Spires at an elevation of 6,600 to 6,800 
feet. The closest stands of P. flexilis are in 
the Big Horn Mountains and in the Little 
Missouri Badlands of North Dakota. 

Populus tremuloides- Betula papyrifera 
forests are found on a variety of sites. Old 
forest burns, especially in the northwestern 
Black Hills, often are dominated by this vege- 
tation. The understory in this type is very 
rich in species. Corylus cornuta, Prunus vir- 
giniana, Rosa suffulta, Rubus parviflorus,Pteri- 
dium aquilinum, Actaea arguta, and a large 
variety of mesophyllic grasses and forbs are 
abundant. 

Woodlands dominated by Quercus macro- 
carjoa occur along the northeastern foothills 
of the Black Hills and on more xeric slopes at 
moderate elevation in the northern portion 



of the Black Hills. This type has affinities with 
the eastern deciduous forest. The majority 
of the stands are grazed heavily by hvestock. 
Important associated species are Ostrya vir- 
giniana, Rhus glabra, Toxicodendron radicans, 
and Symphoricarpos occidentalis. Poapratensis 
is the most abundant grass. 

Acer negundo- Fraxinus pennsylvanica 
woodland is a riparian type found at moderate 
elevation in the eastern Black Hills and along; 
river courses in the prairie to the east. Com- 
mon associates are Ulmus americana, Populus^ 
spp., Salix spp., and Ostrya virginiana. 

True shrubland vegetation in the Black 
Hills is limited, although some tree species ^ 
(Quercus macrocarpa, Populus tremuloides) edso > 
grow as shioibs, especially in old forest burns. 
However, shrubland dominated by Ceirocarpusi 
montanus is present along the western edge of 
the Black Hills, and extends to the south and 
east. At lower elevations, Cercocarfjus mon- 
tanus has an open distribution and individual! 
shrubs are seldom more than 4 feet tall. Ati 
higher elevations, the shioibs exceed 10 feet; 
in height and form very dense thickets. Asso- 
ciated shrub species are Ribes spp., Rhus trilo- 
bata, and Juniperus scopulorum. The herba- 
ceous stratum is dominated by prairie species: 
Bouteloua spp., Calamovilfa longifolia, andl 
Andropogon gerardii are the most common i 
species. 

An Artemisia trident ata shrubland type oc- 
curs on lowlands to the west and south of the 
Black Hills. Several other species of Artemisia 
are also present: A. cana, A. filifolia, and 
A. frigida are the most common of these. 
Chrysothamnus nauseosus is abundant on 
eroded sites. 

The Symphoricarpos occidentalis shiiibland 
type is found on alluvial benches along stream 
courses, and on degraded meadows in the Central 
Area. Poa pratensis is the herb stratum domi- 
nant in this type. Achillea millefolium, Ago- 
seris spp., and Trifolium spp. are additional 
important components of the herb stratum. 

A Ceanothus velutinus shrubland type is 
present on old forest burns in the Igneous 
Cone area of the northern Hills. Ceanothus 
also occurs under the Pinus ponderosa Cdnopy 
on unburned sites in this region. 

A riparian shrub type dominated by Salix 
bebbiana was formerly much more abundant 
in the Black Hills, but is now badly decimated 
by overgrazing, changes in water level, and the 
willow horer ( Sternochetus lapathi). Additional 
important components are Cornus stolonifera, 
Betula glandulosa, Carex nebraskensis, and 
J uncus spp. 



Grassland vegetation in the Black Hills can 
be subdivided into two major divisions based 
on effective moisture. The drier parts of the 
southern Hills support a bunchgrass vegetation 
dominated by Andropogon scoporia!-.. This 
type also occurs on exposed south- and west- 
facing slopes and biilds in the Central Area, 
where it intergrades into the Pinus ponderosa/ 
Andropogon scoporius subtype previously men- 
tioned. Additional conponent species are similar 
in these two vegetation types. 

The mid-grasses, Agropyron sniithli and 
Stipa spp., dominate extensive grasslands in 
the southern Black Hills. Other important 
species in this grassland are Artemisia frigida 
and Bouteloua spp. 

Short-grass prairie dominated by Bouteloua 
gracilis and Buchloe dactyloides occurs inter- 
mixed with the Agropyron-Stipa mid-grass type, 
possibly as a result of overgrazing. Opuntia 
spp. are also common here, as are Artemisia 
frigida and Bromus japonicus. 

Extensive meadows on the Limestone 
Plateau in the northern Black Hills are in 
general composed of more mesophyllic species 
than those in southern Black Hills, but prairie 
species do occur. In the higher ai'eas of the 



Limestone Plateau, meadows dominated by Poa 
pratensis occupy concave relief areas bordering 
watercourses. The present dominance of Poa 
pratensis may be the result of past overgrazing 
by livestock. Associated grasses are Phleum 
pratense, Bromus spp., Stipa spp., Agropyron 
spp., and Elymus spp. In the summer, a great 
variety of flowering forbs are evident. Among 
these ai'e Calochortus nuttallii. Castilleja spp., 
Zygadenus gramineus, Coniandra })allida. Soli- 
dago spp., and many Compositae (particularly 
Rudbeekia spp., Agoseris spp., and Helianth us 
spp). The ecotone between this grassland type 
and the surrounding forest is often dominated 
by the cidciphyllus shiiib, Potentilla fruticosa. 

Sedge meadow grassland is not common 
in the Black Hills, but does occur in low areas 
adjacent to streams and behind silted-in beaver 
dams. The wetter parts of these areas m-e 
dominated by Carer nebraskensis and C. rostra- 
ta, while slightly better drained sites have other 
species of Carex and grasses such as 
Deschampsia caespitosa and Calamagrostis inex- 
pansa as dominants. Iris missouriensis is 
veiy noticeable in these ai'eas during the 
early summer. 



SYMBOLS FOR FAMILY AND TRIBE 



Symbol 

ACERAC 
ADOXAC 
ALISMA 
AMARAN 
ANACAR 
APOCYN 
ARALIA 
ASCLEP 
AZIOAC 

BALSAM 
BERBER 
BETULA 
BORAGI 

CACTAC 
CALLIT 
CAMP AN 
CAPPAR 
CAPRI F 
CARYOP 
CELAST 
CHENOP 
CISTAC 



Family 

Aceraceae 

Adoxaceae 

Alismaceae 

Amaranthaceae 

Anacardiaceae 

Apocynaceae 

Araliaceae 

Asclepiadaceae 

Azioaceae 

Balsaminaceae 
Berberidaceae 
Betulaceae 
Boraginaceae 

Cactaceae 

Callitrichaceae 

Campanulaceae 

Capparidaceae 

Caprif oliaceae 

Caryophyllaceae 

Celastraceae 

Chenopodiaceae 

Cistaceae 



Tribe 



Symbol 



Fami 1y 



COMMEL 


Commelinaceae 


COMPOS 


Compositae 


(ANT) 




(AST) 




(CIC) 




(CYN) 




(EUP) 




(HEL) 




(HEL2) 




(INU) 




(SEN) 




(VER) 




CONVOL 


Convolvulaceae 


CORNAC 


Cornaceae 


CRASSU 


Crassulaceae 


CRUCIF 


Cruciferae 


CUCURB 


Cucurbitaceae 


CUPRES 


Cupressaceae 


CYPERA 


Cyperaceae 


ELAEAG 


Elaeagnaceae 


EQUISE 


Equisetaceae 


ERICAC 


Ericaceae 


EUPHOR 


Euphorbiaceae 



Tribe 



Anthemideae 

Astereae 

Cichorieae 

Cynareae 

Eupatorieae 

Heliantheae 

Helenieae 

Inuleae 

Senecioneae 

Vernonieae 



Symbol 



Fami 1y 



Tri be 



FABACE 


Fabaceae 


FAGACE 


Fagaceae 


FUMARI 


Fumariaceae 


GENTIA 


Gentianaceae 


GERANI 


Geraniaceae 


GRAMIN 


Gramineae 


(AGR) 




(AND) 




(AVE) 




(CHL) 




(FES) 




(HOR) 




(PAN) 




(PHA) 




(TRI) 




HIPPUR 


Hippuridaceae 


HYDROP 


Hydrophyllaceae 


HYPERI 


Hypericaceae 


IRIDAC 


Iridaceae 


JUGLAN 


Juglandaceae 


JUNCAC 


Juncaceae 


JUNCAG 


Juncaginaceae 


LAB I AT 


Labiatae 


LEMNAC 


Lemnaceae 


LENTIB 


Lentibulariaceae 


LILIAC 


Liliaceae 


LINAGE 


Linaceae 


LOASAC 


Loasaceae 


LOBELI 


Lobeliaceae 


LYCOPO 


Lycopodiaceae 


MALVAC 


Malvaceae 


MARSIL 


Marsileaceae 


HORACE 


Moraceae 


NAJADA 


Najadaceae 


NYCTAG 


Nyctaginaceae 


NYMPHA 


Nymphaceae 



Agrostideae 

Andropogoneae 

Aveneae 

Chlorideae 

Festuceae 

Hordeae 

Paniceae 

Phalarideae 

Tripsaceae 



Symbol 

OLEACE 
ONAGRA 
OPHIOG 
ORCHID 
OXALID 



PAPAVE 
PHRYMA 
PINACE 
PLANT A 
POLEMO 
POLYGA 
POLYGO 
POLYPO 
PONTED 
PORTUL 
PRIMUL 



RANUNC 
RHAMN 
ROSACE 
RUBIAC 



SALICA 
SANTAL 
SAXIFR 
SCROPH 
SELAGI 
SOLANA 
SPARGA 

TYPHAC 

ULMACE 
UMBELL 

VALERI 
VERBEN 
VIOLAC 
VITACE 



Family 

Oleaceae 

Onagraceae 

Ophioglossaceae 

Orchidaceae 

Oxalidaceae 



Papaveraceae 

Phrymaceae 

Pinaceae 

Plantaginaceae 

Polemoniaceae 

Polygalaceae 

Polygonaceae 

Polypodiaceae 

Pontederiaceae 

Portulacaceae 

Primulaceae 



Ranunculaceae 
Rhamnaceae 
Rosaceae 
Rubiaceae 



Salicaceae 

Santalaceae 

Saxif ragaceae 

Scrophulariaceae 

Selaginellaceae 

Solanaceae 

Sparganiaceae 

Typhaceae 

Ulmaceae 
Umbellif erae 

Valerianaceae 
Verbenaceae 
Violaceae 
Vitaceae 



Tribe 



SYMBOL 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE BLACK HILLS 

GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



ABRON Abronia Juss. 

ABFR Abronia fragrans Nutt. 

ACER Acer L. 

ACGL Acer glabrum Torr. 

ACNE Acer negundo L. 

ACERA Acerates Ell. 

ACAN Acerates angustifolia (Nutt.) Decne. 

ACVI Acerates viridiflora (Raf.) Eat. 

ACHIL Achillea L. 

ACLA Achillea lanulosa Nutt. 

ACMI Achillea millefolium L. 

ACNID Acnida L. 

ACTA Acnida tamariscina (Nutt.) Wood 

ACONI Aconitum L. 

ACCO Aconitum aolumbianum Nutt. 



NYCTAG 



ACERAC 



ASCLEP 



COMPOS (ANT) 



AMARAN 



RANUNC 



ACTAE Actaea L. 

ACAR Actaea arguta Nutt. 

AGRA Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. 

ADENO Adenocaulon Hook. 

ADBI Adenocaulon bicolor Hook. 

AD IAN Adiantum L. 

ADCA Adiantum aapillus -veneris L. 

ADPE Adiantum pedntum L. 

ADOXA Adoxa L. 

ADMO Adoxa moschatellina L. 

AGAST Agastache Clayton 

AGFO Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze 

AGOSE Agoseris Raf. 

AGAU Agoseris aurantiaca (Hook.) Greene 

AGGL Agoseris glauca (Pursh) D. Dietr. 

AGRIM Agrimonia L. 

AGGR2 Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. 

AGST Agrimonia striata Michx. 

AGROP Agropyron Gaertn. 

AGAL Agropyron albicans Scribn. & Smith 

AGCR Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. 

AGDA Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn. 

AGDE Agropyron desertorum (Fisch.) Schult. 

AGGR Agropyron griffithsi Scribn. & Smith 

AGPS Agropyron pseudorepens Scribn. & Smith 

ACRE Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. 

AGRI Agropyron riparium Scribn. & Smith 

AGSA Agropyron saxicola (Scribn. & Smith) Piper 

AGSM Agropyron smithii Rydb. 

AGSP Agropyron spiaatum (Pursh) Scribn. & Smith 



RANUNC 



COMPOS (HEL2) 



POLYPO 



ADOXAC 



LABIAT 



COMPOS (CIC) 



ROSACE 



GRAMIN (HOR) 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



AGSU Agpopyron subseaundwv (Link) Hitchc. 

AGTR Agropypon trachyoaulum (Link) Malte 

AGROS Agrostis L. 

AGAL Agrostis alba L. 

AGEX Agrostis exarata Trin. 

AGFA Agrostis palustris Huds. 

AGPE Agrostis perennans (Wal.) Tuckerm. 

AGSC Agrostis soabra Willd. 

ALISM Alisma L. 

ALPL Alisma plantago-aquatiaa L. 

ALLIU Allium L. 

ALCE Allium cernuum Roth 

ALDR Allium drummondi Regel 

ALGE Allium geyeri Wats. 

ALST Allium stellatim Ker 

ALTE Allium textile A. Nels. & Macbr. 

ALOPE Alopeaurus L. 

ALAE Alopeaurus aequalis Sobol. 

ALTHA Althaea L. 

ALRO Althaea rosea L. 

ALYSS Alyssum L. 

ALAL Alyssum alyssoides L. 

AMARA Amaranthus L. 

AMAL2 Amaranthus albus L. 

AMGR Amaranthus graeaizans L. 

AMRE Amaranthus retro flexus L. 

AMTO " Amaranthus torreyi (Gray) Benth. 

AMBRO Ambrosia L. 

AMAR Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. 

AMPS Ambrosia psilostachya DC. 

AMTR Ambrosia trifida L. 

AMELA Amelanchier Medic. 

AMAL Amelanchier alni folia Nutt. 

AMHU Amelanchier humilis WleR. 

AMSC Amelanchier scopulina Rvdb. 

AMORP AmorpJia L. 

AMCA Amorpha canescens Pursh 

AMFR Amorpha fragrans Sweet 

AMNA Amorpha nana Nutt. 

AMPHI Amphiaarpa Ell. 

AMBR Amphicarpa bracteata (L.) Fern. 

ANAPH Anjy.phalis DC. 

ANMA Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. 

ANCHU Anchusa L. 

ANOr Anchusa officinalis L. 

ANDRO Andvopogon L. 

ANGE Andvopogon gerardii Vitman 



GRAMIN (AGR) 



ALISMA 



LILIAC 



GRAMIN (AGR) 



MALVAC 



CRUCIF 



AMARAN 



COMPOS (HEL) 



ROSACE 



FA BAG E 



FABACE 



COMPOS (HEL2) 



BORAGI 



GRAMIN (AND) 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



ANHA Andropogon hallii Hack. 

ANSC Andropogon saoparius Michx. 

ANDR02 Androsaae L. 

ANOC Androsaae oocidentalis Pursh 

ANSEP Androsaae septentrionalis var. puherulenta (Rydb.) Kunth 

ANSES Androsaae septentrionalis var. septentrionalis 

ANSES2 Androsaae septentrionalis var. subulifera Gray 

ANEMO Anemone L. 

ANCY Anemone aylindriaa Gray 

ANGL Anemone globosa Nutt. 

ANPA Anemone patens L . 

ANRI Anemone riparia Fern. 

ANVI Anemone virginiana L. 

ANTEN Antennaria Gaertn. 

ANMI Antennaria miorophylla Rydb. 

ANNE Antennaria negleata Greene 

ANOX Antennaria oxyphylla Greene 

ANPA2 Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. 

ANPA3 Antennaria parvula Greene 

ANPL Antennaria plantagini folia (L.) Richards. 

ANRA Antennaria raaemosa Hook. 

ANRO Antennaria rosea (D. C. Eat.) Greene 

ANTHE Anthemis L. 

ANCO Anthemis aotula L. 



PRI>fUL 



RANUNC 



COMPOS (INU) 



COMPOS (ANT) 



APIOS Apios Medic. 

APAM Apios ameriaana Medic. 

APOCY Apoaynum L. 

APAN Apooynwn androsaemi folium L. 

APANG Apoaynum androsaemi folium var. glabrwn Macoun 

APCA Apoaynum aannabium L. 

APSI Apoaynum sibiriaum Jacq . 

AQUIL Aquilegia L. 

AQBR Aquilegia brevistyla Hook. 

AQCA Aquilegia canadensis L. 

ARABI2 Arabidopsis Heyn. 

ARTH Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heyn. 

ARAB I Arabis L. 

ARAL Arabis albertina Greene 

ARDI Arabis divariaarpa A. Nels. 

ARDR2 Arabis drummondi Gray 

ARFE Arabis fendleri (Watson) Greene 

ARGL Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh. 

ARHI Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. 

ARHO Arabis holboellii Hornem. 

ARLI Arabis lignifera A. Nels. 

ARLI2 Arabis lignipes A. Nels. 

ARALI Aralia L. 

ARNU Aralia nudicaulis L. 



FABACE 



APOCYN 



RANUNC 



CRUCIF 



CRUCIF 



ARALIA 



ARCTI 



Arctium L. 



COMPOS (CYN) 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



ARLA Arctivm lappa L. 

ARMI Arctium minus Schk. 

ARCTO Arctostaphylos Adans. 

ARUV Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprenj 

ARENA Arenaria L. 

ARHO Arenaria hookeri Nutt. 

ARLA2 Arenaria lateriflora L. 

ARRU Arenaria rubella (Wahlenb.) Sm. 

ARST Arenaria striata Michx. 



ERICAC 



CARYOP 



ARGEM 
ARIN 

ARIST 
ARFE 
ARLO 
ARLOR 

ARMOR 
ARLA 3 

ARNIC 
ARCO 
ARFU 
ARLO 2 
ARRY 

ART EM 

ARAB 

ARBI 

ARC A 2 

ARCA 

ARC A 3 

ARDR 

AREA 

ARE I 

ARER 

ARLO 3 
ARLU 
AREA 
ARTR 



Argemone L. 

Argemone intermedia Sweet 

Aristida L. 

Aristida fendleriana Steud. 

Aristida longiseta Steud. 

Aristica longiseta var. robusta Merr. 

Armoraaia Gaertn. Mey. & Scherb. 
Armoracia lapathi folia Gilib. 

Arnica L. 

Arnica cordi folia Hook. 
Arnica fulgens Pursh 
Arnica lonchophylla Greene 
Arnica rydbergii Greene 



PAPAVE 



GRAMIN (AGR) 



CRUCIF 



COMPOS (SEN) 



Artemisia 
Artemisia 
Artemisia 
Artemisia 
Artemisia 
Artemisia 
Artemisia 
Artemisia 
Artemisia 
Artemisia 



L. 

absinthium L. 
biennis Willd. 
campestris L. 
cana Pursh 
caudata Michx. 
draaunculus L. 
faloata Rydb. 
filifolia Terr. 
frigida Willd. 



COMPOS (ANT) 



Artemisia longifolia Nutt. 
Artemisia ludoviaiana Nutt. 
Artemisia paaifica Nutt. 
Artemisia tridentata Nutt. 



ASCLE Asclepias L. 

AS IN Asclepias incamata L. 

ASOV Asclepias ovalifolia Decne. 

ASPU Asclepias pwnila (Gray) Vail 

ASSP2 Asclepias speciosa Terr. 

ASVI2 Asclepias viridi folia Raf. 

ASPAR Asparagus L. 

ASOE Asparagus officinalis L, 

ASPLE Asplenium L. 

ASSE Asplenium septentrionale (L.) Hoffm. 

ASTR Asplenium trichomanes L. 

ASVI Asplenium viride Huds. 



ASCLEP 



LILIAC 



POLYPO 



ASTER 
ASCA 



Aster L. 

Aster aanescens Pursh 



COMPOS (AST) 



10 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



ASCI Aster ailiolatus Lindl. 

ASCO Aster aonspiauus Lindl. 

ASER Aster erieoides L. 

ASFA Aster falaatus Lindl. 

ASFO Aster forwoodii Wats. 

ASHE Aster hesperius Gray 

ASHEL Aster hesperius var. laetevirens (Greene) Cronq. 

ASJU Aster juneiformis Rydb. 

ASLA Aster laevis L. 

ASME Aster mearnsii Rydb. 

ASME2 Aster meritus A. Nels. 

ASNO Aster novae-angliae L. 

ASOB Aster ohlongifolius Nutt. 

ASPA Aster pauaif torus Nutt. 

ASPR Aster praealtus Poir. 

ASPT Aster ptarmicoides (Nees) T. & G. 

ASPU Aster puniaeus L. 

ASSE Aster sessiliftora Nutt. 

ASS I Aster simplex Willd. 

ASIA Aster tanacetif alius HBK. 

ASXY Aster xylorrhiza T. & G. 

ASTRA Astragalus L. 

ASAB Astragalus ahoriginum Richards. 

ASAG Astragalus agrestis Dougl. 

ASAL Astragalus alpinus L. 

ASBI Astragalus bisulaatus (Hook.) Gray 

ASCA2 Astragalus canadensis L. 

ASC02 Astragalus aonvallarius Greene 

ASCR Astragalus arassiaarpus Nutt. 

ASDR Astragalus drummondii Dougl. 

ASFL Astragalus flexuosus Dougl. 

ASFR Astragalus frigidus (L.) Gray 

ASGI Astragalus gilviflorus Sheld. 

ASGR Astragalus gracilis Nutt. 

ASLO Astragalus lotiflorus Hook. 

ASMID Astragalus miser var. decumbens (Nutt.) Cronq. 

ASMI Astragalus missouriensis Nutt. 

ASPL Astragalus plattensis Nutt. 

ASS? Astragalus spatulatus Sheld. 

ASST Astragalus striatus Nutt. 

ASTE Astragalus tenellus Pursh 

ASVE Astragalus vexilliflexus Sheld. 

ATHYR Athyrium Roth 

ATFI Athyrium filix-femina (L. ) Roth 

ATTH Athyrium thelypteroides (Michx.) Desv. 

ATRIP Atriplex L. 

ATAR Atriplex argentea Nutt. 

ATCO Atriplex confertifolia (Torr.) Wats. 

ATDI Atriplex dioioa (Nutt.) Macbride 

ATNU Atriplex nuttallii Wats. 

ATPO Atriplex powellii Wats. 

ATRO Atriplex rosea L. 

AVENA Avena L. 

AVFA Avena fatua L. 

AVSA Avena sativa L. 



FABACE 



POLYPO 



CHENOP 



GRAMIN (AVE) 



F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 

F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 



11 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



BACOP Baaopa Aubl. 

BARO Baaopa votundifolia (Mlchx.) Wettst. 

BAHIA Bahia Lag. 

BAOP Bahia oppositi folia (Nutt.) DC. 

BALSA Balsamorhiza Hook. 

BASA Balsamorhiza saggittata (Pursh) Nutt. 

BARBA Bavharea R. Br. 

BAOR Barbarea orthoaeras Ledeb. 

BECKM Beokmannia Host. 

BESY Beokmannia syzigaahne (Steud.) Fern. 

BERBI Berberis L. 

BERE Berberis repens Lindl. 

BERUL Berula Hoffm. 

BEER Berula erecta (Huds.) Gov. 

BESSE Besseya Rydb. 

BECI Besseya ainera (Raf.) Pennell 

BETUL Betula L. 

BECA Betula caerulea-grandis Blanchard 

BEGL Betula glandulosa Michx. 

BEOC Betula oacidentalis Hook. 

BEPA Betula papyrifera Marsh. 

BIDEN Bidens L. 

BICE Bidens cernua L. 

BIFR Bidens frondosa L. 

BOTRY Botrychium Sw. 

BOLA Botrychium lanaeolatum (Gmel.) Rupr. 

BOMA Botrychium matricarii folium A. Br. 
BOSI Botrychium simplex E. Hitchc. 

BOVI Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. 

BOUTE Bouteloua Lag. 

BOCU Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Terr. 
BOOR Bouteloua gracilis (HBK. ) Lag. 
BOHI Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. 

BRASS Brassica L. 
BRHI Brassica hirta Moench 
BRKA Brassica kaber (DC.) L. 
BRNI Brassica nigra (L.) Koch 

BROMU Bromus L. 

BRAN Bromus anamolus Rupr. 

BRBR Bromus breviaristatus Buckl. 

BRBR2 Bromus brizaeformis Fisch. & Mey. 

BRCI Bromus ciliatus L. 

BRIN Bromus inermis Leyss. 

BRJA Bromus japonicus Thuab. 

BRKA Bromus kalmii Gray 

BRLA Bromus latiglumis (Shear) Hitchc. 

BRMA Bromus marginatus Nees 



SCROPH 

COMPOS (HEL2) 
COMPOS (HEL) 
GRUCIF 
GRAMIN (GHL) 
BERBER 
UMBELL 
SGROPH 
BETULA 



COMPOS (HEL) 



OPHIOG 



GRAMIN (GHL) 



CRUCIF 



GRAMIN (FES) 



12 



SYMBOL 



RENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



BRMO Bromus mollis L. 

BRPU Bromus pumpellianus Scribn. 

BRPUT Bromus pumpellianus var. tweedyi Scribn. 

BRPU2 Bromus purgans L. 

BRRA Bromus raaemosus L. 

BRSE Bromus secalinus L. 

BRTE Bromus tectorum L. 

BUCHL Buahloe Engelm. 

BUDA Buahloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. 

CALAM Calamagrostis Adans. 

CACA Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. 

CAIN 2 Calamagrostis inexpansa Gray 

CAMO Calamagrostis montanensis Scribn. 

CANE2 Calamagrostis negleota (Ehrh.) Gaertn. 

CAPI Calamagrostis piakeringii Gray 

CAPU Calamagrostis purpurascens R. Br. 

CALAM2 Calamovilfa Hack. 

CALO Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. 

CALL] Callitriahe L. 

CAHE2 Callitriahe hermaphroditica L. 

CAPA Callitriahe palustris L. 

CALOC Calocliortus Pursh 

CAGU Caloahortus gunnisonii Wats. 

CANU Caloahortus nuttallii T. & G. 

CALYP Calypso Salisb. 

CABU Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes 

CAMEL Camelina Crantz 

CASA3 Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz 

CAMPA Campanula L. 

GAAP Campanula aparinoides Pursh 

CARO Campanula rotundi folia L. 

CAPSE Capsella Medic. 

CABU2 Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. 

CARDA Cardamine L. 

CAPE Cardamine pensylvaniaa Muhl. 

CAREX Carex L. 

CAAE Carex aenea Fern. 

CAAQ Carex aquatilis Wahl. 

CAAT Carex athevodes Spreng. 

CAAU Carex aurea Nutt . 

CABE Carex bebbii Olney 

CABE2 Carex bella Bailey 

CABR Carex brevior (Dewey) Mack. 

CACO Carex concinna R. Br. 

CADE Carex deweyana Schwein. 

CADI Carex disperma Dewey 

CAEB Carex eburnea Boott 

GAEL Carex eleocharis Bailey 

CAFE Carex festivella Mack. 



GRAMIN (CHL) 
GRAMIN (AGR) 



GALL IT 



L ILIAC 



ORCHID 



CRUCIF 



CAMP AN 



CRUCIF 



CRUCIF 



CYPERA 



13 



SYMBOL 

CAFI 

CAFO 

CAGR 

CAGR2 

CAHA 

CAHE 

CAHO 

CAHY 

CAIN 

GALA 

GALA 2 

GALE 

CAMI 

GANE 

CAN I 

GAOB 

GAPR 

CAPR2 

GAPR3 

CARI 

CARD 2 

CARD 3 

CARD A 

CARU 

CASA 

GASA2 

CASC 

GASP 

CAST 

GAST2 

GATE 
GATO 
CAVA 
CAVI 
CAXE 

GARITM 
GAGA2 

GASTI 
GARH 
CASE 
GASE2 

CATAB 
CAAQ2 

CEANO 

GEFE 

GEOV 

CESA 

GEVE 

CEIAS 
CESG 

GELT I 
GEOC 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



Car ex fill folia Nutt. 
Carex foenea Willd. 
Carex granularis Muhl. 
Carex gravida Bailey 
Carex haydenii Dewey 
Carex heliophila Mack. 
Carex hoodii Boott 
Carex hystriaina Muhl. 
Carex interior Bailey 
Carex lasioaarpa Ehrh. 

Carex laxi flora Lam. 
Carex leptalea Wahl. 
Carex microptera Mack. 
Carex nebraskensis Dewey 
Carex nigro-marginata Schw. 
Carex obtusata Lilj . 
Carex praegraailis W. Boott 
Carex prairea Dewey 
Carex praticola Rydb. 
Carex richardsonii R. Br. 

Carex rosea Schk. 
Carex rossii Boott 
Carex rostrata Stokes 
Carex rupestris All. 
Carex sartwellii Dewey 
Carex saximontana Mack. 
Carex seoparia Schk. 
Carex sprengelii Dewey 
Carex stipata Muhl. 
Carex striata Lam. 

Carex tenera Dewey 
Carex torreyi Tuckerm. 
Carex vallioola Dewey 
Carex viridula Michx. 
Carex xerantica Bailey 

Carum L. 
Carim carvi L. 

Castilleja Mutis 
Castillega rhexifolia Rydb. 
Castilleja septentrionalis Lindl. 
Castillega sessiliflora Pursh 

Catabrosa Beauv. 

Catahrosa aquatica (L.) Beauv. 

Ceanothus L. 
Ceanothus fendleri Gray 
Ceanothus ovatus Desf. 
Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh 
Ceanothus velutinus Dougl. 

Celastrus L. 
Celastrus scandens L. 

Celtis L. 

Celtis ocaidentalis L. 



LIMB ELL 



SGROPH 



GRAMIN (FES) 



RHAMNA 



LIFE 
FORM 

G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 

G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 

G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 

G 
G 
G 
G 
G 



CELAST 



ULMACE 



14 



SYMBOL 

CENCH 
CEPA 

CENTA 
CECY 

CENTU 
CEMI 

CERAS 

GEAR 

GENU 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



Cenchrus L. 

Cenahrus pauci floras Benth. 

Centaurea L. 
Centaurea cyanus L. 

Centunculus L. 
Centunoulus minimus L. 

Cerastium L. 
Cerastium arvense L. 
Cerastium nutans Raf . 





LIFE 


FAMILY 


FORM 


GRAMIN (PAN) 






G 


GOMPOS (CYN) 






F 


PRI^fUL 






F 


GARYOP 





GERGO Ceraoaarpus HBK. 

CEMO Ceraoaarpus montanus Raf . 

CHEIL Cheilanthes Sw. 

GHFE Cheilanthes feel Moore 

GHENO Chenopodium L. 

CHAL Chenopodium album L. 

GHAT Chenopodium atrovirens Rydb. 

CHBO Chenopodium botrys L. 

GHCA Chenopodium aapitatum (L.) Asch. 

CHFE Chenopodium fremontii Wats. 

GHGL Chenopodium glauaum L. 

GHHY Chenopodium hybridum L. 

GHIN Chenopodium inaanum (Wats.) A. Heller 

CHLE Chenopodium leptophyllum Nutt. 

GHPR Chenopodium prateriaola Rydb. 

CHWA Chenopodium watsonii A. Nels. 

CHIMA Chimaphila Pursh 

GHUM Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Bart. 

GHORI Chorispora R. Br. 

CHTE Chorispora tenella (Pall.) DC. 

GHRYS2 Chrysanthemum L. 

GHBA Chrysanthemum balsamita L. 

CHLE2 Chrysanthemum leuaantherrum L. 

CHRYS3 Chrysopsis Nutt. 

CHFU Chrysopsis fularata Greene 

CHHI Chrysopsis hispida (Hook.) DC. 

GHVI Chrysopsis villosa (Pursh) Nutt. 

GHRYS Chrysothamnus Nutt. 

CHNA Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas) Britt. 

CHPL Chrysothamnus plattensis Greene 

CIGHO Ciahorium L. 

GUN Ciahorium intybus L. 

GICUT Ciauta L. 

CIDO Ciauta douglasii (DC.) Coult. & Rose 

GINNA Cinna L. 

CIAR2 Cinna arundinacea L. 

GILA Cinna latifolia (Trev.) Grlseb. 



ROSAGE 



POLYPO 



CHENOP 



UMBEI.L 



GRAMIN (AGR) 



ERICAC 




S 


GRUGIF 




F 


GOMPOS 


(ANT) 


F 
F 


GOMPOS 


(AST) 


F 
F 
F 


COMPOS 


(AST) 


S 

s 


GOMPOS 


(GIG) 





15 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 

FORM 



CIRCA 

CIAL 

CIOU 

CIRSI 

CIAR 

CIFL 

CIFO 

CIHI 

CIUN 

CIVU 

CLEMA 
CLHI 
CLLI 
CLPS 

CLEOH 
CLSE 



Ciroaea L . 

Circaea alpina L. 

Civcaea quadri sulcata (Maxim) Franch. & Sav. 

Cirsium Mill. 

Cirsium arveyise (L.) Scop. 
Cirsium flodmanii (Rydb.) Arthur 
Cirsium foliosum (Hook.) DC. 
Cirsium hillii (Canby) Fern. 
Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. 
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Airy-Shaw 

Clematis L. 

Clematis hirsutissima Pursh 

Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. 

Clematis pseudoalpina (Kuntze) A. Nels. 

Cleome L. 

Cleome serrulata Pursh 



ONAGRA 



COMPOS (CYN) 



RANIINC 



CAPPAR 



COLLI Collinsia Nutt. 

COPA Collinsia parvi flora Dougl. 

COLLO Collomia Nutt. 

COLI Collomia linearis Nutt. 



SCROPH 



POLEMO 



COMAN Comandra Nutt. 

COPA 2 Comandra pallida A. DC. 

CORI Comandra riahardsiana Nutt. 



SANTAL 



CONVO Convolvulus L. 

COAR Convolvulus arvensis L. 

C0MA2 Convolvulus macounii Greene 

COSE Convolvulus sepium L. 

CONYZ Conyza L. 

C0CA2 Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. 

CORAL Corallorhiza Chat. 

COMA Corallorhiza maculata Raf. 

C0ST2 Corallorhiza striata Lindl. 

COTR Corallorhiza trifida Chat. 

COWI Corallorhiza wisteriana Conrad 

CORNU Cornus L. 

COCA Cornus canadensis L. 

COST Cornus stolonifera Michx. 

COSTI Cornus stolonifera forma interior (Rvdb.) Rickett 

CORYD Corydalis Modic. 

COAU Corydalis aurea Willd. 

COMO Corydalis montana Engelm. 

CORYL Corylus L. 

COAM Corylus americana Walt. 

COCO Corylus corriuta Marsh. 

CORYP Coryphantha (Engelm.) Lem. 

COMI Coryphantha missouriensis (Sweet) Britt. & Rose 

COVI Coryphantha vivipara (Nutt.) Britt. & Rose 



CONVOL 



COMPOS (AST) 



ORCHID 



CORNAC 



FUMAR 



BETULA 



CACTAC 



16 



SYMBOL GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 

GRATA Crataegus L. 

CRCH Crataegus ahrysooarpa Ashe 

CRER Crataegus erythropoda Ashe 

CRSU Crataegus suaculenta Link 

CREPI Crepis L. 

CRRU Crepis runoinata (James) T. & G. 

GROTO Croton L. 

GRTE Croton texensis (Klotzsch) Muell.-Arg. 

CRYPT Cryptantha Lehm. 

GRAF Cryptantha affinis (Gray) Greene 

CRBR Cryptantha bradhuriana Payson 

CRGA Cryptantha cana (A. Nels.) Payson 

GRCR Cryptantha arassisepala (T. & G.) Greene 

CRPA Cryptantha pattersonii (Gray) Greene 

CRTH Cryptantha thyrsiflora (Greene) Payson 



FAMILY 


LIFE 
FORM 


ROSACE 


S 
S 
S 


COMPOS (CIC) 


F 


EUPHOR 


F 


BORAGI 





GUSCU Cuscuta L. 

CUGA Cuseuta oampestris Yuncker 

GYCLO Cyaloloma Moq. 

CYAT Cyaloloma atriplicifolium (Spreng.) Coult. 

GYMOP Cymopterus Raf. 

GYAC2 Cymopterus acaulis (Pursh) Raf. 

CYMO Cymopterus montanus (Nutt.) T. & G. 

CYNOG Cynoglossum L. 

GYOF Cynoglossum officinale L. 

CYPER Cyperus L. 

CYAC Cyperus aowninatus Torr. & Hook. 

GYAR Cyperus aristatus Rottb. 

GYFI Cyperus filiaulmis Vahl 

CYSG Cyperus sahweinitzii Torr. 

CYPRI Cypripedium L. 

CYGA Cypripedium calceolus L. 

CYSTO Cystopteris (L.) Bernh. 

CYBU Cystopteris bulhifera (L.) Bernh. 

CYFR Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. 

DACTY Daotylis L. 

DAGL Daotylis glomerata L. 

DALEA Dalea Willd. 

DAAU Dalea aurea Nutt. 

DAEN Dalea enneandra Nutt. 



CONVOL 



GHENOP 



IIMBELL 



BORAGI 



CYPERA 



ORCHID 



POLYPO 



GRAMIN (FES) 



FABACE 



DANTH Danthonia Lam. & DC. 

DAIN Danthonia intermedia Vasey 

DASP Danthonia spioata (L.) Beauv. 

DAUN Danthonia unispiaata (Thurb.) Munro ex Macoun 



GRAMIN (AVE) 



DAUCU 
DACA 



Daucus L. 
Daucus carota L. 



UMBELL 



DELPH Delphinium L. 

DEBI Delphinium hiaolor Nutt. 



RANUNG 



17 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



DENE Delphinium nelsonii Greene 

DESCH Desahampsia Beauv. 

DECA Deschampsia oaespitosa (L.) Beauv. 

DESCU Desaurainia Webb. & Barth. 

DEPI Desaurainia pinnata (Walt.) Britt. 

DEPIB Desaurainia pinnata var. hraahyaarpa (Richards.) Fern. 

DEPIF Desaurainia pinnata var. filipes (Gray) Detling 

DERI Desaurainia riahardsonii (Sweet) E. 0. Schulz 

DERIl Desaurainia riahardsonii var. incisa (Engelm. ) Detling 

Desaurainia sophia (L.) Webb, ex Prantl; Engler & Prantl 

DESMO Desmodium Desv. 

DECA2 Desmodium aanadense (L.) DC. 



GRAMIN (AVE) 



CRUCIF 



FABACE 



DIANT Dianthus L. 

DIAR Dianthus armeria L. 



CARYOP 



DI'^IT Digitaria Heist 

DISA Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. 

DISPO Disporum Salisb. 

DITR Disporum traahy oarpum (Wats.) Benth. & Hook. 

DISTI Distichlis Raf. 

DIST Distiahlis striata (Torr.) Rydb. 

DODEC Dodeoathon L. 

DOPU Dodeaathon pulahellum (Raf.) Merr. 

DORA Dodeaathon radiaatum Greene 



GRAMIN (PAN) 



LILIAC 



GRAMIN (FES) 



PRIMUL 



DRAB A Draba L. 

DRAU Draba aurea M. Vahl 

DRNE Draba nemorosa L. 

DRRE Draba reptans (Lam.) Fern. 

DRST Draba stenoloba Lebed. 

DRSU Draba suraulifera A. Nels. 

DRACO Draaoaephalum L. 

DRNU Draaoaephalum nuttallii Benth. 

DRYOP Dryopteris Adans. 

DRFI Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. 

DYSSO Dyssodia Cav. 

DYPA Dyssodia papposa (Vent.) Hitchc. 

ECHIN Eahinaaea Moench 

ECAN Eahinaaea angustifolia DC. 

ECPA Echinacea pallida Nutt. 

ECHIN2 Eahinoahloa Beauv. 

ECCR Eahinoahloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. 

ECHIN3 Echinoaystis T. & G. 

ECLO Echinoaystis lobata (Michx.) T. & G. 

ECHIU Eahium L. 

ECVU Eahium vulgare L. 



CRUCIF 



LABIAT 



POLYPO 



COMPOS 


(HEL2) 


F 


COMPOS 


(HEL) 


F 
F 


GRAMIN 


(PAN) 


G 


CUCURB 




F 


BORAGI 







18 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



ELAEA Elaeagnus L. 

ELAN Elaeagnus angusti folia L. 

ELCO Elaeagnus commutata Bernh. 

ELEOC Eleooharis R. Br. 

ELAC Eleocharis aciaularis (L.) R. & S. 

ELCA2 Eleooharis calva Torr. 

ELGE Eleocharis geniaulata (L.) R. & S. 

ELIN2 Eleooharis intermedia (Muhl.) Schult. 

ELMA2 Eleooharis macrostachya Britt. 

ELPA Eleooharis pauoiflora (Lightft.) Link 

ELRO Eleooharis rostellata Torr. 

ELLIS Ellisia L. 

ELNY Ellisia nyotelea L. 

ELY>fU Elymus L. 

ELCA Elymus canadensis L. 

ELCO Elymus oondensatus Presl 

ELFL Elymus flavesoens Scribn. & Smith 

ELGL Elymus glauous Buckl. 

ELIN Elymus innovatus Beal 

ELMA Elymus maoounii Vasey 

ELVI Elymus virginicus L. 

EPILO Epilobium L. 

EPAD Epilobium adenooaulon Haussk. 

EPAL Epilobium alpinum L. 

EPAN Epilobium angustifolium L. 

EPHA Epilobium halleanum Haussk. 

EPHO Epilobium homemannii Reichenb. 

EPLA Epilobium latifolium L. 

EPLE Epilobium leptophyllum Raf. 

EPPA Epilobium palmeri Rydb. 

EPPA2 Epilobium palustre L. 

EPPA3 Epilobium paniaulatum Nutt. 

EPANS Epilobium paniaulatum var. subulatum (Hausskn.) Fern. 

EPSA Epilobium saximontanum Haussk. 

EPIPA Epipaotis Sw. 

EPGI Epipaotis gigantea Dougl. 

EQUIS Equisetum L. 

EQAR Equisetum arvense L. 

EQFL Equisetum fluviatale L. 

EQHI Equisetum hiemale L. 

EQKA Equisetum kansanum Schaffn. 

EQSC Equisetum soirpoides Michx. 

EQSY Equisetum sylvatioum L. 

EQVA Equisetum variegatum Schleich. 

ERAGR Eragrostis Beauv. 

ERCI Eragrostis oilianensis (All.) Lutati 

ERIGE Erigeron L. 

ERAC Erigeron aoris L. 

ERAN Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. 

ERBE Erigeron bellidiastrum Nutt. 

ERCA Erigeron oaespitosus Nutt. 



ELAEAG 



CYPERA 



HYDROP 



GRAMIN (HOR) 



ONAGRA 



ORCHID 



EQUIS E 



GRAMIN (FES) 
COMPOS (AST) 



19 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



ERCA2 Erigeron canadensis (L.) Pers. 

ERCA3 Erigeron canus Gray 

ERGO Erigeron aompositus Pursh 

ERDI Erigeron divergens T. & G. 

ERFL Erigeron flagetlaris Gray 

ERGL Erigeron glabellus Nutt. 

ERLO Erigeron lonahophytlus Hook. 

ERNA Erigeron nanus Nutt. 

ERNE Erigeron nematophyllus Rydb. 

ERPH Erigeron philadelphicus L. 

ERPU Erigeron pumilus Nutt. 

ERSP Erigeron speaiosus (Lindl.) DC. 

ERST Erigeron strigosus Muhl . 

ERSU Erigeron subtrinervis Rydb. 

ERIOG Eriogonum Michx. 

ERAN2 Eriogonum annuwn Nutt. 

ERDE Eriogonum depauperatum Small 

EREF Eriogonum effusum Nutt. 

ERFL Eriogonum flavum Nutt. 

ERMU Eriogonum muttieeps Nees 

ERPA Eriogonum pauaiflonmi Pursh 

ERIOP Eriophorum L. 

ERAN3 Eriophorum angustifolium Honckeny 

ERODI Erodium L'Her. 

ERCI2 Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. 



POLYGO 



CYPER 



GERANI 



ERYSI Erysimum L. 

ERAS Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. 

ERCH Erysimum aheiranthoides L. 

ERIN Erysimum inconspiauum (Wats.) MacMill. 

EUPAT Eupatorium L. 

EUAL Eupatorium altissimum L. 

EUMA Eupatorium maculatim L. 

EUPHO Euphorbia L. 

EUCY Euphorbia cyparissias L. 

EUDE Euphorbia dentata Michx. 

EUDI Euphorbia dictyosperma Fisch. & Mey. 

EUES Euphorbia esula L. 

EUFE Euphorbia fendleri T. & G. 

EUGL Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm. 

EUHE Euphorbia hexagona Nutt. 

EUMA2 Euphorbia marginata Pursh 

EUMI Euphorbia missuriaa Raf. 

EUOB Euphorbia obtusata Pursh 

EURO Euphorbia robusta (Engelm.) Small 

EUSE Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers. 

EUST Euphorbia strictospora Engelm. 

EUROT Eurotia Adans. 

EULA Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq . 

EUSTO Eustoma Salisb. 

EURU Eustoma russelianum (Hook.) Griseb. 



CRUCIF 



CONfPOS (EUP) 



EUPHOR 



CHENOP 



GENT I A 



20 



SYMBOL 

EVOLV 
EVPI 

FESTU 

FEEL 

FEID 

FEOC 

FEOV 

FEVI 

FILAG 
FIPR 

FRAGA 

FROV 

FRVE 

FRANS 
FRDI 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



Evolvulus L. 

Evolvulus pzlosus Nutt. 

Festuaa L. 
Festuaa elatior L. 
Festuaa idahoensis Elmer 
Festuaa oatoflora Walt. 
Festuaa ovina L. 
Festuaa viridula Vasey 

Filago L. 

Filago prolifera (Nutt.) Britt. 

Fragaria L. 

Fragaria ovalis (Lehm.) Rydb. 

Fragaria vesaa L. 

Franseria Cav. 
Franseria discolor Nutt. 



FAMILY 


LIFE 
FORM 


CONVOL 


F 


GRAMIN (FES) 


G 
G 
G 
G 
G 


COMPOS (INN) 


F 


ROSACE 





COMPOS (HEL) 



FRAXI Fraxinus L. 

FRPE Fraxinus pennsylvaniaa Marsh. 

FRPES Fraxinus pennsylvaniaa var. subintegerrima (Vahl) Fern. 

FRITI Fritillaria L. 

FRAU Fritillaria autopurpurea Nutt. 

GAILL Gaillardia Fouq. 

GAAR Gaillardia aristata Pursh 

GAPU Gaillardia puahella Fouq. 

GALEO Galeopsis L. 

GATE Galeopsis tetrahit L. 

GALIU Galium L. 

GAAP Galium aparine L. 

GABI Galium biflorum Watson 

GABO Galium boreale L. 

GATI Galium tinctorum L. 

GATR Galium triflorum Michx. 

GAURA Gaura L. 

GACO Gaura aoaainea Pursh 

GACOG Gaura aoaainea var. glabra (Lehm.) T. & G. 

GAPA Gaura parvi flora Dougl. 

GAYOP Gayophytum A. Juss. 

GANU Gayophytum nuttallii T. & G. 

GARA Gayophytum raaemosum T. & G. 

GARA2 Gayophytum ramosissium T. & G. 

GENT I Gentiana L. 

GEAF Gentiana af finis Griseb. 

GEAN Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. 

GEPL Gentiana pleheia Cham. 

GEST Gentiana strictiflora (Rvdb.) A. Nels. 

GERAN Geranium L. 

GEBI Geranium biaknellii Britt. 

GECO Geranium aarolinianum L. 



OLEACE 



LILIAC 



COMPOS (HEL2) 



LABIAT 



RUBIAC 



ONAGRA 



ONAGRA 



GENTIA 



GERANI 



21 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 

FORM 



GEPU Geranium pusillum L. 

GERI Geranium richardsonii Fisch. & Trautv. 

GEVI Geranium visaosissimum Fisch. & Mey. 

GERAR Gerardia L. 

GETEM Gerardia tenuifolia var. macrophylla Benth. 

GEUM Geum L. 

GEAL Geum aleppiaum Jacq. 

GECA Geum canadense Jacq . 

GEMA Geum maarophyllum Willd. 

GERI 2 Geum rivale L. 

GETR Geum triflorum Pursh 

GILIA Gilia R. & P. 

GIGE Gilia cephaloidea Rydb. 

GICO Gilia aongesta Hook. 

GISP Gilia spioata Nutt. 

GLLCO Glecoma L. 

GLHE Gleaoma hederacea L. 

GLYGE Glyoeria R. Br. 

GLGR Glyoeria grandis Wats. 

GLPA Glyoeria pauoiflora Presl 

GLSE Glyoeria septentrionalis Hitchc. 

GLST Glyoeria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. 

GLYCY Glyayrrhiza L. 

GLLE Glyoyrrhiza lepidota Pursh 

GNAPH Gnaphalium L. 

GNEX Gnaphalium exilifolium A. Nels. 

GNPA Gnaphalium palustre Nutt. 

GNUL Gnaphalium uliginosum L. 

GNVI Gnaphalium visoosum HBK. 

GOODY Goody era R. Br. 

GODE Goodyera deoipiens (Hook.) Hubbard 

GORE Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. 

GRATI Gratiola L. 

GRNE Gratiola neglecta Torr. 

GRIND Grindelia Willd. 

GRSQ Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal 

GRSU Grindelia suhalpina Greene 

GUTIE Gutierrezia Lag. 

GUSA Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Brltt. & Rusby 

GYMNO Gymnocarpium Newm. 

GYDR Gymnooarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm. 

GYPSO Gypsophila L. 

GYMU Gypsophila muralis L. 

GYP^ Gypsophila panioulati L. 

HABEN Habeneria Willd. 

HACL Habenaria clavellata (Michx.) Sprang. 



SCROPH 



ROSACE 



POLEMO 



LAB I AT 



GRAMIN (FES) 



FABACE 



COMPOS (INll) 



ORCHID 



SGROPH 



COMPOS (AST) 



COMPOS (AST) 



POLYPO 



CARYOP 



ORCHID 



22 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



HADI Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Hook. 

HAHY Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br. 

HASA Habenaria saocata Greene 

HAUN Habenaria unalasaensis (Spreng.) Wats. 

HAVI Habenaria viridis (L.) R. Br. 

HACKE Hackelia Opiz. 

HAAM Haakelia ameriaana (Gray) Fern. 

HAFL Haakelia floribunda (Lehm. ) I. M. Johnst. 

HALE Haakelia leptophylla (Rydb.) I. M. Johnst, 

HAVI2 Haakelia virginiana (L.) I. M. Johnst. 

HALEN Halenia Borkh. 

HADE Halenia deflexa (Smith) Griseb. 

HAPLO Haplopappus Cass. 

HAAM Haplopappus armerioides (Nutt.) Gray 

HAEN Haplopappus engelmannii (Gray) Hall 

HANU Haplopappus nuttallii T. & G. 

HASP Haplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC. 

HEDEO Hedeoma Pers. 

HEDR Hedeoma dm/nmondii Benth. 

HEHI Hedeoma hispida Pursh 

HEPU Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. 

HEDYS Hedysarum L. 

HEAL Hedysarum alpinum L. 

HEOC Hedysarum oacidentale Greene 

HELIA2 Helianthella T. & G. 

HEQU Helianthella quinquenervis (Hook) Gray 

HELIA3 Helianthemum Mill. 

HEBI Helianthemum bicknellii Fern. 



BORAGI 



GENTIA 



COMPOS (AST) 



LIBIAT 



FEBACE 



COMPOS (HEL) 



CISTAC 



HELIA Helianthus L. 

HEAN Helianthus annuus L. 

HEGI Helianthus giganteus L. 

HEGR Helianthus gross eserratus Martens 

HELA2 Helianthus laetiflorus Pers. 

HEMA Helianthus maximilliani Schrad. 

HENU Helianthus nuttallii T. & G. 

HEPE Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. 

HETU Helianthus tuberosus L. 



COMPOS (HEL) 



HELIC Heliatotriahon Besser 

HEHO Heliatotriahon hookeri (Scribn.) Henr. 

HELIO Heliotropium L. 

HESP Heliotropium spathulatum Rydb. 

HERAC Heraaleum L. 

HELA Heraaleum lanatum Michx. 



GRAMIN (AVE) 



BORAGI 



UMBELL 



HESPE2 Hesperis L. 

HEMA Hesperis matronalis L. 

HESPE Hesperoahloa (Piper) Rydb. 

HEKI Hesperoahloa kingii (Wats.) Rydb, 



CRUCIF 



GRAMIN (FES) 



23 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



HETER Hetevanthera R. & P. 

HELI Hetevanthera limosa (Sw.) Willd. 

HEUCH Heuchera L. 

HERI Heuchera richardsonii R. Br. 



PONT ED 



SAXIFR 



HIBIS Hibiscus L. 

HITR Hibiscus trionwn L. 



MALVAC 



HIERA Hieraoevm L. 

HICA Hieraaeum canadense Mlchx. 

HIKE Hieraceum fendleri Schultz-Bip. 

HIUM Hieraceum umhellatim L. 



COMPOS (CIC) 



HIERO Hieroahloe R. Br. 

HIOD Hieroahloe odorata (L.) Beauv. 



GRAMIN (PHA) 



HIPPU Hippuris L. 

HIVU Hippuris vulnaris L. 

HORDE Hordewv L. 

HOJLl Hordeum jubatum L. 

HOPU Hordeum pusillum Nutt. 

HOVU Hordeum vulgare L. 

HUMUL Humulus L. 

HULU Humulus lupulus L. 

HYMEN Hymenopappus L'Her. 

HYFI Hymenopappus filifolius Hook. 

HYTE Hymenopappus tenuifolius Pursh 

HYMEN2 Hymenoxys Cass. 

HYAC Hymenoxys acaulis (Pursh) Parker 

HYOSC Hyoscyamus L. 

HYNI Hyoscyamus niger L. 

HYPER Hypericum L. 

HYCA Hypericum canadense L. 

HYPE Hypericum perforatum L. 

ILIAM Iliamna Greene 

ILRI Iliamna rivularis (Dougl.) Greene 

IMPAT Impatiens L. 

IMBI Impatiens biflora Willd. 

IPOMO Ipomoea L. 

IPLE Ipomoea leptophylla Torr. 

IRIS Iris L. 

IRMI Iris missouriensis Nutt. 



HIPPUR 



GRAMIN (HOR) 



MORACE 



COMPOS (HEL2) 



COMPOS (HEL2) 



SOLANA 



HYPERI 



MALVAC 



BALSAM 



CONVOL 



IRIDAC 



IVA Iva L. 

IVAX Iva axillaris Pursh 

IVXA loa xanthi folia Nutt, 

JUGLA Juglans L. 

JUNI Juglans nigra L. 



COMPOS (HEL) 



JIIGLAN 



24 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



JUNCU Juncus L. 

JUAC Junaus aciminatus Michx. 

JUBA Junaus baltiaus Willd. 

JUBU Junaus bufonius L. 

JUC02 Junaus confusus Gov. 

JUEN Junaus ensifolius Wikst. 

JUIN Juncus interior Wieg. 

JULO Juncus longistylis Torr. 

JUNO Junaus nodosus L. 

JUPL Juncus platyphyllus (Wieg.) Fern. 

JUSA Junaus saximontanus A. Nels. 

JUTE Junaus tenuis Willd. 

JUTED Junaus tenuis var. dudleyi (Weig.) F. J. Herm. 

JUTO Junaus torreyi Gov. 

JUVA Juncus vaseyi Engelm. 

JUNIP Juniperus L. 

JUCO Juniperus comnunis L . 

JUHO Juniperus horizontalis Moench 

JUSC Juniperus saopulorwv Sarg. 

KOCHI Koahia Roth 

KOSC Koahia saoparia (L.) Schrad. 

KOELR Koeleria Pers. 

KOGR Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. 

KUHNI Kuhnia L. 

KUEU Kuhnia eupatorioides L. 

KULE Kuhnia leptophylla Scheele 

LACTU Lactuca L. 

LABI Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fern. 

LACA Lactuca canadensis L . 

LALU Lactuca tudoviciana (Nutt.) DC. 

LAPU Laatuaa pulchella (Pursh) DG. 

LASG Lactuca scariola L. 



JUNCAG 



CUPRES 



CHENOP 




F 


GRAMIN 


(AVE) 


G 


GO^fPOS 


(EUP) 


F 
F 


COMPOS 


(GIG) 


F 
F 
F 
F 
F 



LAMIU Lamium L . 

lAAM Lamium amplexioauZe L. 

LAPUL Lappulla Moench 

LAFR Lappula fvemontii (Torr.) Greene 

LARE Lappula redowskii (Hornem.) Greene 

LATHY Lathy rus L. 

LAOG Lathyrus oahroleuaus Hook. 

LAPO Lathyrus polymorphus Nutt. 

LEGHE Lechea L. 

LETE Lechea tenuifolia Michx. 

LEMNA Lernna L. 

LEMI Lernna minor L. 



LABIAT 



BORAGI 



FABACE 



CISTAG 



LENNAC 



LEPID Lepidium L. 

LEDE Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. 

LESQU Lesquerella Watson 

LEAL Lesquerella alpina (Nutt.) Wats. 



CRUCIF 



CRUGIF 



25 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



LEAR Lesquerella arenosa (Richards.) Rydb. 

LELU Lesquerella ludoviaiana (Nutt.) Wats. 

LEM02 Lesquerella montana (Gray) Wats. 

LESP Lesquerella spatulata Rydb. 

LEUCO Leuooorinwn Nutt. 

LEMO Leuaoorinum montanum Nutt. 

LIATR Liatris Schreb. 

LILI Liatris ligulistylis (A. Nels.) K. Schum. 

LIPU Liatris punctata Hook. 

LILIU Lilium L. 

LIPH Lilium philadelphicum L. 

LIMOS Limosella L. 

LIAQ Limosella aquatica L. 

LINAN Linanthus Benth. 

LIHA Linanthus harknesii (Curran) Greene 



LILIAC 



COMPOS (EUP) 



LILIAC 



SCROPH 



POLEMO 



LINAR Linaria Mill. 

LICA Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. 

LIVU Linaria vulgaris Hill 



LINNA 
LIBO 



Linnaea Gron. 
Linnaea borealis L. 



SCROPH 



CAPRIF 



LINUM 

LIBE 

LICO 

LILE 

LIRI 

LITHO 
LIBU 
LIPA 
LITE 

LITHO 

LIAR 

LICA 

LIIN 

LIRU 

LOBEL 
LOKA 
LOS I 
LOSP 

LOLIU 
LOPE 

LOMAT 

LOFO 

LOMA 

LOMO 

LONU 

LOOR 

LONIC 
LCD I 



Linum L . 

Linum berlandieri Hook. 
Linum oompaatum A. Nels. 
Linum lewisii Pursh 
Linum rigidum Pursh 

Lithophragma Nutt. 
Lithophragma bulbifera Rydb. 
Lithophragma parviflora (Hook.) Nutt. 
Lithophragma tenella Nutt. 

Lithospermum L. 

Lithospermum arvense L. 

Lithospermum aaroliniense (Walt.) MacMill. 

Lithospermum incisum Lehm. 

Lithospermum ruderale Dougl. 

Lobelia L. 
Lobelia kalmii L. 
Lobelia siphilitiaa L. 
Lobelia spiaata Lam. 

Lolium L. 

Lolium perenne L. 



LINAGE 



SAXIFR 



BORAGI 



Lomatium Raf. 

Lomatium foeniaulacewm (Nutt.) Coult. 
Lomatium maaroaarpum (H. & A.) Coult. 
Lomatium montanum Coult. & Rose 
Lomatium nuttallii (Gray) Macbr. 
Lomatium orientale Coult. & Rose 

Lonioera L. 
Loniaera dioiaa L. 



LOBELI 



GRAMIN (HOR) 



UMBELL 



Rose 
Rose 



CAPRIF 



26 



SYMBOL 



HENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



LOTUS Lotus L. 

LOAM Lotus ameriaanus (Nutt.) Bisch. 

LUPIN Lupinus L. 

LUAR Lupinus argenteus Pursh 

LUPA Lupinus parviflorus Natt. 

LUPU Lupinus pusillus Pursh 

LUSE Lupinus seriaeus Pursh 

LUZUL Luzula DC. 

LUIN Luzula intermedia (Thuill.) Spenner 

LYCHN Lychnis L. 

LYAL Lyahnis alba Mill. 

LYDR Lychnis drummondii (Hook.) Watson 

LYCIU Lycium L. 

LYHA Lycium halimi folium Mill. 

LYC0P2 Lyoopodium L, 

LYOB Lyoopodium obscurum L. 

LYCOP Lycopus L. 

LYAM Lycopus ameriaanus Muhl. 

LYAS Lycopus asper Greene 

LYUN Lycopus uniflorus Michx. 

LYGOD Lygodesmia D. Don 

LYJU Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D. Don 

MADIA Madia Molina 

MAGL Madia glomerata Hook. 

MAIAN Maianthemum Weber 

MACA Maianthemum canadense Desf. 

MALVA Malva L. 

MARO Malva rotundi folia L. 

MARRU Marrubium L. 

MAVU Marrubium vulgare L. 

MARS I Marsilea L. 

MAMU Marsilea muaronata A. Br. 

MATRI Matricaria L. 

MAMA Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter 

MATTE Matteuaaia Todaro 

MAST Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro 

MEDIC Medicago L. 

MEFA Medicago faloata L. 

MELU Medicago lupulina L. 

MESA Medicago sativa L. 

MELIC Melica L. 

MEBU Melica bulbosa Geyer ex Port. & Coult. 

MESM Melica smithii (Porter) Vasey 



FAiJACE 



FABACE 



JUNCAC 
CARYOP 

SOL ANA 
LYCOPO 
LABIAT 

COMPOS (CIC) 

COMPOS (HEL) 

LILIAC 

MALVAC 

SOLANA 

MARSIL 

COMPOS (ANT) 

POLYPO 

FEBACE 

GRAMIN (FES) 



27 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



MELIL Melilotus Mill. 

MEAL Melilotus alba Desr. 

MEOF Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. 

MENTH Mentha L. 

MEAR Mentha arvensis L. 



FABACE 



LABIAT 



MENTZ Mentzelia L. 

MEAL2 Mentzelia alhicaulis Dougl. 

MEDE Mentzelia deaapetala (Pursh) Urban & Gilg. 

MEDI Mentzelia dispersa Wats. 

MENU Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) T. & G. 

MEOL Mentzelia oligosperma Nutt. 

MENYA Menyanthes L. 

METR Menyanthes trifoliate L. 

MERTE Mertensia L. 

MELA Mertensia laneeolata (Pursh) A. DC. 

MEOB Mertensia ohlongifolia (Nutt.) G. Don 

MEPA Mertensia paniculata (Ait.) G. Don 

MICRO Miaroseris D. Don 

MICU Miaroseris cuspidata (Pursh) Schultz-Bip. 

MICR02 Microsteris Greene 

MIHU Microsteris humilis (Dougl.) Greene 

MIMUL Mimulus L. 

MIFL Mimulus floribundus Dougl. 

MIGL Mimulus glabratus HBK. 

MIGU Mimulus guttatus DC. 

MOLDA Moldavica Adans. 

MORA Moldavica parviflora (Nutt.) Britt. 

MOLLU Mollugo L. 

MOVE Mollugo verticillata L. 

MONAR Monarda L. 

MOFI Monarda fistulosa L. 

MOFIN Monarda fistulosa var. menthaefolia (Grah.) Fern. 

MOPE Monarda pectinata Nutt. 

MONES Moneses Salisb. 

MOUN Moneses uni flora (L.) Gray 

MONOL Monolepis Schrad. 

MONU Monolepis nuttalliana (Schultes) Engelm. 

MONTI Montia L. 

M0PE2 Montia perfoliata Donn. 

MUHLE Muhlenbergia Schreb. 

MUAN Muhlenbergia andina (Nutt.) Hitchc. 

MUAS Muhlenbergia asperifolia (Nees & Mey.) Parodi 

MUCU Muhlenbergia cuspidata (Torr.) Rydb. 

MUM£ Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. 

MURA Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) B.S.P. 

MURI Muhlenbergia riahardsonis (Trin.) Rydb. 



LOASAC 



GENTIA 



LABIAT 



COMPOS (CIC) 



POLEMO 



SCROPH 



LABIAT 



AZIOAC 



LABIAT 



ERICAC 



CHENOP 



PORTUL 



GRAMIN (AGR) 



28 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



MUNRO Munroa Torr. 

MUSQ l^tunroa squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr. 

MUSIN Musineon Raf. 

MUDI Musineon divavieatum (Pursh) Nutt. 

MUTE Musineon tenuifolivm Nutt. 

MYOSO Myosotis L. 

^fYAL Myosotis alpestris Schmidt 

MYMA Myosotis macrosperma Engelm. 

^fI'SC Myosotis saorpioides L. 

MYOSU MyosUTUS L. 

>rfMI Myosurus minimus L. 

NAJAS Na^as L. 

NAFL Wagas flexilis (Wllld.) Rostk. & Schmidt 

NASTU Nasturtium R. Br. 

NAOF Nasturtium officinale R. Br. 

NAUMB Nawvburgia Moench. 

NATH Naumhurgia thyrsi flora (L.) Duby 



GPAMTN (CHL) 



UMBELL 



BORAGI 



RANIINC 



NAJADA 



CRUCIF 



PRIMUL 



NEPET Nepeta L. 

NECA Nepeta cataria L. 

NUPHA Nuphar Smith 

NUPO Nuphar polysepalum Engelm. 

OENOT Oenothera L. 

OEAL Oenothera albicaulis Pursh 

OEBI Oenothera biennis L. 

OECA Oenothera aaespitosa Nutt. 

OECAE Oenothera aaespitosa var. exima (Gray) Munz 

OECO Oenothera aoronopi folia T. & G. 

OEFL Oenothera flava (A. Nels.) Garrett 

OELA Oenothera laainiata Hill 

0ELA2 Oenothera lati folia (Rydb.) Munz 

0ELA3 Oenothera lavandulae folia T. & G. 

OENU Oenothera nuttallii Sweet 

OEPA Oenothera parvi flora L. 

OESE Oenothera serrulata Nutt. 

OEST Oenothera strigosa (Rydb.) Mack. & Bush 

ONOBR Onobryehis Scop. 

ONVI Onobryehis viciaefolia Scop. 

ONOCL Onoclea L. 

ONSE Onoclea sensibilis L. 

ONOSM Onosmodium Michx. 

ONOC Onosmodium occidentalis Mack. 

OPUNT Opuntia Mill. 

OPFR Opuntia fragilis (Nutt.) Haw. 

OPPO Opuntia polyaoantha Haw. 

OPTO Opuntia tortispina Engelm. 



LABIAT 
LAB I AT 

NYMPHA 



ONAGRA 



FABACE 



POLYPO 



BORAGI 



CACTAC 



29 



SYMBOL 



RENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



OROBA Ovobanche L. 

ORFA Orobanahe fasaioulata Nutt. 

0RHJ2 Orobanahe ludoviaiana Nutt. 

ORTHO Orthoaarpus Nutt. 

ORIU Orthoaarpus luteus Nutt. 

ORYZO Oryzopsis Michx. 

ORAS Oryzopsis asperi folia Michx. 

ORCA Oryzopsis aanadensis (Poir.) Torr. 

ORHY Oryzopsis hymenoides (R. & S.) Ricker 

ORMI Oryzopsis micrantha (Trin. & Rupr.) Thurb. 

ORPU Oryzopsis pungens (Torr.) Hitchc. 

ORRA Oryzopsis raaemosa (J. E. Smith) Ricker 

OSMOR Osmorhiza Raf. 

OSCH Osmorhiza chilensis H. & A. 

OSLO Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. 

OSOB Osmorhiza obtusa (Coult. & Rose) Fern. 



OROBAC 



SCROPH 



GPj\MIN (AGR) 



UMBELL 



OSTRY Ostrya Scop. 

OSVI Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch 

OXALI Oxalis L. 

OXEU Oxalis europaea Jord. 

OXRE Oxalis repens Thunb. 

OXST Oxalis striata L. 

OXVI Oxalis violaaea L. 



BETULA 



OXALID 



OXYBA 
OXHI 
OXLI 
OXNY 

OXYPO 
OXFE 

OXYTR 

OXCAG 

OXDE 

OXLA 

OXMA 

OXMO 

OXSE 

OXVI 2 

PANIC 

PACA 

PADE 

PAHU 

PALI 

PAMI 

PAPE 

PASC 

PA VI 

PAWI 



Oxybaphus L'Her. 

Oxybaphus hirsutus (Pursh) Sweet 
Oxybaphus linearis (Pursh) Robins. 
Oxybaphus nyatagineus (Michx.) Sweet 

Oxypolis Raf. 

Oxypolis fendleri (Gray) A. Heller 



Oxytropis DC. 

Oxytropis oampestris (L.) DC. var. 
Oxytropis deflexa (Pall.) DC. 
Oxytropis lambertii Pursh 
Oxytropis maoounii (Greene) Rydb. 
Oxytropis montiaola Gray 
Oxytropis seriaea Nutt. 
Oxytropis villosa (Rydb.) K. Schum. 

Paniaum L. 

Paniaum aappillare L. 

Paniaum depauperatwn Muhl. 

Paniaum huaahuaae Ashe 

Paniaum liebergii (Vasey) Scrlbn. 

Paniaum miliaaeum L. 

Paniaum perlongum Nash 

Paniaum saribnerianum Nash 

Paniaum virgatum L. 

Paniaum wilaoxianum Vasev 



NYCTAG 



FABACE 



FABACE 



glabrata Hook. 



GRAMIN (PAN) 



PARIE Parietaria L. 

PAPE2 Parietaria pensylvaniaa Muhl. 



MO RACE 



30 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



PARNA 
PAPA 

PA RON 
PADE2 
PAJA 
PASE 

PARTH 

PAQU 

PAVI2 

PASTI 
PASA 

PEDIC 
PEGR3 

PELLA 

PEAT 

PEGL2 

PENST 

PEAL 

PEAL 2 

PEAN 

PECL 

PEER 

PEGL 

PEGR 

PEGR2 

PEJA 

PENI 
PERA 

PERID 
PEGA 

PETAL 

PECA 

PECO 

PERU 

PEPUM 

PETAS 
PESA 

PHAGE 

PHHE 

PHLI 

PHALA 
PHAR 

PHLEU 

PHAL 

PHPR 



Pamassia L. 

Parnassia parvzflora DC. 

Paronychia Mill. 
Paronychia depressa Nutt. 
Paronychia jamesii T. & G. 
Paronychia sessiliflora Nutt. 

Parthenocissus Planch. 

Parthenocissus quinquefolia. (L.) Planch, 

Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchc. 

Pastinaca L. 
Pastinaca saliva L. 

Pedicularis L. 
Pedicularis grayi A. Nels. 

Pellaea Link 

Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link 

Pellaea glabella Mett. 



Penstemon 
Penstemon 
Penstemon 
Penstemon 
Penstemon 
Penstemon 
Penstemon 
Penstemon 
Penstemon 
Penstemon 



Mitchell 
albidus Nutt. 
alpinus Torr. 
angustifolius Nutt. 
cleburnii A. Nels. 
eriantherus Pursh 
glaber Pursh 
gracilis Nutt . 
grandiflorus Nutt. 
jamesii Benth. 



SAXIFR 



CARYOP 



VITACA 



UMBELL 



SCROPH 



POLYPO 



SCROPH 



Penstemon nitidus Dougl . 
Penstemon radicosus A. Nels. 

Perideridia Reichenb. 

Perideridia gairdneri (H. & A.) Mathias 

Petalostemon Michx. 

Petalostemon canadidum (Willd.) Mlchx. 

Petalostemon compactum (Spreng.) Swezey 

Petalostemon purpureum (Vent.) Rvdb. 

Petalostemon purpureum var. mollis (Rydb.) A. Nels, 

Petasites L. 

Petasites sagittatus (Pursh) Gray 

Phacelia Juss. 

Phacelia heterophylla Pursh 

Phacelia linearis (Pursh) Holz. 

Phalaris L. 

Phalaris arundinacea L. 

Phlewn L. 

Phleum alpinum L. 

Phleum pratense L. 



UMBELL 



FABACE 



COMPOS (SEN) 
HVnROP 

GRAMIN (PHA) 

GRAMIN (AGR) 



31 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



PHLOX 

PHAL2 

PHAN 

PHHO 

PHKE 

PHKEV 

PHRAG 
PHCO 

PHRYM 
PHLE 

PHYSA 

PHGR 

PHHE 

PHHE 

PHLA 

PhLO 

PHPU 

PHVI 

PHYSO 

PHMO 

PHOP 



Phlox L. 

Phlox alyssifolia Greene 

Phlox andicola (Britt.) E. Nels. 

Phlox hoodii Richards. 

Phlox kelseyi Britt. 

Phlox kelseyi ssp. variabilis (Brand) Wherry 

Phragmites Trin. 
Phragmites communis Trin. 

Phryma L. 

Phryma leptostachya L. 



POLEMO 



GRAMIN (FES) 



PHRYMA 



Physalis 
Physalis 
Physalis 
Physalis 
Phusalis 
Physalis 
Physalis 
Physalis 



SOLANA 



grandi flora Hook . 
hederaefolia Gray 
heterophylla Nees. 
lanaeolata Michx. 
longifolia Nutt. 
pumila Nutt. 
virginiana Mill. 



Physocarpus Maxin. 

Physoaarpus monogynus (Torr.) Coult. 

Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim. 



PICEA Pioea A. Dietr. 

PIGL Picea glauca (Moench) Voss 

PINUS Pinus L. 

PICOL Pinus contorta. var. lati folia Engelm. 

PIFL Pinus flexilis James 

PIPO Pinus ponderosa Lawson 

PLAGI Plagiobothrys Fisch. & Mev. 

PLSC Plagiobothrys scopulorum (Greene) .Tohnst, 

PLANT Plantago L. 

PLAR Plantago aristata Michx. 

PLAS Plantago asiatica L. 

PLEL Plantago elongata Pursh 

PLER Plantago eriopoda Torr. 

PLMA Plantago major L. 

PLPU Plantago purshii R. & S. 

PERU Plantago rugellii Decne. 

POA Poa L. 

POAL Poa alpina L. 

P0AL2 Poa alsodes Gray 

POAM Poa ampla Merr. 

P0AN2 Poa annua L. 

P0AR3 Poa arida Vasey 

POCA Poa aanbyi (Scrihn.) Piper 

POCO Poa compressa L. 

POFE Poa fendleriana (Steud.) Vasey 

P0GL2 Poa glauaifolia Scribn. & Williams 

POIN Poa interior Rydb. 

POLO Poa longiligula Scribn. & Williams 

PC PA Poa palustris L. 

POPR Poa pratensis L. 

POSE Poa seaunda Presl 



ROSACE 



PINACE 



PINACE 



BORAGI 



PLANTA 



GRAMIN (FES) 



32 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



POLAN 
P0TR2 

POLYG 
P0AL3 
P0SE2 
POVE 

P0LYG2 
P0CA4 

POLYG 3 

POAV 

P0C02 

POCOT 

P0C03 

PODO 

POER 

POLA 

PONA 

POPE 

P0PE2 

P0PR2 

POPU 

PORA 

P0SA2 

POSC 

POSP 

P0VI2 

POLYP 

POKE 

POVU 

POPUL 

POAC 

P0AL4 

P0AN3 

POBA 

P0CA3 

POSA 

POTR 

POTAM 

P0AL5 

P0FI2 

POFO 

P0GR2 

P0PE3 

P0PR3 

P0RI2 

POT EN 

P0AM2 

POAN 

POAR 

P0AR2 

POBI 

P0CA2 



Polanisia Raf. 

Polanisia traahysperma T. & G. 

Poly gala L. 
Polygala alba Nutt. 
Polygala senega L. 
Polygala verticillata L. 

Polygonatum Mill. 

Polygonatum aanalieulatum (Muhl.) Pursh 

Polygonum L. 

Polygonum aviculave L. 

Polygonum aocaineum Muhl. 

Polygonum aocaineum var. terrestre Muhl. 

Polygonum convolvulus L. 

Polygonum douglasii Greene 

Polygonum eveotum L. 

Polygonum lapathifolium L. 

Polygonum natans Eat. 

Polygonum pensylvanicum L. 

Polygonum persicaria L. 

Polygonum pvolificum (Small) Robins. 

Polygonum punctatum Ell. 

Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. 

Polygonum saioatahense Small 

Polygonum saandens L. 

Polygonum spergulariaeforme Meissn. 

Polygonum viviparum L. 

Polypodium L. 

Polypodium hesperium Maxon 

Polypodium vulgare L. 

Populus L. 

Populus acuminata Rydb. 

Populus alba L. 

Populus angustifolia James 

Populus balsamifera L. 

Populus candicans Michx. 

Populus sargentii Dode 

Populus tremuloides Michx. 

Potamogeton L. 

Potamogeton alpinus Balbis 

Potamogeton filiformis Pers. 

Potamogeton foliosus Raf. 

Potamogeton gramineus L. 

Potamogeton pectinatus L. 

Potamogeton praelongus Wulf 

Potamogeton richardsonii (A. Bennett) Rydb. 



CAPPAR 



POLYGA 



LILIAC 



POLYGO 



POLYPO 



SALICA 



NAJADA 



Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 



ROSACE 



ambigens Greene 
anserina L. 
arguta Pursh 
argyrea Rvdb. 
biennis Greene 
aamporum Rydb. 



33 



SYMBOL 

P0C04 
POD I 

POEF 
POFI 
POFR 
POGL 
POGR 
POHI 
POLE 
PONO 

P0PE4 

POPES 

POPL 

POOU 

FORI 

POVI 

PRENA 

PRAS 

PRRA 

PRUNE 
PRVU 

PRUNU 

PRAM 

PRDE 

PRPE 

PRPU 

PRVI 

PSORA 

PSAR 

PSCU 

PSDI 

PSES 

PSLA 

PSLI 

PSTE 

PTERI 
PTAQ 

PTERO 

PTAN 

PTERY 
PTANZ 

PUCCI 
PUAI 

PURSH 
PUTR 

PYROL 
PYAS 
PYASP 
PYEL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



Potentilla 
'Potentilla 
'Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 

Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 
Potentilla 



eoncinna Richards. 
diver si folia Lehm. 
effusa Dougl. 
fissa Nutt. 
fruticosa L. 
glandulosa Lindl. 
gracilis Dougl. 
hippiana Lehm. 
leucocarpa Rydb. 
norvegica L . 

pectiniseota Rydb. 
pensylvaniaa L. 
plattensis Nutt. 
quinquifolia Rydb. 
rivalis Nutt. 
vividescens Rydb. 



Prenanthes L. 
Prenanthes aspera Michx. 
Prenanthes raoemosa Michx. 

Prunella L. 
Prunella vulgaris L. 

Prunus L. 

Planus amerieana Marsh. 

Prunus demissa (Nutt.) Walp. 

Prunus pensylvaniaa L. 

Prunus pumila L. 

Prunus virginiana L. 



Psoralea 
Psoralea 
Psoralea 
Psoralea 
Psoralea 
Psoralea 
Psoralea 
Psoralea 



L. 

argopJiylla Pursh 
cuspidata Pursh 
digitata Nutt. 
esaulenta Pursh 
lanoeolata Pursh 
lineariflora T. & 
tenuiflora Pursh 



Pteridium Gled. 

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn 

Pterospora Nutt. 
Pterospora andromedea Nutt. 

Pteryxia Nutt. 

Pteryxia anisata (Gray) Math. & Const. 

PuGcinellia Pari. 

Puccinellia airoides (Nutt.) Wats. & Coult. 

Purshia DC. 

Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC. 

Pyrola L. 

Pyrola asarifolia Michx. 

Pyrola asarifolia var. purpurea (Bunge) Fern. 

Pyrola elliptica Nutt. 



COMPOS (CIC) 



LABIAT 



ROSACE 



FABACE 



POLYPO 



ERICA 



UMBELL 



GRAMIN (FES) 



ROSACE 



ERICAC 



LIFE 
FORM 

F 
F 
F 
F 
S 
F 

r 

F 
F 
F 

F 
F 
F 

F 
F 
F 



34 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



PYMI 
PYPI 
PYRO 
PYSE 
PYVI 

QUERC 
QUMA 

RANUN 

RAAB 

RAAC 

RAAQ 

RACA 

RACI 

RACY 

RAGL 

RAMA 

RAMI 

RAPE 

RARH 

RASC 



Pyrola minor L. 
Pyrola picta Smith 
Pyrola rotundi folia L. 
Pyrola secunda L. 
Pyrola virens Schweigg. 

Querous L. 

QM&raus macroaarpa Michx. 



Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 
Ranunculus 



FAGACE 



RANUNC 



abortivus L. 
acris L. 
aquatilis L. 
cardiophyllus Hook. 
circinatus Sibth. 
cymbalaria Pursh 
glaberrimus Hook. 
macounii Britt. 
micranthus Nutt. 
pensylvanicus L. 
rhomboideus Goldle 
sceleratus L. 



RATIB Ratibida Raf. 

RACO Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standi. 

RHAMN Rhamnus L. 

RHAL Rhamnus alnifolius L'Her. 

RHINA Rhinanthus L. 

RHCR Rhinanthus crista-galli L. 

RHUS Rhus L. 

RHGL Rhus glabra L. 

RHOS Rhus osterhoutii Rydb. 

RHTR Rhus trilobata Nutt. 

RIBES Ribes L. 

RIAM Ribes americanum Mill. 

RICE Ribes ceveum Dougl. 

RIHI Ribes hirtellwn Michx. 

RIHU Ribes hudsonianum Richards. 

RUN Ribes inerme Rydb. 

RILA Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Polr. 

RIOD Ribes odoratum Wendl. 

RIOX Ribes oxyacanthoides L. 

RISE Ribes setosum Lindl. 



COMPOS (HEL) 



RHAMNA 



SCROPH 



ANACAR 



SAXIFR 



RORIP Eorippa Scop. 

ROIS Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbas 

ROSI Rorippa sinuata (Nutt.) Hitchc. 

ROSA Rosa L. 

ROAC Rosa acicularis Lindl. 

ROBL Rosa blanda Ait. 

ROEN Rosa engelmannii Watson 

ROFE R0sa fendleri Crep. 

ROLU Rosa lunellii Greene 

ROPO Rosa polyanthema Lunell 

ROSU Rosa suffulta Greene 



CRUCIF 



ROSACE 



35 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 

FORM 



RUBUS Rubus L. 

RUPA Rubus parviflorus Nutt. 

RUPU Rubus pubesaens Raf. 

RUST Rubus strigosus Michx. 

RUDBE Rudbeakia L. 

RUHI Rudbeakia hirta L. 

RULA Rudbeakia laainiata L. 

RUSE Rudbeakia serotina Nutt. 

RUMEX Rumex L. 

RUAC Rumex aaetosella L. 

RUAL Rumex altissimus Wood 

RUCR Rumex arispus L. 

RUFU Rumex fueginus Philippi 

RUME Rumex mexicanus Meissn. 

RUOC Rumex oaaidentalis Wats. 

RUOR Rumex orbiculatus Gray 

RUPA2 Rumex patientia L. 

RUVE Rumex venosus Pursh 

SAGIN Sagina L. 

SASA Sagina saginoides (L.) Karst. 

SAG IT Sagittaria L. 

SACU Sagittaria auneata Sheld. 

SAGR Sagittaria graminea Michx. 

SALA Sagittaria lati folia Wllld. 

SAMO Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht. 

SALIX Salix L. 

SAAL Salix alba L. 

SAALV Salix alba var. vitellina (L.) Stokes 

SAAM Salix amygdaloides Anderss. 

SABE Salix bebbiana Sarg. 

SABEP Salix bebbiana var. perrostrata (Rydb.) Schn. 

SAGA Salix Candida Fleugge 

SAGA2 Salix aaudata (Nutt.) Heller 

SAGO Salix aordata Michx. 

SADI Salix discolor Muhl. 

SAEXL Salix exigua var. luteosericea (Rydb.) Schn. 

SAFR Salix fragilis L. 

SAGE Salix geyeriana Anderss. 

SAGLG Salix glauca var. glabresaens (Anderss.) Schneider 

SAIN Salix interior Rowlee 

SAINP Salix interior var. pediaellata (And.) Ball 

SALU Salix lucida Muhl. 

SALU2 Salix lutea Nutt. 

SALUF Salix lutea var. famelica Ball 

SALUL Salix lutea var. ligulifolia (Ball) E. C. Smith 

SAPA Salix padophylla Rydb. 

SAPE Salix pellita Anders. 

SAPE2 Salix pentandra L. 

SAPE3 Salix petiolaris J. E. Smith 

S/PL Salix planifolia Parsh 

SAPLM Salix planifolia var. moniaa (Bebb) Schn. 

SAPLN Salix planifolia var. nelsonii Ball 

SAPR Salix prinoides Pursh 

SAPS Salix pseudolapponum von Seaman 



ROSACE 



COMPOS (HEL) 



POLYGO 



GARYOP 



ALISMA 



SALICA 



T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 

T 

T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 

T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 



36 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



SAPS2 Salix pseudomontioola Ball 

SASC Salix saouleriana Barr. 

SASE Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern. 

SASU Salix suhaoerulea Piper 

SASU2 Salix subsericea (Anderss.) Schneider 

SALSO Salsola L. 

SAKA Salsola kali L. 

SALVI Salvia L. 

SARE Salvia reflexa Hornem. 

SAMBU Sambuaus L. 

SACA3 Sambuaus canadensis L. 

SAME Sambuaus melanoaarpa Gray 

SAPU Sambuaus pubens Michx. 

SANGU Sanguinaria L. 

SACA4 Sanguinaria canadensis L. 

SANIC Sanicula L. 

SACA5 Sanicula canadensis L. 

SAMA Sanicula marilandica L. 



CHENOP 



LABIAT 



CAPRIF 



PAPAVE 



LIMB ELL 



SAPON Saponaria L. 

SAOF Saponaria officinalis L. 

SARCO Saraobatus Nees. 

SAVE Saraobatus vermiculatus (Hook.) Torr. 

SAXIF Saxifraga L. 

SAGE Saxifraga cemua L. 

SAOC Saxifraga occidentalis Wats. 

SAVI Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. 

SGHED Sahedonnardus Steud. 

SCPA2 Sahedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel. 

SCHIZ Schizaahne Hack. 

SGPU Schizaahne purpurasaens (Torr.) Swallen 

SCIRP Scirpus L. 

SCAM Scirpus americanus Pers. 

SCAT Scirpus atrovirens Willd. 

SGGY Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth 

SCMA Scirpus maritimus L. 

SCPA Scirpus pallidus (Britt.) Fern. 

SCRU Scirpus rubrotinatus Fern. 

SCTO Scirpus torreyi Olney 

SCVA Scirpus validus L. 

SCROP Scrophularia L. 

SCLA Scrophularia lanaeolata Pursh 

SCMA Scrophularia marilandica L. 

SCUTE Scutellaria L. 

SCGA Scutellaria galericulata L. 

SCLA2 Scutellaria lateriflora L. 

SEGAL Secale L. 

SECE Secale aereale L. 



CARYOP 
CHENOP 
SAXIFR 

GRAMIN (CHL) 
GRAMIN (FES) 
GYPERA 



SCROPH 



LABIAT 



GRAMIN (HOR) 



37 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



SEDUM Sedum L. 

SEAC Sedum acre L. 

SEST Sedum stenopetalwv Pursh 

SELAGI Selaginella Beauv. 

SEDE Selaginella densa Rydb. 

SERU Selaginella rupestris (L.) Spring. 

SENEC Senecio L. 

SEAM Senecio amhrosioides Rydb. 

SEAU Senecio aureus L. 

SECA Senecio canus Hook. 

SECR Senecio crassulus Gray 

SEER Senecio eremophilus Richards. 

SEIN Senecio integerrimus Nutt. 

SELO Senecio longilohus Benth. 

SEMU Senecio mutabilis Greene 

SEPL Senecio plattensis Nutt. 

SEPU Senecio purshianus Nutt. 

SERA Senecio rapifolius Nutt. 

SESP Senecio spartioides T. & G. 

SEVU Senecio vulgaris L. 

SETAR Setaria Beauv. 

SELU Setaria lutescens (Wieg.) Hubb . 

SEVE Setaria vertioillata (L.) Beauv. 

SEVI Setaria viridis (L.) Benth. 

SHEPH Shepherdia Nutt. 

SHAR Shepherdia argentea Nutt. 

SHCA Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 

SICYO Sicyos L. 

SIAN Sicyos angulatus L. 

SILEN Silene L. 

SIAC Silene acaulis L. 

SIAN2 Silene antirrhina L. 

SINI Silene nivea (Nutt.) Otth. 

SINO Silene noctiflora L. 

SISYM Sisymbrium L. 

SIAL Sisymbrium altissimum L. 

SIOF Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. 

SISYR Sisyrinchium L. 

SIMO Sisyrinchium montanum Greene 

SI.MU Sisyrinchium mucronatum Michx. 

SITAN Sitanion Raf. 

SIHY Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J. G. Smith 

SIUM Stum L. 

SISU Sium suave Walt. 

SMILA Smilaoina Desf. 

SMRA Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. 

SMST Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. 



CRASSU 



SELAGI 



COMPOS (SEN) 



GRAHIN (PAN) 



ELAEAd 



CUlURB 



CARYOP 



CRUCIF 



IRIDAC 



GRAMIN (HOR) 



LILIAC 



38 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



SMILA2 

SMHE 

SMHEL 

SOLAN 
SONI 
SORO 
SOTR 

SOLID 

SOCA 

SODU 

SOGI 

SOGR 

SOHI 

SOMI 

SOMO 

SONA 

SONE 

SOOC 
SORI 
SOSP 
S0SP2 

SONCH 
SOAR 
SO AS 
SOOL 

SOPHO 
SOSE 

SORBU 
SOSC 

SORGA 
SONU 

SORGH 
SOSU 

SPARG 

SPAN 

SPCH 

SPEU 

SPMU 

SPART 

SPPE 

SPECU 

SPLE 

SPPE2 

SPHAE 
SPCO 

SPHEN 

SPIN 

SPOB 



Smi lax L . 

Smilax herbacea L. 

Smilax herbacea var. 



lasioneura (Hook.) A. DC. 



Solarium L. 

Solanwn nigrum L. 

Solarium rostratum Dunal 

Solanum triflorum Nutt. 

Solidago L. 

Soli dago caymdensis L. 

SoZidage dumetorum Lunell 

Solidago gigantea Ait. 

Solidago gramini folia (L.) Salisb. 

Solidago hispida Muhl. 

Solidago missouriensis Nutt. 

Solidago mollis Bartl. 

Solidago nana Nutt. 

Solidago nemoralis Ait. 

Solidago oaaidentalis (Nutt.) T. & G. 
Solidago rigida L. 
Solidago sparsi flora Grav 
Solidago speciosa Nutt. 

Sonchus L. 
Sonahus arvensis L. 
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill 
Sonchus oleraceus L. 

Sophora L. 

Sophora sevicea Nutt. 

Sorbus L. 

Sorbus scopulina Greene 

Sorghastrum Nash 
Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash 

Sorghum Moench 

Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf 

Sparganium L. 

Sparganium angustifolium Michx. 

Sparganium chlorocarpum Rydb. 

Sparganium euryaarpum Engelm. 

Sparganium multipedunaulatum (Morong) Rydb. 

Spartina Schreb. 
Spartina pectinata Link 

Specularia Fabr. 

Specularia leptocarpa (Nutt.) Gray 

Specularia perfoliata (L.) DC. 

Sphaeralcea St. Hil. 

Sphaeralcea coccinea (Pursh) Rydb. 

Sphenopholis Scribn. 

Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb. 

Sphenopholis ohtusata (Michx.) Scribn. 



LIi^IAC 



SOLANA 



COMPOS (AST) 



COMPOS (CIC) 

FABACE 
ROSACE 
GRAMIN (AND) 
GRAMIN (AND) 
SPARGI 



GRAMIN (CHL) 



CAMPAN 



MALVAC 



GRAMIN (AVE) 



39 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



SPIRA Spiraea L. 

SPAL Spiraea alba DuRol 

SPCA Spiraea caespitosa Nutt. 

SPDE Spiraea densiflora Nutt. 

SPLU Spiraea lucida Dougl. 

SPIRA2 Spiranthes Rich. 

SPRO Spiranthes romanzoffiana Cham. 

SPORO Sporobolus R. Br. 

SPAI Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr. 

SPAS Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth 

SPCR Sporolobus aryptandrus (Torr.) Gray 

SPHE Sporobolus heterolepis (Gray) Gray 

SPNE Sporobolus neglectus Nash 

SPVA Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr.) Wood 

STACH Staahys L. 

STHI Staahys hispida Pursh 

STPA Staahys palustris L. 

STANL Stanleya Nutt. 

STPI Stanleya pinnata (Pursh) Britt. 

STEIR Steironema Raf. 

STCI Steironema ailiatum (L.) Raf. 

STELL Stellaria L. 

STLO Stellaria longifolia Muhl. 

STL02 Stellaria longipes Goldie 

STME Stellaria media (L.) Cyrlll. 

STUM Stellaria umbellata Turcz. 



ROSACE 



ORCHID 



GRAMIN (AGR) 



LABIAT 



CRUCIF 



PRIMUL 



CARYOP 



STIPA Stipa L. 

STCO Stipa Columbiana Macoun 

STC02 Stipa aomata Trin. & Rupr. 

STRI Stipa riahardsonii Link 

STRO Stipa robusta (Vasey) Scribn. 

STSP Stipa spartea Trin. 

STSPC Stipa spartea var. curtiseta Hltchc. 

STVI Stipa viridula Trin. 

STREP Streptopus Michx. 

STAM Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. 

SWERT Swertia L. 

SWRA Swertia radicata (Kellogg) Kuntze 

SYMPH Symphoriaarpos Duham. 

SYAL Symphoriaarpos albus (L.) Blake 

SYOC Symphoriaarpos ocaidentalis Hook. 

TALIU Talinum Adans. 

TAPA Talinum parviflorum Nutt. 

TANAC Tanaeetum L. 

TAVU Tanaaetum vulgare L. 

TARAX Taraxacum Zinn. 

TALA Taraxacum laevigatum (Willd.) DC. 

TAOF Taraxacum officinale Weber 



GRAMIN (AGR) 



LILIAC 



GENTIA 



CAPRIF 



PORTUL 



COMPOS (ANT) 
COMPOS (CIC) 



40 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



THERM 
THRH 

THLAS 
THAR 

TOWNS 

TOGR 

TOSE 



Telesonix Raf. 

Tetesonix heucheriformis Rydb. 

Thaliatrum L. 

Thaliatrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Ave-Lall. 

Thaliatrum dioaium L. 

Thaliatrum megaaarpum Torr. 

Thaliatrum venulosum Trelease 

Thelypodium Endl. 
Thelypodium lilaainum Greene 

Thelypteris Schmidel. 

Thelypteris novehoracensis (L.) Nieuwl. 

Thermopsis R. Br. 

Thermopsis rhombi folia (Nutt.) Richards. 

Thlaspi L. 
Thlaspi arvense L. 

Townsendia Hook. 

Townsendia grandiflora Nutt. 

Townsendia seriaea Hook. 



SAXIFR 



RANUNC 



CRUCIF 



POLYPO 



FABACE 



CRUCIF 



COMPOS (AST) 



TOXIC Toxicodendron T. & S. 

TORA Toxicodendron radiaans (L.) Kuntze 

TRADE Tradesaantia L. 

TRBR Tradesaantia braateata Small 

TROC Tradesaantia oaoidentalis (Britt.) Smyth 

TRAGO Tragopogon L. 

TRDU Tragopogon dubius Scop. 

TRPO Tragopogon porrifolius L. 

TRPR3 Tragopogon pratensis L. 

TRIFO Tri folium L. 

Trhy Trifolium hybridum L. 

TRIN Trifolium inaarnatum L. 

TRPR Trifolium prat ens e L. 

TRPR2 Trifolium proaumbens L. 

TRRE Trifolium repens L. 

TRIGL Trigloahin L. 

TRMA Trigloahin maritima L. 

TRPA Trigloahin palustris L. 

TRIPT Tripterocalyx Hook. 

TRMI Tripteroaalyx miaranthes (Torr.) Hook. 

TRITI Tritiaum L. 

TRAE Tritiaum aestivum L. 



ANACAR 



COMMEL 



COMPOS (CIC) 



FABACE 



J UN C AG 



NYCTAG 



GRAMIN (HOR) 



TYPHA Typha L. 

TYLA Typha latifolia L. 

ULMUS Ulrms L. 

ULAM UZmus ameriaana L, 



TYPHAC 



ULMACE 



41 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



URTIC Urtica L. 

URDI Urtica dioica L. 

URGR Urtica gracilenta Greene 

UTRIC Utricularia L. 

UTIN Utricularia intermedia Hayne 

UTVU Utricularia vulgaris L. 

VACCA Vaccaria Medic 

VASE Vaccaria segetalis (Neck.) Garcke 

VACCI Vaacinium L. 

VAME Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl. 

VASC Vaccinium scopariurn Leiberg 

VALER Valeriana L. 

VACA Valeriana capitata Pallas ex Link 

VAGI Valeriana ciliata T. & G. 

VASE2 Valeriana septentrionalis Rydb. 

VERBA Verhascum L. 

VEBL Verbascum hlattaria L. 

VETH Verhascwn thapsus L. 

VERBE Verbena L. 

VEAM Verbena ambrosifolia Rydb. 

VEBI Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. 

VEBR Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. 

VERA Verbena hastata L. 

VEST Verbena striata Vent. 

VEUR Verbena urticifolia L, 

VERNO Vernonia Schreb. 

VEFA Vernonia fasciculata Michx. 

VERON Veronica L. 

VEAM2 Veronica americana (Raf.) Schw. 

VEAR Veronica arvensis L. 

VEPE Veronica peregrina L. 

VEPE2 Veronica persica Poir. 

VESA Veronica salina Schur. 

VIBUR Viburnum L. 

VIED Viburnum edule (Michx.) Raf. 

VILE Viburnum lentago L . 

VITR Viburnum trilobum Marsh. 



URTICA 



LENTIB 



CARYOP 



ERIGAC 



VALERI 



SCROPH 



VERBEN 



COMPOS (VER) 



SCROPH 



CAPRIF 



VICIA Vicia L. 

VIAM Vicia americana Muhl. 

VICR Vicia aracca L. 

VISA Vicia sativa L. 

VIVI Vicia villosa Roth 



FABACE 



VIOLA Viola L. 

VI AD Viola adunca Sm. 

VICA Viola canadensis L. 

VICAR Viola canadensis var. rydbergii (Greene) House 

VIER Viola eriocarpa Schw. 

VIMI Viola missouriensis Greene 

VINE Viola nephrophylla Greene 



VIOLAC 



42 



SYMBOL 



GENERA - SPECIES - AUTHORITY 



FAMILY 



LIFE 
FORM 



VINU Viola nuttallii Pursh 

VIPA Viola pallens (Banks) Brainerd 

VIPA2 Viola palustris L. 

VIPA3 Viola papilionacea Pursh 

VIPE Viola pedatifida G. Don 

VIPU Viola pubescens Alt. 

VIRE Viola renifolia Gray 

VIRU Viola rugulosa Greene 

VISE Viola selkirkii Pursh 

VISO Viola sororia Willd. 



VITIS 
VIVU 



Vitis L. 

Vitis vulvina L. 



WOODS Woodsia R. Br. 

WOOR Woodsia oregana D. C. Eat. 

WOSC Woodsia saopulina D. C. Eat. 

XANTH Xanthium L. 

XAEC Xanthium eahinatum Murr. 

XAIT Xanthium italiewn Moretti 

XAST Xanthium stvumarium L. 



VITACA 



POLYPO 



COMPOS (HEL) 



YUCCA Yucca L. 

YUGL Yucca glauca Nutt. 

ZANNI Zannichellia L. 

ZAPA Zannichellia palustris L. 

ZEA Zea L. 

ZEMA Zea mays L. 

ZIZIA Zizia Koch 

ZIAP Zizia aptera (Gray) Fern. 

ZIAU Zizia auvea (L.) Koch 

ZYGAD Zygadenus Michx. 

ZYAC Zygadenus acutus Rydb. 

ZYEL Zygadenus elegans Pursh 

ZYGR Zygadenus gramineus Rydb. 



LILIAC 

NAJADA 
GRAMIN (TRI) 

UMBELL 
LILIAC 



Agrinilluiv--CSU. Ft. Collir 



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USDA Forest Service 

Research Paper RM-7 2 

June 1971 



simulating yields of managed 

dwarf mistletoe-infested 
odgepole pine stands 



by Clifford A. Myers, Frank G. Hawkswort 
_a_o_d_J G_io.e.£ I. Stewart 




Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Forest Service 



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STANDiSO fQSM 5081 



PRINTED l^J . 5 A 




ABSTRACT 

Presents a procedure for computation of yield tables for diseased, 
managed, even-aged stands of lodgepole pine in Colorado and southern 
Wyoming. Stand age at time of initial infection by dwarf mistletoe 
may be varied as desired. Other control variables include stand age 
at initial thinning, stocking goals, and frequency of thinning. Stand 
conditions and severity of dwarf mistletoe infestation change with 
time and in response to intermediate cuttings. 

Key Words: Stand yield tables, timber management, forest 

management, simulation, Araeuthobivm amevioanum, 
Pinus oontorta. 



USDA Forest Service 

Research Paper RM-72 June 1971 



Simulating Yields of Managed, 
Dwarf Mistletoe-Infested 
Lodgepole Pine Stands 

by 

Clifford A. Myers, Principal Mensurationist,' 
Frank G. Hawksworth, Principal Plant Pathologist,' 

and 
James L. Stewart, Supervisory Plant Pathologist 



'USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Sta- 
tion, with central headquarters maintained at Fort Collins, in cooperation 
with Colorado State University. 

'uSDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Branch of Forest Pest 
Control, Denver, Colorado. Now with Southeastern Area, State and Private 
Forestry, Branch of Forest Pest Control, Alexandria, Louisiana. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 1 

Data Collection 1 

Information Needed 2 

Description of Program LPMIST 5 

Modifications for Other Species 7 

A Sample Problem 7 

Literature Cited 8 

Appendixes 

1. Listing of Program LPMIST 9 

2. Output of Sample Problem 12 






Simulating Yields of Managed, Dwarf 
Mistletoe-Infested Lodgepole Pine Stands 



Clifford A. Myers, Frank G. Hawksworth, 
and James L. Stewart 



Introduction 



Procedures are available for predicting yields 
in healthy, managed stands of lodgepole pine 
( Pinus contorta Dougl. ) in the central Rocky 
Mountains (Myers 1967). More than half the 
lodgepole pine stands in this area, however, 
are infested with dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium 
americanum Nutt. ex Engelm. (Hawksworth 
1958). Management decisions must be made 
for each of these stands. Possible alternatives 
are: (1) sanitation thinning, (2) no treatment 
with the hope that the stands may eventually 
become merchantable, or (3) destruction and 
regeneration. Information on potential yields 
is needed to help forest managers evaluate 
these alternatives. Procedures and a computer 
program for predicting yields in dwarf mistle- 
toe-infested stands are presented here to meet 
this need. A subseqvient publication will dis- 
cuss details of application for pathologists and 
forest managers. 

Information is available on the effects of 
A. americanum on growth rates of individual 
lodgepole pine trees. Weir (1916) compared 
dominant heavily infected and healthy lodge- 
pole pines in Washington and Idaho. His data, 
based on 50 infected trees 65 years old and 50 
healthy trees 60 years old in the same stands, 
are summarized below. Initially, trees that 
became infected were growing faster in diam- 
eter than those that remained healthv. 



Height D.b.h. 



Healthy 

Infected 

Infected, as 
percent of 
healthy 



(Feet) (Inches) 
48.5 7.8 

35.2 6.3 



Radial growth. 

last 40 years 

(Inches) 

2.93 

.93 



73 



81 



32 



Baranyay and Safranyik (1970) studied the 
effects of dwarf mistletoe on the growth of 
lodgepole pines in Alberta, Canada. Volume 
differences were significant only between 
heavily infected and healthy trees, and the 
amount of loss increased with age of infection. 
Mortality was significantly greater in stands 
on dry sites than on moist sites. 

Hawksworth and Hinds (1964) demonstrated 
the effects of dwarf mistletoe in stands less 
than 150 years old. The amount of damage 
caused by the parasite was most closely related 
to time since initial infection, but also, to a 
lesser extent, to stand age when initial in- 
fection occurred. Reduction in total height 
and d.b.h. growth of dominant and codominant 
trees averaged about 0.7 percent per year since 
time of infection. In heavily infested stands, 
growth losses and increased mortality reduced 
cubic-foot volume by 1 to 2 percent per year. 
Their study dealt with past effects of the para- 
site in unmanaged stands; it did not provide 
data that could be used for direct yield pre- 
diction in managed stands. 



Data Collection 

Methods used were similar to those out- 
hned by Myers (1966, 1967) for healthy stands, 
but with additional information on the extent 
of dwarf mistletoe infection in each tree. 

Seventy-nine temporary plots were estab- 
hshed in even-aged lodgepole pine stands in 
Colorado and southern Wyoming. Stands varied 
in site index from 30 to 85, and dwarf mistletoe 
infestation ranged from none to very heavy. 

The plots conformed to the following 
standards: 

1. Were uniform in site quality, range of tree 
sizes, and stand density on and adjacent 
to the plot. 

2. Varied in area with average stand diameter. 
Most plots contained approximately 150 trees, 
and ranged from 0.020 to 0.345 acre. 



1- 



3. Supported even-aged, thinned or unthinned 
stands that had not been cut or otherwise 
disturbed within 13 years prior to measure- 
ment. The 3 years beyond the 10-year meas- 
urement period was to allow for severe ad- 
justments in form that would not be expected 
in continually managed stands. 

4. Had stand diameters reasonably close to those 
possible in managed stands of equal age. 
Some leeway was fovuid to be allowable in 
this standard, but all extreme conditions 
were rejected. 

The extent of infection in each tree was 
ranked on the 42 plots with dwarf mistletoe 
by a 6-class mistletoe rating system (Hawks- 
worth 1961). The live crown was divided hori- 
zontally into thirds. Each third was rated as: 

= No mistletoe. 

1 = Light — less than half the branches 

infected. 

2 = Heavy — more than half the branches 

infected. 

The ratings for each third of the crown 
were added to obtain the total for the tree. 
The rating for a tree can therefore vary from 
(no infection) to 6 (heavy infection in all 
thirds ) . 

Measurements made on each plot are in- 
dicated by entries on the sample field forms 
(figs. 1 and 2). Only values needed to carry 
out necessary computations are shown. Addi- 
tional information can be obtained, if desired, 
especially if local experience indicates that 
additional independent variables should be 
tested in the regression analyses. 

The plot description form (fig. 1) provided 
spaces for recording descriptive material and 
the results of computations. Results that need 
appear only on computer printouts are given 
to provide a complete list. 

Field measvu'ements of living trees were 
those shown in columns two to seven of figvn-e 
2. Each tree was given a temporary number by 
stapling a numbered card to it. This permitted 
most efficient use of small crews. The record 
of figvu-e 2 was completed one column at a 
time, yet all data from any one tree could still 
be identified as such. Diameters of all trees 
on each plot were measured with a diameter 
tape. Total heights of all trees were measured 
with either a marked pole placed beside the 
ti'ee, a Suunto hypsometer, or an Abney level. 
The record of heights provided data for: (1) 
site index determination (6-8 trees), (2) con- 
struction of a height-diamete?- curve, and (3) 
determining average height of dominant and 
codominant trees (about 20). Total ages were 
determined from borings of dominant and co- 



dominant trees at the ground line. Ages were 
determined for intermediate and overtopped 
trees when needed to confirm that the stand 
was even-aged, but were not used in com- 
putations. Radial growth of the wood at breast 
height was determined for each tree by boring 
along the best estimate of average radius. 
Diameters (outside bark) of trees that died 
during the previous 10 years were recorded. 
Appearance of trees dead to 10 years was 
determined by examination of dead trees on 
permanent plots and in stands for which date 
of thinning was known. 



Information Needed 

Field data described in the previous section 
were converted to volumes and other values 
for each plot and per acre. Basal area and 
other per-acre values, average stand diameter, 
and site index were then used as dependent 
and independent variables to obtain the pre- 
diction equations used in program LPMIST 
(appendix 1). The equations, shown as 
FORTRAN statements in the program listing, 
contain only significant independent variables. 

Items computed and uses made of them 
in LPMIST were as follows: 

1. Present diameter outside bark was converted 
to past diameter outside bark by use of radial 
wood growth and equations that account for 
bark growth (Myers 1964a). 

2. Past number of trees equaled present number 
of live trees (fig. 2) plus any mortality 
during the previous 10 years. Past and 
present numbers were raised to an acre basis. 
Equations to estimate mortality in healthy 
(OUT) and diseased (DIE) stands were com- 
puted from density, mortality, and other data. 

3. Present age of the main stand was the aver- 
age of the ages of dominant and codominant 
trees (column 5 of fig. 2). Past age equaled 
present age minus 10 years. 

4. Average height of dominant and codominant 
trees was obtained from columns 3 and 4 
of figure 2. Prediction equations for height 
(HTSO) were determined from healthy stands 
with densities within the range of possible 
management goals. Data from infected plots 
were used to derive the equation for re- 
duction in height growth due to disease 
(PCT). 

5. Site index was calculated by methods out- 
lined by Alexander (1966). Because heavy 
dwarf mistletoe infection reduces height 
growth, site index on heavily infested plots 
was estimated by measuring nearby healthy 
stands on comparable sites. 



2- 



Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe Yield Study 
Plot Description and Summations 



Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe Yield Table Study 
Description of Live Trees 



^^L 



fH i- crx) 



3Z 



3 



Date 7 J 17 J 6 S' 

Location Colcraric Sfa fe /^r/'st— 1 J-U/g /vcfh 

Plot area Q, 06H Tj acres Blou-up factor / 6', fj^ 

CCF A 3 3 Don. helghr i< ^ ft. Don. age /(P 6 yr ■ 

Trial site Index Correction Site Index 70 ft. 

Thinned NO Stocking level 10 years ago ^20 j- 



STAND SUMMARY, PER ACRE 



Item 


Present 


Past 


Number of trees (live) 


?7J 


J/ 2^ 


Basal area, total 


J63.<j7 


151. SI 


Average d.b.h., inches 


S.2Z 


H-U 


Average height, feet 


S(> 




Main stand age, years 


/O^ 


9^ 


Total cubic feet 


H07Z.I 




Merchantable cubic feet 


2^1^?. 9 




Board feet, Scribner 


O,0 




Dwarf mistletoe rating 


2.9 





(1) 


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(6) 


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m 


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10-yr. 
radial growth 


P.I. 

Dlam. 


Past 


No. 


D.B.H. 


Ht. 


Crown 


Age 


DMR 


D.B.H. 


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TiqaXd l.--Scunplz f^ieJLd (^on.m /jo.'i plot dz- 
i.c-iZption and iummoAij. 



6. Present basal area was computed with the 
diameters of column 2 of figure 2. Past 
basal area was obtained from the diameters 
of column 9 of figure 2 and diameters of 
the dead trees. Basal areas were later used 
in predictions of d.b.h., volume, and other 
variables. 

7. Average stand diameter was the diameter 
of the tree of average basal area. This 
definition of average diameter was applied 
everyplace this variable was used or recorded 
as a result. Initial average diameters and 
other variables from healthy stands were 
used to obtain the equation for average 
d.b.h. after 10 years (I)P.IIO). Data from 
diseased stands provided the equation for 
reduction in diameter growth due to dwarf 
mistletoe (TEM). 

8. Cubic-foot and board-foot volumes on each 
plot were computed with tree volume equa- 
tions of the form V = a -h b D ^ H (Myers 
1964b, 1969). Plot volumes were raised to 
volumes per acre before use in other com- 
putations. Total cubic volumes were used 
to compute equations for stand volume in 
cubic feet (TOTO and TOTT). Total volumes 
plus merchantable cubic- and board-foot vol- 



umes were used to obtain equations for the 
volume conversion factors (FCTR and PROD) 
computed by subroutine LPVOL. 
9. Present dwarf mistletoe rating of each plot 
was determined by averaging the individual 
ratings for all live trees on each plot. Esti- 
mates of periodic increases in dwarf mistle- 
toe rating (DMR) of the plot trees were ob- 
tained from results of a previous study 
(Ilawksworth and Hinds 1964). 

Several prediction equations are used to 
obtain dwarf mistletoe ratings in LPMIST. 
One equation for DMR predicts the initial 
rating if the stand has never been thinned. 
Other equations for DM]^ ))redicl the current 
rating as an increase from a past value. 
An expected posl-tliinning rating (DMRT) 
is computed if infection index is not so 
high Ci.O or gieater) as to make thinning 
impiactical and if a tliinning from al)o\e 
has not alieady been made. An e(iualion 
in subroutine I.PC'("i'2 liieii predicts the 
percentage of trees to be removed by thin^ 
ning from above (RP]DT) to obtain the ex- 
pected rating. Foi- subsequent thinnings. 
DMRT is computed from intensity of thin 
ning and rating prior to thinning. Data 
used in regression analysis to obtain these 
equations came from growth plot data and 
actual and simulated thiiuiings. 



3- 



A rule of thumb is available for estimating 
DMR so that not all trees need to be rated. 
For lodgepole pine and A_. americanum : 



log DMR 



-0.8814 + 0.0192 P 



10 



where P is the percentage of infected trees 
in the stand. This equation may be used to 
obtain a starting value for DMR when future 
conditions of actual stands are to be simulated. 
Thinning intensity in healthy stands or 
where thinning from below is to be done, 
is based on a relationship between d.b.h. 
and basal area: 



Average stand d 


b.h. 


Basal area 


after thinning 


per acre 


(Inches) 




(Sq. ft.) 


2.0 




12.1 


2.5 




17.9 


3.0 




23.7 


3.5 




29.5 


4.0 




35.2 


4.5 




41.0 


5.0 




46.8 


5.5 




51.8 


6.0 




56.6 


6.5 




61.2 


7.0 




65.4 


7.5 




69.2 


8.0 




72.5 


8.5 




75.3 


9.0 




77.5 


9.5 




79.1 



10.0+ 



80.0 



These values, SQFT in subroutine 
LPCUTl and LPCUT3, represent one possible 
series of densities that could be used to 
guide successive thinnings. The growing 
stock level shown above is 80; reserve basal 
area remains constant at 80 square feet after 
stand d.b.h. reaches 10.0 inches. Otherstock- 
ing levels are named the same way. For 
example, level 100 means that reserve basal 
area will be 100 square feet when d.b.h. 
is 10.0 inches or larger. Basal areas for 
level 100 and diameters smaller than 10.0 
inches are obtained by multiplying each basal 
area of level 80 by the amount 100/80. 
Values for any stocking level, THIN orDLEV 
in LPMIST, are computed similarly. 

Equations for DP>1IP in subroutine 
LPCUTl and LPCUT3 also describe the tabu- 



lated values. In this case, diameter is esti- 
mated when basal area and the desired stock- 
ing level are known. Variables BREAK and 
BUST indicate points where the relationship 
of diameter to basal area has been broken 
into segments for convenience in regression 
analysis. 

Growing stock levels to be left after 
thinning from below are indicated by assign- 
ing values to THIN and DLEV on data card 
type 3. Each assigned value is a growing 
stock level or the basal area left when d.b.h. 
after thinning is 10.0 inches or greater. 

11. Equations for DBHE (used as DBIIT) in 
LPCUTl and LPCUT3 and for ADDIIT in 
the main routine were derived from data 
obtained in a variety of thinned stands. 
Thinning may be simulated on a computer. 
The sequence of operations is as follows: 

a. Convert a series of stand tables of actual 
stands to 1,000 trees each. Assign the 
appropriate total height to each tree. 

b. Compute average d.b.h. and average 
height of each stand. 

c. Create a set of 1,000 randomly arranged 
diameters, each with its corresponding 
height. 

d. Create groups of trees, based on per- 
centages of trees to be retained (PRET), 
and tally the largest (thinning from below) 
or smallest (thinning from above) d.b.h. 
in each group. For example, if 25 percent 
of the trees are to be retained, divide the 
1,000 randomly arranged diameters into 
250 groups of four trees each. Tally the 
largest or smallest diameter in each group 
of four trees. Also tally the corresponding 
height. 

e. Repeat step d for various percentages of 
retention and for each stand. 

f. Compute the average d.b.h. (DBHE) and 
average height that results from each per- 
centage retention (PRET) in each stand. 

g. Determine the difference between each 
average height and the height of the stand 
before thinning. 

h. Use regression analysis to obtain equa- 
tions that predict diameter after thinning 
(DBHE) and change in height (ADDIIT), 
from diameter before thinning ( DBIIO) and 
percentage of trees retained (PRET). 

i. Compare predicted and actual values of 
DBHE and ADDIIT, using data from actual 
stands, to insure that adequate predictions 
can be made. 

12. Values for AGEO, DBIIO, and DENO or 
data card type 3 are obtained by examininj 
a variety of young stands. For each siti 
class, average d.b.h. at various ages is deter 
mined for each of several levels of stan( 
density. 



-4 



Description of Program LPMIST 

Program LPMIST consists of a main pro- 
gram and four subroutine subprograms. The 
main program performs most computations and 
writes tlie yield tables. Three subroutines 
compute average stand d.b.h. and stand density 
after thinning. The fourth subroutine com- 
putes factors that are used in the main program 
to convert total cubic feet to other units. 

Operations performed by each routine are 
identified by the comment statements of the 
source program (appendix 1). Initial stand 
conditions and values of several control vari- 
ables are read into computer memory in the 
order and format given in the tabulation of 
order and contents of the data deck. The num- 
ber of yield tables computed and printed is 
determined by the values assigned NTSTS on 
card type 1 and MIX on card type 2. NTSTS 
is the number of sets of tables to be produced. 
MIX is the number of tables in a set or the 
number of growing stock levels (DSTY) tested. 

Operations are performed in the following 
sequence: 

1. Compute average height, basal area, volume, 
and mistletoe rating just prior to initial 
thinning. 

2. Compute the current mistletoe rating after 
thinning, and execute the thinning if current 
rating is below 3.0. If thinning is possible, 
subroutines compute the new stand density 
and average d.b.h. as explained below. The 
main program then computes the new average 
stand height. 

3. Compute post-thinning volumes. 

4. Compute amounts removed by thinning and 
data describing conditions before and after 
thinning. 

5. Advance d.b.h., height, and mistletoe rating 
one prediction period, and compute new 
volumes. Mistletoe rating is computed as an 
increase fi-om a previous value or as a pro- 
jection from initial infection, depending upon 
whether or not the stand has been thinned 
since infection. 

6. Print values appropriate to the stand age 
if thinning is not scheduled. 

7. If thinning is scheduled, re-thin by return 
of program control to the operations 
described in item 2. 

8. Repeat operations described in items 2 to 7, 
inclusive, until stand age reaches the limit 
set by ROTA on data card type 3. Only 
one thinning in diseased stands will be from 
above, and simulated by LPCUT2. Subse- 
quent thinnings will increase average d.b.h. 
and height, but by lesser amounts than 



where the smaller trees make up a very 
large percentage of those removed. This 
effect has been observed in subsequent thin- 
nings of actual stands, and is simulated 
by LPCUT3. 
Zero punches in any data card will cause 
control to move to the end of the program, 
a diagnostic message to be printed, and ter- 
mination of the job. 

Clearcutting at the oldest age of interest 
(ROTA) is assumed, because of the serotinous 
nature of the cones of most lodgepole pines 
in Colorado and Wyoming. The program can 
be modified to show volume reserved for shelter- 
wood or for seed trees, if desired. 

Subroutines LPCUTl and LPCUT3 compute 
average stand d.b.h. after thinnings that remove 
many of the smaller trees and thus produce 
increases in average stand diameter and height. 
Successive percentages of trees to be retained 
(PRET) are tested until the relationship be- 
tween d.b.h., basal area, and number of trees 
is mathematically correct and d.b.h. and basal 
area agree with the growing stock level specified 
by THIN or DLEV. Two major loops are pro- 
vided in the subroutines because two equations 
are needed for estimating post-thinning d.b.h. 
(DBHE). 

Subroutine LPCUT2 uses thinning standards 
based on the goals of sanitation thinning, not 
on THIN or DLEV. The reduced infection 
rating to be attained (DMRT) is computed by 
the main program as a function of average 
stand d.b.h.: 



D.b.h. 
(Inches) 

2 

6 

8 

10 



Rating 



0.5 

1.0 

1.5 

2.0 



LPCUT2 then computes the reduction in stand 
density (REDT) needed to attain this goal, 
using d.b.h. and rating just prior to thinning. 
D.b.h. after thinning (DBHT) can then be 
determined directly from the same equations as 
those for DBHE in LPCUTl. Successive approxi- 
mations are unnecessary because percentage of 
trees to be retained (PRET) is known before 
DBHE (as DBHT) is computed. 



5- 



Order and Contents of the Data Deck 



Card 
ty_£e_ 



Frequency- 
read 



Variable 

name 



Coluinns 



Format 



Description of variable 



Once 



NTSTS 



1-4 



14 



Number of sets of yield tables to 
he produced. Each set is based 
on values of the variables on 
appropriate data cards of types 2 
and 3. 



Each 
test 



JCYCL 



MIX 



1-4 



14 



14 



Interval between intermediate 
cuts. A multiple of RINT. 

Number of stocking levels or 
values of DLEV to be examined in 
one test. 



Each 
test 



ACEO 



DBJIO 



DENO 



1-; 



9-16 



17-24 



F8.3 



F8.3 



F8.3 



Initial age to be shown in a 
yield table. Stand age when 
first thinning occurs. 

Average stand d.b.h. just prior 
to initial thinning at age AGED 
and with density DENG. 

Number of trees per acre just 
prior to initial thinning at age 

AGEO. 



DSTY 



25-32 F8.3 Lowest growing stock level in a 

test for intermediate cuts after 
initial thinning. Level will 
increase by 10 as many times as 
specified by MIX. 



RINT 



ROTA 



SITE 



THIN 



33-40 F8.3 Number of years for which growth 

and infection equations make one 
projection of growth or change. 
Value is 10.0 for the equations 
given in Appendix 1. 

41-48 F8.3 Final age for which stand data 

are to be given in a yield table. 

49-56 F8.3 Site index on which the set of 

yield tables is to be based. 

57-64 F8.3 Growing stock level for initial 

thinning at age AGEO. May equal 

DLEV. 



START 



65-72 



F8.3 



Stand age at which dwarf mistle- 
toe infection begins. Never enter 
zero. Enter number larger than 
ROTA if infection will not occur 
during the rotation. 



Modifications for Other Species 

Replacement of several statements will 
modify the program for other species or regions. 
Replacements needed are: 

1. Statements for SQFT, DBHP, BREAK, BUST, 
and related computations that contain the 
ratio of DLEV or THIN to 80.0, if desired. 
This change is needed if standards for re- 
serve stand in LPCUTl and LPCUT3 will be 
different from those shown in the tabulation 
of the previous section. 

2. Statements for TOTO and TOTT, to make 
cubic volumes per acre correct for the species 
and tree volume equations selected. 

3. Statements for FCTR and PROD in subroutine 
LPVOL that are correct for the species and 
tree volume equations selected. 

4. Statements for HTSO, ADDHT, and PCT so 
that height growth, changes in height due 
to thinning, and reductions in growth caused 
by dwarf mistletoe will be appropriate for the 
species. 

5. Statements for or that include DMR, DMRT, 
and REDT; to show correct relationships 
for the host-parasite intei-action being simu- 
lated. 

6. Statement for DBHO, based on a growth 
study in healthy stands of the species of 
interest and a statement for TEM to com- 
pute the effect of mistletoe on diameter 
growth. 

7. Statements for DBIIE in subroutine LPCUTl 
and LPCUT3 and for DBHT in LPCUT2 
that apply to the species of interest. 

8. Statements that describe periodic losses in 
numbers of trees in both healthy (OUT) 
and diseased (DIE) stands. 

9. Table headings. 

A Sample Problem 

The sample problem described here pro- 
vides additional description of the data deck 
and of the output (appendix 2). It can also 
serve as a test problem to check accuracy of 
punching of the source deck and to test com- 
patibility with local equipment. 

Assume a forest composed of even-aged 
stands of lodgepole pine that differ in degree 
of infection by dwarf mistletoe. Site indexes 
range from 30 to 85 (base 100 years) and in- 
fection ratings range from to 6. 

Problems to be solved by the manager 
of such a forest include: 

1. What growth can be expected in healthy 
; stands of known site quality for various 



combinations of thinning frequency and in- 
tensity? 

2. How is this growth affected by various de- 
grees of dwarf mistletoe infection and time 
of initial sanitation thinning? 

3. On the basis of potential yields of each 
stand, is thinning, replacement, or no treat- 
ment appropriate for the stand at this time? 

4. Does each treatment decision appear appro- 
priate when impacts on other forest re- 
sources are considered? 

This series of questions cannot call forth 
answers that contribute to good land manage- 
ment unless all numerical results can be esti- 
mated to a useful degree of accuracy. Program 
LPMIST provides such answers for the tree 
component of the forest. 

Our hypothetical manager may decide to 
compare yields of healthy stands with those 
initially infected at age 10. Other variables 
would remain constant for both tests except 
for stand conditions at initial thinning and 
intensity of thinning. His data deck could 
contain the following values: 

NTSTS - 3, for healthy stands (test 1), dis- 
eased and thinned at age 30 (test 
2), and diseased and first thinned 
at age 50 (test 3). 
JCYCL - 20 years. 

MIX - 3, or 3 intensities of thinning will 
be examined in each test. For 
brevity, not all tables will be re- 
produced in appendix 2. 
AGEO - 30.0 years for two tests and 50.0 

years for the third. 
DBHO - 4.5 inches for two tests, 3.0 inches 

for the third. 
DENO - 1000.0 trees for two tests, 2500.0 

trees for the third. 
DSTY - 80.0, lowest subsequent thinning 
level of the 3 to be examined. 
RINT - 10.0 years. 
ROTA - 130.6 years. 
SITE - 70.0 feet, base 100 years. 
THIN - 120.0, level for initial thinning. 
START - 200.0, 10.0, and 10.0 years on type 
3 data cards of test 1, test 2, and 
test 3, respectively. Any number 
larger than the value of ROTA 
could replace the 200.0 shown. 

These values will provide data for com- 
paring differences in yields between healthy 
and diseased stands and between different types 
of diseased stands. Values must be road from 
data cards assembled in the order: (1) type 1, 
(2) type 2 of test 1, (3) type 3 of test 1, (4) 
type 2 of test 2, (5) type 3 of test 2, (6) type 
2 of test 3, and (7) type 3 of test 3. Additional 



-7 - 



tests could be made to examine the effect of 
variations in thinning intensity or in any other 
control variable. 

Tables produced by LPMIST can be used 
in many ways to assist in decisionmaking. 
Yields, number of noncommercial cuts, number 
of scheduled cuts that cannot be made, and 
size of the average tree are some of the values 
produced. Money yields and rates earned can 
be computed if necessary data on costs and 
stumpage values are available. Stand ages at 
culmination of mean annual increment, and 
rates earned can help the manager determine 
suitable rotations for his working groups. 

A manager examining the tables in appen- 
dix 2, for example, might reach the following 
conclusions: 

1. A stand initially infested at age 10 and then 
left without treatment for 40 years, can pro- 
duce only a few posts and some fuelwood 
by age 130 (fifth table of appendix 2). 
Planned frequency and intensity of thinning 
will have no influence because the stand is 
already too heavily infested by age 50 for 
treatment to produce improvement. 

2. A stand infested by dwarf mistletoe at age 
10 but thinned at 20-year intervals beginning 
at age 30, can produce useful wood products. 
Yields, including thinnings, would be less 
than those from healthy stands with the 
same site index and thinned according to 
the same schedule. Also, actual yields of 
diseased stands would be less than the com- 
puted volumes because no reduction has 
been made for amounts of wood lost due to 
pitch or distorted grain. 

3. In healthy stands, largest yields would be 
produced with relatively light thinnings, such 
as to level 100. In thinned, diseased stands, 
largest yields would be produced with heavier 
thinnings, such as to level 80. Comparing 
the best yields in thinned stands with and 
without dwarf mistletoe, diseased stands pro- 
duce about 70 percent of the merchantable 
cubic-foot and board-foot volumes of healthy 
stands. 



Baranyay, J. A., and L. Safranyik. 

1970. Effect of dwarf mistletoe on growth 
and mortality of lodgepole pine in 
Alberta. Can. Dep. Fish, and Forest. 
Pub. 1285, 19 p. 

Hawksworth, Frank G. 

1958. Survey of lodgepole pine dwarf- 
mistletoe on the Roosevelt, Medicine 
Bow, and Bighorn National Forests. 
U. S. Dep. Agr., Forest Serv. Rocky 
Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Sta. 
Pap. 35, 13 p. Fort CoUins, Colo. 



1961. Dwarfmistletoe of ponderosa pine 
in the Southwest. U. S. Dep. Agr. 
Tech. Bull. 1246, 112 p. 

and T. E. Hinds. 



1964. Effects of dwarfmistletoe on immature 
lodgepole pine stands in Colorado. J. 
Forest. 62: 27-32. 

Myers, Clifford A. 

1964a. Taper tables, bark thickness, and 
diameter relationships for lodgepole 
pines in Colorado and Wyoming. U. S. 
Forest Serv. Res. Note RM-31, 6 p. 
Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., 
Fort Collins, Colo. 



1964b. Volume tables and point-sampling 
factors for lodgepole pine in Colorado 
and Wyoming. U. S. Forest Serv. Res. 
Pap. RM-6, 16 p. Rocky Mt. Forest 
and Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 



1966. Yield tables for managed stands with 
special reference to the Black Hills. 
U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Pap. RM-21, 
20 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and Range 
Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 



1967. Yield tables for managed stands of 
lodgepole pine in Colorado and Wyo- 
ming. U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Pap. 
RM-26, 20 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and 
Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 



Literature Cited 



Alexander, Robert R. 

1966. Site indexes for lodgepole pine with 
correction for stand density: Instruc- 
tions for field use. U. S. Forest Serv. 
Res. Pap. RM-24, 7 p. Rocky Mt. Forest 
and Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 



1969. Board-foot volumes to a 6-inch top 
for lodgepole pine in Colorado and Wyo- 
ming. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Note 
RM-157, 3 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and 
Range Exp. Sta., Fort Colhns, Colo. 

Weir, J. R. 

1916. Mistletoe injury to conifers in the 
Northwest. U. S. Dep. Agr. Bull. 360, 
39 p. 



APPENDIX 1 

Listing of Program LPMIST 

PROGRAM LPMIST KTR = 

11 INPUT, OUTPUT, TAP65 = INPUI,TAPE6=0UTPUT) NFLAG = 

TIME = 0.0 
COMPUTE AND PRINT YIELD TABLES FOR EVEN-A&ED STANDS OF LODGrPOLE DLEV = (DSTY » lA « 10.0)1 - 10.0 

<e INFECTED BY DWARF MISTLETOE. BASO = DENO • 0.005<.5'i2 • 06HU * nHHO 

C 

=IN1TI0NS OF VARIABLES. C COMPUTE CURRENT DWARF MISTLETOE RATING, UNTHINNEO STANDS. 

C 
ADDHT -: INCREASE OR DECREASE IN AVERAGE STAND HEIGHT BY THINNING. TIME = AGEO - START 

AGEO = INITIAL AGE IN YIELD TABLE. IF(TIME .LE. 0.0) GO TO 25 

BASC - BASAL AREA CUT PER ACRE. DMR = 0.31572 ♦ 0.0855'i • TIME - 0.00016 • DENf) 

BASO = BASAL AREA PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING. IFIDMR .LT. 0.0) DMR = 0.0 

BAST = BASAL AREA PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. IF(DMR .GT. 6.0) DMR = 6.0 

BDFC = BOARD FEET CUT PER ACRE. C 

BOFO = BOARD FEET PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING.' C OBTAIN AVERAGE HEIGHT AND VOLUMES PER ACRF. 

BDFT = BOARD FEET PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. C 

CFMC = MERCHANTABLE CU. FT. CUT PER ACRE. 25 IFIAGEO .GT. '.5.0) GO TO 30 

CFMO = MERCH. CU. FT. PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING. HTSO = 3.85111 - 0.05979 » AGEO » 0.01215 • AGEO • SITE 

CFMT = MERCH. CU. FT. PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. GO TO 35 

DBHO = AVERAGE STAND O.B.H. BEFORE THINNING. 30 HTSO = 0.33'.01 - 33.2866 / AGEO » 0.92341 • ALOGIOISIIE) 

D8HT = AVERAGE STAND D.B.H. AFTER THINNING. l» ALOGIOISITEI / AGED 

DENC = TREES CUT PER ACRE. HTSO = 10.0 •» HTSO 

DENO = TREES PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING. 35 PCT = I.O - 0.0165 • DMR « OMR 

DENT - TREES PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. HTSO = HTSO • PCT 

DIE = TREES LOST IN DISEASED STANDS IN 10 YEARS, IN PERCENT. C 

DLEV = GROWING STOCK LEVEL FOR INTERMEDIATE CUTS AFTER THE FIRST. C COMPUTE TOTAL CU. FT. AND CONVERT TO OTHER UNITS. 

OMR = DWARF MISTLETOE INFECTION RATING. C 
DMRT = MAXIMUM INFECTION EXPECTED IN STANDS AFTER THINNING. GOAL D2H = DBHO * DBHO * HTSO 

FOR STANDS NOT ALREADY BEYOND DMR OF 3.0. 1FID2H .GT. 7000.01 GO TO 40 

DSTY = LOWEST VALUE OF DLEV USED IN A TEST. TOTO = (0.00276 • D2H - 0.00059 » BASO - 0.00577) • DENO 

HTSO = TREE HEIGHT BEFORE THINNING. GO TO 45 

HTST = TREE HEIGHT AFTER THINNING. 40 TOTO = 10.00248 ' D2H t 1.96336) • DENO 

JCYCL = INTERVAL BETWEEN INTERMEDIATE CUTS. 45 IFIDBHO .LT. 5.0) GO TO 50 

KSTEP = INDICATOR WITH VALUE OF ONE IF CURRENT THINNING IS FROM VDM = DBHO 

BELOW AND TWO IF CURRENT THINNING IS FROM ABOVE. BA = BASO 

KTR = INDICATOR WITH VALUE GREATER THAN ZERO IF A SCHEDULED CALL LPVOL 

THINNING HAS BEEN SKIPPED BECAUSE MISTLETOE INDEX IS TOO HIGI- BDFO = TOTO » PROD 

OR BECAUSE STAND IS ALREADY TO SPECIFIED STOCKING. CFMO = TOTO • FCTR 

MIX = NUMBER OF STOCKING LEVELS EXAMINED PER TEST. 50 REST = THIN 

NFLAG = INDICATOR WITH VALUE GREATER THAN ZERO IF A THINNING FROM C 

ABOVE HAS BEEN MADE AT ANY TIME. C ENTER LOOP FOR REMAINING COMPUTATIONS AND PRINTOUT. 

NTSTS = NUMBER OF TESTS PER BATCH. C 

OUT = PERCENT MORTALITY IN HEALTHY STANDS. DO 250 K=l,100 

PCT = PERIODIC HEIGHT INCREASE IN INFESTED STAND, AS A PERCENTAGE IFIAGEO .GE. ROTA) GO TO 90 

OF THE INCREASE IN COMPARABLE HFALTHY STANDS. C 

PRET = PERCENTAGE OF TREES RETAINED AFTER THINNING. C COMPUTE D.B.H. AFTFR THINNING. 

REDT = PERCENTAGE REDUCTION IN NUMBER OF TREES WHEN DMR IS C 

REDUCED TU DMRT BY THINNING. IFIDMR .LT. 3.0) GO TO 55 

RINT = NUMBER OF YEARS FOR WHICH A SINGLE PROJECTION IS MADE. BAST - BASO 

ROTA = FINAL AGE IN YIELD TABLE. DBHT = DBHO 

SITE = SITE INDEX. DMRT = DMR 

START = STAND AGE AT TIME OF INITIAL INFECTION. HTST = HTSO 

TEM = PERIODIC D.B.H. INCREASE IN INFESTED STAND, AS A PERCENTAGE KTR = 1 

OF THE INCREASE IN COMPARABLE HEALTHY STANDS. GO TU 75 

THIN = GROWING STOCK LEVEL FOR INITIAL THINNING. 5j IFIDVR .Eo. d.r) nn T ri 6 1 

TOTC = TOTAL CUBIC FEET CUT PER ACRE. IFINFLAG . ~, 1 . 0) -,,\ Ir 6/ 

TOTO = TOTAL CUBIC FEET PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING. DMRT = P.?'. <- ni'HO - ".','■ 

TOTT = TOTAL CUBIC FEET PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. IFIOMRT .LT. O.n) |!Mm - d." 

I F IDMK T .r,F- . ri'" 1 r.o III /.2 
COMMON BA, BAST, DBHO, OBHT, DENO, DMR, DMRT, FCTR , PRET, PROD, REST, VDM CALL LPCUT2 

DIMENSION VAR(<)I,TEMH12) NFLAG = 1 

KSTFP ^ 2 
I NUMBER OF TESTS PER BATCH FROM CARD TYPE ONE. GO Tij 65 

62 CALL LPCUTl 
READ 15,5) NTSTS KSTEP = I 

FORMAT (14) DXRT = Dl"R * U.027) f PR^j _ 2.7 i 

IF(NTSTS .LE. 0) GO TO 310 GC TO 65 

63 D"RT = DCK 
UTE PROGRAM ONCE FOR EACH SET OF INITIAL VALUES OF INTEREST. CALL LPCUTl 

KSTFP = 1 
00 300 1=1, NTSTS 65 IFIHAST .LT. "iSO) GO Tn 70 

BAST = PASri 
INITIAL VALUES, ONE TEST AT A TIME, FROM CARD TYPES 2 AND 3. DBHT = 01. Hn 

DMRT = DMR 
READ 15,101 JCYCL, MIX HTST = HTSO 

llFORMAT (214) KTR = 1 

IFIJCYCL .LE. .OR. MIX .LE. 01 GO TO 310 GC TO 75 

READ (5,15) AGEO, DBHO, DENO, DSTY, RINT, ROTA, SITE, THIN, START r 

1 FORMAT (9F8.3) C CDMPUTF HTIGHT AND VlLUI'tS AlTfv THPiNING. 

f 

70 GO TO ( 71 , 72) , KSrr P 

71 AnOHI = 6.799511 - 3.41'i7) < « L n . 1 I' ( 01' E T ) 
GO TU 73 

72 AODHT = !. 76362 « AL^o 1 1 I'^l T 1 - '.97347 

73 HTCUM i HTCUM ♦ AnilHT 
HTST = HTSn t ADIIHT 

75 JDENT = (HAST / I0.0C54542 « I.HHT t DBHT)) ♦ 0.5 
RENT = JOINT 

DO 20 L = l,9 OAST = 0.0054547 « Di'FT e DhHI <■ henT 

IF(VAR(L) .LE. 0.0) GO TO 310 D2H = DBHT f OhHI « HTST 

2'CONTINUE IF(D2H .GT. TCOn.n) GC n, R:i 

DLEV = 0.0 TCTT = I0.C0276 « !)?^■ - D.'^OfV.i <• I'AST - C.CC577) « DENT 

GO TO n5 
RIDE FOR SEVERAL GROWING STOCK LEVELS PER TEST. 80 TCTT = (0.00240 » IVH t 1.96136) t DTM 

r 

DO 300 H=1,MIX 

:A - M 

lAODHT = 0.0 
BOFO = 0.0 
BDFT = 0.0 
CFMO = 0.0 
CFMT = 0.0 
pMR = 0.0 

3MRT = 0.0 

^TCUM = 0.0 

(STEP = 1 



VAR( 1) 


= 


AGEO 


VARI2) 


= 


DBHO 


VAR( 3) 


= 


DENO 


VAR(4) 


= 


DSTY 


VAR(5) 


= 


RINT 


VAR(6) 


= 


ROTA 


VAR( 7) 


= 


SITE 


VARIS) 


= 


THIN 


VAR(q) 


= 


START 



C 
C 
L 

C 

c 
c 


CONVERT TOTAL TU. FT. TO OTMlR U\ITS. 


85 


IFIDBHT .LT. 5.0) GO TO 10 

VCM = (IBHT 

HA = BAST 

CALL LPVOL 

BDFT = TCIT e PROD 

CFMT = TOTT e FCTR 


CHANGE MODE AND ROUND OFF FUR PRIMU.O. 



9- 



90 JAGEO = AGED '• BAST * BAST - 0.0001931 » DBHT * BAST 

JSITE = SITE IFIOUT .LT. 0.0) OUT = 0.0 

JDENO = OENO » 0.5 170 IFIDIE .LT. OUT) DIE = OUT 

JHT50 = HTSO » 0.5 JOENO = (DENT * (1.0 - OIEI) ♦ 0.5 

JTOTO = I TOTO • 0.1) » 0.5 DENG = JOENO 

JTOTO = JTOTO t 10 BASO = DENO * (0.005'i5<.2 * DBHO • DBHO) 

JBASO = BASO * 0.5 C 

JCFMO = (CFMD * 0.11 » 0.5 C OBTAIN AVERAGE HEIGHT AND VOLUMES PER ACRE. 

JCFMO = JCFMO * 10 C 

JHDFO = IBDFO ♦ 0.01) ♦ 0.5 DO 180 J=l,2 

JBDFQ = JBOFO • 100 LUB = J 

JHTST = HTST * 0.5 GO TO (172, 17<.), LUB 

JTOTT = (TOTT • 0.1) ♦ 0.5 172 VARS = AGED 

JTOTT = JTOTT • 10 GO TO 176 

JCFMT = (CFMT « 0.1) ♦ 0.5 1 7'. YARS = AGEO - RINT 

JCFMT = JCFMT » 10 176 IFIYARS .GT. '.S.O) GO TO 178 

IFIJCFMT .GT. JCFMO) JCFMO = JCFMT TEMH(J> = 3.86111 - 0.05979 • YARS + 0.01215 • YARS » SITE 

JBDFT = (BDFT • 0.01) » 0.5 GO TO 180 

JBOFT = JBDFT * 100 178 TEMHIJ) = 0.33'.01 - 33.2866 / YARS ♦ 0.923'.l • AL0G10(SITEI ♦ 

IF(JBDFT .GT. JBDFOl JBDFT - JBDFT 1811 • ALOGIOISITE) / YARS 

JBAST = BAST » 0.5 TEMHIJ) = 10.0 •• TEMHIJ) 

JDENC = JOENO - JDENT 180 CONTINUE 

JBASC = JBASO - JBAST PCT = 1.0 - 0.0028 • OMRT • DMRT » OMRT 

JTOTC = JTOTO - JTOTT CHNG = (TEMH(l) - TEMH(2)) » PCT 

JCFMC = JCFMO - JCFMT HTSO = HTST * CHNG 

IF(JCFMC .LE. 0) JCFMC =0 C 

JBOFC = JBOFO - JBDFT C COMPUTE TOTAL CU. FT. AND CONVERT TO OTHER UNITS. 

IFIJBDFC .LE. 0) JBOFC =0 C 
C D2H ' DBHO « DBHO » HTSO 

C WRITE HEADINGS FOR YlfLD TABLE. IF(D2H .GT. 7000.0) GO TO 185 

C TOTO = (0.00276 • D2H - 0.00059 • BASO - 0.00577) » DENO 

IF(K .GE. 2) GO TO 120 GO TO 190 

WRITE 16.95) JSI TE.THIN.DLEV 185 TOTO = (0.00248 « 02H ♦ 1.963361 » DENO 

95 FORMAT I IHl,///, 39X,53HYIEL0S PER ACRE OF EVEN-AGED STANDS OF LODG 190 IFIDBHO .LT. 5.0) GO TO 195 
lEPOLE PINE/IH ,57X,11HSITE INDEX ,I3/1H , 38 X , 29HTH 1 NN I NG INTENSITY VDM = DBHO 

2- INITIAL- ,F5.0,2X, 12HSUBSE0UENT- ,F5.0) BA = BASO 

WRITE ( 6, 1001 CALL LPVOL 

100 FORMAT I IHO. 25X, 38HENTIRE STAND BEFORE AND AFTER TH I NN 1 N& , 28X , 26HP BOFG = TOTO • PROD 

lERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS) CFMO = TOTO • FCTB 

WRITE 16, 105 I C 

105 FORMAT ( 1H0,9X,5HSTAND, 10X,5HBASAL ,3X,7HAVERAGE ,2x,7hAVEBAGE,3X,5H C CHANGE MODE AND ROUND OFF FOR PRINTING. 

lT0TAL,3X,9HMERCHANT-,3X,9HSAHTIMBER,9X,5HBASAL,'.X,5HTIirAL,3X,9HMER C 

2CHANT-, 3X,9HSAWT IM6ER ) 195 IFIL .EO. IK) GO TO 205 

WRITE (6,1101 KOENO = DENO * 0.5 

110 FORMAT ( IH , lOX, 3HAGE,'.X, 5HTREES,3X,4HARF A,'.X,6HD.B.H. , 3X,6HHE IGHT KAGEO = AGEO 

1 ,2X,6HV0LUME , 2X, 1 IHABLE VOLUME , 'i X , 6HV0LUME , 3X , 5HTR EE S , 3 X , ^iH ARE A , 3X KHTSO = HTSO ♦ 0.5 

2,6HV0LUME, 2X , 1 IHABLE VOLUME , <.x , 6HVtlL UME ) KBASO = BASO ♦ 0.5 

WRITE 16,1151 KIOTO = (TOTO • 0.1) » 0.5 

115 FORMAT ( IH , 8X , 7H I Y E AR S ) , 3X , 3HN0. , 3 X , 6HS0 . F T . , <. X , 3H I N . , 6 X , 3HF T . , i, X KTOTO = K TOTO • 10 

1 ,6HCU.FT. , 5X,6HCU.Fr . ,6X,6HBD.FT. ,'iX, 3HN0. , 3X,6HS0.FT. ,2X,6HCU.FT. KCFMU = (CFMO » 0.11 » 0.5 

2, 5X,6HCU.FT., 6X,6HBD.FT. ) KCFMO = KCFMO • 10 

C KBDFO = IBDFO • 0.01) « 0.5 

C WRITE TABLE ENTRIES OF DIAMETER, VOLUMES, ETC. KBDFO = KBDFO • 100 

C C 

120 WRITE (6,125) JAGEO, JDENO, JBASO, DBHO, JHTSO, JTOTO, JCFMI1,JBDF0 C WRITE VALUES FOR THE PERIOD IF THINNING IS NOT DUE. 

125 FORMAT ( 1H0.9X, 14,'.X, I5,2X, I',,5X,F5. 1 ,5X, I 3,'.X, I5,6X, I5,6X, 16) C 
IFIAGEO .GE. ROTA) GO TO 255 

WRITE (6,1301 JAGEO, JDENT, JBAST, DBHT, JHTST. JTOTT, JCFMT, JBDFT, JDENC WRITE (6.1251 KAGEO . KDENO , KBASO , DBHO , KHT SO, K TOTO, KCFMO .KBDFO 

1, JBASC, JTOTC, JCFMC. JBDFC DBHT = DBHO 

130 FORMAT ( IH ,9X. C.'.X, I5,2X, IA.5X.F5. I .5X . n.^X. 1 5.6X. I5.6X. I6.<,X. I BAST = BASO 

15. 3X, I 3,5X. I<>,6X, 1<..BX, 151 UgNT = DENO 



DMRT = DMR 



C 

C COMPUTE VALUES FOR EACH PERIOD. THIN AS SPECIFIED. HTST = HTSO 

C 200 CONTINUE 

IRINI = HINT C 

IK - JCYCL / IRINT C PREPARE TO START LOOP AGAIN FOR NEXT THINNING. 

DO 200 L=l, IK c 

AGED = AGEO ♦ RINT 205 REST = OLEV 

IFIAGEO .GT. ROTA) GO TO 255 250 CONTINUE 

C 255 IFISTART .GE. ROTA I GO TO 265 

C COMPUTE CURRENT DWARF MISTLETOE RATING. „r,TE (6.250) ST AR T , DMR ,ROTA 

t 260 FORMAT ( 1 HO, 25x , <, IHDWARF MISTLETOE INFECTION STARTED AT AGE . 

TIME = AGEO - START U(,H AND RATING WAS ,F5.1,eH AT AGE .Fi,.OI 

IFIOMR .GT. 0.01 GO TO 135 50 TO 275 

IF(TIME .LE. 0.01 GO TO 150 2(,5 „R,Tt (6.270) ROTA 

DMR = 0.31572 + 0.0865'. • TIME - 0.00016 » DENT 270 FORMAT ( IHO. 25X . 63HDWARF MISTLETOE INFECTION DID NOT OCCUR OU 

''0 ^'^ '''^ ITHE ROTATION OF .F',.0.7H YEARS.) 

135 IFIDMRT .LE. 1.0) GO TO 1<,0 275 IFIKTR .EO. 0) GO TO 285 

DMR = DMRT . 0.07 « RINT URiyg ^f,,ZttO) 

'^° ^'^ '''^ 280 FORMAT ( IHO . 25x . 52HNOTE THAT NOT ALL SCHEDULED THINNINGS WERE 

140 DMR = DMRT » (0.03 * 0.038 * DMR T I • RINT IIBLE I 

IFIL .LE. 2) GO TO 145 285 WRITE (6.290) 

OMR = DMR (■ 0.07 • RINT 290 FORMAT ( IHO, 25X , 66HMERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. A 

145 IFIDMR .LT. 0.0) DMR = 0.0 IrqEr jq ^.i^CH TOP.) 

IFIOMR .GT. 5.0) OMR = 6.0 WRITE (5 295) 

^ , „ 295 FORMAT ( IHO, 25X , 59HBD. FT. - TREES 6.5 INCHES D.B.H. AN|i LARG 

C COMPUTE NEW D.B.H. BEFORE THINNING AND ROUND OFF TO O.I INCH. I 6-INCH TOP.) 



C 



C 



150 DBHO = 1.0222«DBHT ♦ 0.015l»SITF - 1 . 2 4 1 7«AL0G 1 n ( B AS T 1 . 2.1450 c PREPARE FOR NEXT TABLE OF THE TEST 
IFIDMRT .LE. 3.9) GO TO 155 q 

TEM = (DBHO - DBHT) • (1.0 - 10.192 • DMRT - 0.754)) iggg - VAR(l) 

DBHO = DBHT ♦ TEM OBHO = VAR(2) 

155 IDBHO = DBHO * 10.0 ♦ 0.5 Dg^g ^ VAR(3) 

DBHO = IDBHO ^00 CONTINUE 

DBHO = OBHO » 0.1 ^U TO 350 

IFIDENT .GT. 1000.01 GO TO 160 r 

DIE = 13.81 • DMRT - 5.63) * 0.01 
IFIDIE .LT. 0.0) DIE = 0.0 
GO TO 165 



C PROGRAM CONTROL GOES HERE IF ANY ZEROS IN DATA DECK. 
C 

310 WRITE (6, 320) 

6? niiT ' I n^'' * '"^^ ' °'"*^' * °-°' 320 FORMAT ( IH 1 , // / , lOX , 64HE XEC UT I ON STOPPED BECAUSE OF NEGATIVE 
,^.r.l T ^.^ IXf ITEM ON DATA CARD.) 

IFIDBHT .GE. 10.01 GO TO 170 35O CALL EXIT 
OUT = 0.05285 - 0.01346 • DOHT t 0.00226 » DBHT • DBHT ♦ 0.0000066 eND 



-10- 



4D 



JBROUTINE LPCUTl 



RETURN 
END 



UBROUTINE LPVOL 60 PRET = PRET • 1.02 

GO TQ 65 
NVERT TOTAL CU. FT. TO MERCH. CU. FT. AND TO BD. FT. 61 PRET = PRET • 0.98 

65 CONTINUE 
OMMON BAiBAST.DBHO.DBHT.OENO.OHR.DMRT.FCTR, PRET, PROD, REST, VDM 70 DHHT = OBHE 

CTR • 0.0 C 

ROD = 0.0 C COMPUTE POST-THINNING BASAL AREA. 

FIVDH .LT. 5.0( GO TO 10 C 

IFIDBHT .GT. 5.01 GO TO 75 
N CONVERSION FACTORS FOR MERCH. CU. FT. - VOLUMES TO '..0-INCH TOP SOFT = 11.58495 • OBHT - 11.0972'. 

EES 6.0 INCHES O.B.H. AND LARGER. GO TO 76 

75 IFIDBHT .GE. 10.0) GO TO 77 
FIVDM .GT. 6.7) GO TO 2 TEM = OBHT • DBHT 

CTR = 0.31963 • VDM - 1.'.2291 SOFT = 7.76226 • D8HT »0. 85289 • TEM -0.07952 • TEM t DBHT- 3. '.562'. 

TO 6 76 BAST = IREST / 80.0) • SOFT 

FIVDM .GT. 9.8) GO TO <• GO TO 80 

CTR = 3.68255 - 0.14007 • VDM - 13.5',6'.', / VDM 77 BAST = REST 

TO 6 80 RETURN 
CTR = 0.99503 - 0.58018 / VDM END 
FIVDM .LI. 8.0) GO TO 10 

N CONVERSION FACTORS FOR BD. FT. - VOLUMES TO 6-lNCH TOP IN TREES SUBROUTINE LPCUT2 

*ICHES D.B.H. AND LARGER. (- 

C TO ESTIMATE CHANGE IN AVERAGE O.B.H. DUE TO THINNING LODGEPOLE PINE 

FIVDM .GT. 10.0) GO TO 8 ^ ,p qhARF MISTLETOE RATING DETERMINES THE STANDARDS. 

ROD = 2.08874 » 0.18091 • VDM ♦ 0.000'.5 » BA (. 

^ ^° '° COMMON BA, BAST, OBHO, DBHT, DENO,OMR,DMRT,FCTR, PRET, PROD, REST, VDM 

*0D = 0.16583 ♦ 3.7',17<, » ALOGIOIVOM) ^ 

'-^y-^ C COMPUTE STAND DENSITY AFTER A THINNING THAT REDUCES THE INDEX. 

C 

IFIDMR .LT. 2.0) GO TO 5 

REDT ■= 77.5 - 8.5 » OBHO ♦ 10.0 • DMR 

GO TO 10 
TIMATE INCREASE IN AVERAGE D.B.H. DUE TO THINNING LODGEPOLE PINE ^ "-^^^ ' ^^"^ " ^-^ * """^ * * ' • " * """ 

»RF MISTLETOE RATING EQUALS ZERO. '° ''"^^ ' 100.0 - REDT 

DENT = OENO » (PRET » 0.01) 
3HM0N BA, BAST, DBHO, DBHT, DENO, DMR, DMRT.FCTR, PRET, PROD, REST, VDM IDENI = DENT * 0.5 

= IDBHO .LT. 9.5) GO TO 30 ^^^'^ ^ lUENT 

TE D.B.H. IF DBHO IS LARGE ENOUGH FOR BASAL AREA TO REMAIN CONSTANT.'^ COMPUTE O.B.H. AFTER THINNING TO DESIRED DENSITY. 

C 
kET = 100 IFIPRET .LT. 50.0) GO TO 15 

] 21 KJ=1*100 °^"'^ - 0'''6559 « DBHO ♦ 0.00668 « (PRET - 50.0) ♦ 0.00015 • (PRET 

=(PRET .LT. 50.0) GO TO 5 1 - 50.0) • IPRET - 50.0) - 0.50568 

IHE = 0.'.'.222 ♦ 1.03170 • OBHO - 0.00816 < (PRET - 50.0) - 0.0000 ''" ^"^ 2° 

1 » IPRET - 50 0) • (PRET - 50 0) '^ ^^"'^ ' 0.33'.7R » ALOGIO(PRET) + 1.'.2'.77 * AL0G10ID8H0) - 0.21199 • 
, TO 11 * * lALOGlO(PRET) ♦ AL0G10I08H01 - 0.67651 

[)BHE = 0.37321 - 0.1727'. • ALOGIOIPRET) ♦ 0.79921 t ALOGIOIOBHO) °^"^ ' '°-° ** °^"^ 

If 0.09315 * ALOGIO(PRET) » ALOGIO(DBHO) 2° IDBHT = OBHT » 10.0 ♦ 0.5 

HE = 10.0 *» PDBHE 0^"^ '_ 'OB"T 

SHE = DBHE • 10.0 ♦ 0.5 "^"^ " °^"^ * "•' 

HE = IDBHE ^*^^ " 0.005'.5'.2 • DBHT * DBHT • DENT 

HE = DBHE • 0. 1 ~ 

NE = DENO • PRET » 0.01 
JENE = DENE ♦ 0.5 

NE = NDENE 

SE = 0.005'i5'.2 » DBHE » DBHE • DENE SUBROUTINE LPCUT3 

lASE = BASE • 10.0 ♦ 0.5 C 

SE = NBASE C TO ESTIMATE INCREASE IN AVERAGE D.B.H. DUE TO THINNING FROM BELOW IF 

SE = BASE • 0.1 C DWARF MISTLETOE RATING IS GREATER THAN ZERO. 

ft = 0.005'.5'.2 • DBHE « OBHE C 

H I BASE - REST COMMON BA, BAST , DBHO, DBHT , OENO, DMR , DMR T ,FC TR , PRE T , PROD , REST , VDM 

(TEM .LE. TMPY) GO TO 70 IFIDBHO .LT. 9.5) GO TO 30 

(TEH .LT. 4.0) GO TO 20 C 

ET = PRET - 1.0 C COMPUTE D.B.H. IF DBHO IS LARGE ENOUGH FOR BASAL AREA TO REMAIN CONSTA 

TO 21 C 

ET = PRET - 0.3 PRET - 100.0 

NTINUE DO 21 KJ=1,100 

TO 70 IFIPRET .LT. 50.0) GO TO 5 

DBHE = 0.44222 ♦ 1.03170 * OBHO - 0.00816 (PRET - 50.0) - 0.0000 

E D.B.H. IF BASAL AREA INCREASES WITH D.B.H. 19 • (PRET - 50.0) » (PRET - 50.0] 

GO TO 11 

ET = 40.0 5 PDBHE = 0.37321 - 0.17274 • ALOGIOIPRET) ♦ 0.79921 « ALDGIO(DBHO) 

lOBHO .GT. 7.0) PRET = 70.0 1 ♦ 0.09315 • ALOGIOIPRET) » ALOGIOIOBHO) 

' 65 J=l,100 DBHE = 10.0 ♦* PDBHE 

|(PRET .GE. 50.01 GO TO 40 11 TEM = DBHE - DBHO 

;HHE - 0.37321 - 0.17274 • ALOGIOIPRET) * 0.79921 • ALOGIOIOBHO) DBHE = DBHO ♦ TEM • 0.5 

li 0.09315 • ALOGIOIPRET) • ALOGIOIOBHO) IDBHE = OBHE • 10.0 * 0.5 

jHE = 10. •» PDBHE DBHE = IDBHE 

1 TO 45 DBHE - DBHE ♦ 0.1 

,HE = 0.44222 ♦ 1.03170 • DBHO - 0.00816 « (PRET - 50.0] - 0.0000 DENE = DENO • PRET • 0.01 

!• (PRET - 50.0) » (PRET - 50.0) NDENE = DENE » 0.5 

JBHE = DBHE • 10.0 ♦ 0.5 DENE = NDENE 

|HE = IDBHE BASE = 0.0054542 • OBHE » DBHE • DENE 

HE = DBHE • 0.1 NBASE = BASE * 10.0 » 0.5 

flE = OENO • (PRET • 0.01) BASE = NBASE 

1£NE = DENE ♦ 0.5 BASE = BASE ♦ 0.1 

NE = NDENE TMPY = 0.0054542 » DBHE » OBHE 

SE = 0.0054542 • OBHE * DBHE • DENE TEM = BASE - REST 

I^SE = BASE • 10.0 ♦ 0.5 IFITEM .LE. TMPY) GO TO 70 

liSE = NBASE IFITEM .LT. 4.01 GO TO 20 

iSE = BASE • 0.1 PRET = PRET - 1.0 

IJEAK = 49.9 • REST / 80.0 GO TO 21 

,<BASE .GT. BREAK] GO TO 50 20 PRET =■ PRET - 0.3 

IHP = (80.0 / REST) • (0.08682 • BASE) » 0.94636 21 CONTINUE 

l| TO 52 GO TO 70 

1ST = 66.2 t IREST / 80.0) C 

(BASE .GT. BUST] GO TO 51 C COMPUTE O.B.H. IF BASAL AREA INCREASES WITH O.B.H. 

HP = 180.0 / REST) • (0.10938 • BASE) - 0.17858 C 

' TO 52 30 PRET = 40.0 

■pY = BASE • (80.0 / REST) IFIDBHO .GT. 7.0] PRET « 70.0 

M = TMPY • TMPY DO 65 J=l,100 

IHP = 19.04740 ♦ TMPY - 0.26673 * TEM ♦ 0.0012539 • TEM 4 TMPY IFIPRET .GE. 50.0) GO TO 40 

11448.76833 PDBHE - 0.37321 - 0.17274 • ALOGIOIPRET) ♦ 0.79921 • ALOGIOIOBHO) 

HTHPY .GT. 80.0) DBHP = DBHO ♦ 0.8 1 » 0.09315 • ALOGIOIPRET) • ALOGIOIOBHO) 

IHP = 06HP » 10.0 » 0.5 DBHE - 10.0 •• PDBHE 

HP = IDBHP GO TO 45 

HP = DBHP » 0.1 40 DBHE = 0.44222 » 1.03170 • DBHO - 0.00816 • (PRET - 50.0) - 0.0000 

IDBHP - DBHE) 60,70,61 19 » (PRET - 50.0) • IPRET - 50.0) 



11- 



45 TEH = OBHE - DBHO 

DSHE - DBHO ♦ TEH » 0.5 

IDBHE = DBHE • 10.0 » 0.5 

DBHE = lOBHE 

OBHE = DBHE » 0. 1 

DENE = OENQ « IPRET » 0.01) 

NDENE = DENE ♦ 0.5 

DENE = NDENE 

BASE = 0.005'.5'i2 • OBHE * DBHE • DENE 

NBASE = BASE » 10.0 «■ 0.5 

BASE = NBASE 

BASE = BASE • 0. I 

BREAK = '.g.g • REST / 80.0 

IFIBASE .GT. BREAK) GO TO 50 

DBHP = (80.0 / REST) • (0.08682 » BASE) ♦ 0.94636 

GO TO 52 

50 BUST = 66.2 • (REST / 80.0) 
IF(BASE .GT. BUST) GO TO 51 

DBHP = (80.0 / REST) • (0.10938 « BASE) - 0.17B58 
GO TO 52 

51 TMPY = BASE » (80.0 / REST] 
TEM = TMPr • TMPY 

DBHP = 19.04740 » TMPY - 0.26673 « TEM ♦ 0.0012539 « TFM 
1 - 448.76833 



IF(TMPY .GT. 80.0) DBHP * DBHO ♦ 0.8 
52 I06HP = DBHP * 10.0 ♦ 0.5 
DBHP = lOBHP 
DBHP = DBHP » 0.1 
1F(DBHP - DBHE) 60,70,61 

60 PRET = PRET • 1.02 
GO TO 65 

61 PRET = PRET » 0.98 
65 CONTINUE 

70 D8HT = DBHE 
C 

C COMPUTE POST-THINNING BASAL AREA. 
C 

IF(08HT .GT. 5.0) GO TO 75 

SOFT = 11.58495 » DBHT - 11.09724 

GO TO 76 

75 IF(DBHT .GE. 10.0) GO TO 77 
TFM = DBHT * DBHT 

SOFT = 7.76226 • DBHT +0.85289 • TEM -0.07952 • TEM • DBHT- 

76 BAST = (REST / 80.0) • SOFT 
GO TO 80 

77 BAST = REST 
80 RETURN 

END 



11 



APPENDIX 2 
Output of Sample Problem 



YIELDS PER ACKC OF IVEM-AGED STANDS OF LODGEPOLE PINE 

SITE INDEX 70 
THINMNC INTENSITY- INITIAL- 120. SUBSEQUENT- 80. 

ENTIRE STAND OEfORE AND AFTE'' THINNING 



PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 



STAND 

AGF 
YtAHS) 


TREES 

NC. 


BASAL 

AREA 

SQ.FT. 


AVFMAGF 

O.B.H. 

IN. 


AVERAGT 

HEIGHT 

FT. 


TCTftL 
VrlLurE 

ru.FT. 


f'EHCHANI- 

ABLF VOLUME 

C U . F T . 


SAWTIMBER 
VOLUME 
BO. FT. 


TREES 

NO. 


BASAL 

AREA 

SO. FT 


in 

30 


iroo 

505 


HO 
72 


4.5 
5. 1 


23 
21 


14 70 
1010 


210 
210 






495 


38 


40 


502 


102 


6. 1 


3f. 


1H50 


970 









50 


500 
213 


130 
70 


6.9 
1.7 


41 
47 


?660 
15C0 


2000 
1270 







282 


60 


60 


216 


91 


8.8 


50 


2280 


2070 


8500 






7(1 
10 


'14 
136 


I 12 

80 


9. 8 
10.4 


56 
56 


3140 
2780 


2910 
2140 


12100 
9CO0 


78 


32 


80 


136 


98 


1 1.5 


61 


3000 


2830 


12400 






•)0 
'10 


I 36 
84 


1 16 

80 


12.5 
13.2 


65 

66 


3710 
256C 


3520 
2440 


15900 
11200 


52 


36 


100 


84 


94 


14.3 


70 


3130 


2990 


14100 






1 in 

110 


84 
36 


109 
80 


15.4 
16.2 


73 
73 


3760 
2780 


3600 
2670 


17300 
13000 


28 


29 


120 


56 


92 


17.4 


76 


3300 


3180 


15900 






130 


56 


105 


n.5 


71 


1830 


3690 


18800 







TOTAL MERCHANT- 
VOLUME ABLE VOLUME 



DWARF MISTLETCE INFECTION DIP MOT OCCUR DURING THE ROTATION CF 130. YEARS. 
MERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.R.H. AND LARGER TO 4-INCH TOP. 
BD. FT. - TREFS 6.5 INCHES n.B.H. ANO LARGER TO 6-INCH TOP. 



SAWTIMBER 
VOLUME 
8C.FT. 



i 

r 



-12- 



YIELDS PER aCKfc OF CVtN-AGED STANDS OF LOOGEPOtE PINE 

^ITE INDEX 70 
IHI-MNINr, INTENSITY- INITIAL- 120. SUBSEQUENT- 100. 

ENTIRE STAND BEFP'^E AND AFTEK THINNING PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 

TOTAL MERCHANT- SAHTIHBER 
VOLUME ABLE VOLUME VOLUME 
CU.FT. CU.FT. BD.FT. 



STAND 




BASAL 


AVERAGE 


AVERAGE 


TCT4L 


"ERCHANT- 


SAWTIMBER 




BASAL 


AGE 


TREES 


AREA 


D.P.H. 


HF IGHT 


VOLUME 


AHLF VOLU^'E 


VOLUME 


TREES 


AREA 


lYEARSI 


NO. 


SQ.FT. 


IN. 


FT. 


Cl'.FT. 


CU.FT . 


BD 


FT. 


NO. 


SO. FT 


30 


ICOO 


110 


',.•', 


21 


1'.70 


210 











10 


SOS 


72 


5. 1 


2=1 


1010 


210 







•,1<i 


38 


40 


502 


102 


6. I 


3() 


18S0 


q70 











50 


500 


130 


h. ■) 


Al 


2660 


2000 











SO 


282 


87 


7.S 


<.2 


1S20 


1500 







218 


•43 



70 


281 


135 


9.<i 


55 


3760 


3'.80 


I'.SOO 


70 


183 


100 


10. n 


56 


2810 


2630 


11100 


80 


183 


119 


10.9 


61 


16<.0 


3'.20 


1'.700 


90 


183 


139 


11. B 


65 


'.'.70 


".220 


18700 


90 


117 


100 


12.5 


66 


3200 


3040 


13700 


100 


I 17 


116 


13.5 


69 


1890 


3700 


17100 


110 


117 


132 


\'<.', 


72 


',580 


'.370 


20600 


no 


80 


99 


15. I 


71 


3 '.50 


3300 


15800 


120 


80 


115 


16.2 


75 


<.010 


3920 


19200 


no 


80 


129 


17.2 


73 


'.720 


<.5'.0 


22600 



OWARF MISTLETQF INFECTION Din NOT OCCUR DURING THE ROTATION OF 130. YEARS. 
MERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.6.H. AND LARGER TO A-INCH TOP. 
BD. FT. - TREES 6.5 INCHES C.B.H. AND LARGER TO 6-INCH TOP. 



STAND 




BASAL 


AVERAGE 


AGE 


TREES 


AREA 


D.B.H. 


lYFARSI 


NO. 


SQ.FT. 


IN. 


30 


ICOO 


110 


'..5 


30 


AS*. 


36 


3.8 



YIELDS PER ACHE OF CVEN-AGED STANDS OF LOOGEPOLE PINE 

SITE INDEX 70 
THINNING INTENSITY- INITIAL- 120. SUBSEQUENT- 80. 

ENTIRE STAND BEFCRE AND AFTER THINNING PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 

AVERAGE TOTAL MERCHANT- SAWTIMBER 
HEIGHT VOLUME ABLE VOLUME VOLUME TRI 



26 1380 

2'. A10 



BD.FT. 







BASAL 


TOTAL 


MERCHANT- 


SAHTIMBER 


AREA 


VOLUME 


ABLE VOLUME 


VOLUME 


SQ.FT. 


CU.FT. 


CU.FT. 


BD.FT. 



50 '.'.3 96 6.3 37 1760 lO'.O 

50 261 62 6.6 38 1170 800 

60 259 S<. 7.7 (.S 1880 1590 

8.7 51 2720 21,60 10100 

70 175 77 9.0 51 2000 1830 7500 

eo 

90 172 116 11.1 60 3510 3310 l-iJOO 

90 113 80 11. ". 61 2'.'.0 2310 lOlOO 



258 


107 


175 


77 


172 


96 


172 


1 16 


1 I 3 


80 


11 3 


96 


111 


110 


77 


80 


76 


92 


73 


102 



110 111 110 13.5 67 3600 liilO 15800 

110 77 80 13.8 68 2620 2500 11600 3* 30 980 

120 76 92 1'..9 71 3100 2960 I'.IOO 

130 73 102 16.0 73 3510 3370 15'.00 

OWARF MISTLETOE INFECTION STARTFO AT AGE 10. AND RATING WAS 3.5 AT AGE 130. 

MERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO '.-INCH TOP. 

BD. FT. - TREES 6.5 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO 6-INCH TOP. 



-13- 



ylFLOS PF« ACRE CF FVEN-AGEO STANDS OF LODGEPOLE PINE 

SITF INDEX 70 

THINNING INTENSITV- INITIAL- l?0. SUBSEQUENT- 100. 

ENTIRE STAND BEFCRE AND AFTER THIMNING PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 

^TAND BASAL AVERAGE AVERAGE TflTAL MFRCHANT- SAWTIMBFR BASAL TOTAL MERCHANT- SAWTIHBER 

AGE TREES AREA D.R.H. HEIGHT VOLUME ABLE VOLUME VOLUME TREES AREA VOLUME ABLE VOLUME VOLUME 

(YEARS) NO. SO. FT. IN. FT. CU.FT. CU.FT. BD.FT. NO. SQ.FT. CU.FT. CU.FT. BD.FT. 

30 ICOO 110 '!.•:> 2h 1180 

10 '.5', 16 l.a l'< '.10 5'.6 7<. 9^0 

^0 '.'.6 66 5.3 13 lOSO 250 

SO '.'.1 96 6.1 17 1760 10<.0 

^0 m 77 6.5 17 l',?0 930 HI l<5 SAO 110 

60 111 10? 7.5 '.'. 3360 1870 

70 171 127 8.<. 50 1300 2850 11700 

70 235 95 8.6 51 2'.20 2180 8900 S*. 32 780 670 2800 

80 ?-i'< 115 9.5 56 1310 2990 12500 

60 '.020 3780 16000 

50 '.020 3780 16000 



90 


327 


11'. 


10. <, 


90 


327 


13<. 


10.'. 


icn 


215 


1'.7 


11.3 


lin 


198 


156 


13.0 


1 10 


198 


156 


12.0 


130 


177 


156 


13.7 


110 


151 


I'.a 


13. 1 



5030 


^.750 


31 100 


5030 


<.750 


21100 


5130 


4860 


22000 


^.930 


'.750 


21500 



69 

DhARF MISTLETOE INFEGTHIN STARTED AT AGE 10. AND RATING WAS 6.0 AT AGE 130. 
NOTE THAT NOT ALL SCHEnULEP THINKINGS WERE POSSIBLE. 

MERCH. CU. FT. - TRFES 6.0 INCHES D.P.H. AND LARGER TO '.-INCH TOP. 
BD. FT. - TRFES 5.5 INCHFS D.P.H. AND LARGER TO 6-INCH TOP. 



YIELDS PER ACRE OF EVEN-AGED STANDS OF LODGEPOLE PINE 

SITE INDEX 70 
THINNING INTENSITY- INITIAL- 120. SUBSEQUENT- 80. 

ENTIRE STAND BEFORE AND AFTER THINNING PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 

STAND BASAL AVERAGE AVERAGE TOTAL MERCHANT- SAHTIMBER BASAL TOTAL MERCHANT- SAWTIMBER 

AGE TREES AREA D.B.H. HEIGHT VOLUME ABLE VOLUME VOLUME TREES AREA VOLUME ABLE VOLUME VOLUME 
(YEARS) NO. SQ.FT. IN. FT. CU.FT. CU.FT. BD.FT. NO. SQ.FT. CU.FT. CU.FT. BD.FT. 

50 2500 123 3.0 33 1830 

50 2500 123 3.0 33 1830 

60 2007 150 3.7 39 2780 

70 1565 158 '..3 '.A 3360 

70 1565 158 A. 3 '.'. 3360 

80 1185 1<.9 '..8 '.7 3460 







90 


870 


128 


5.2 


50 


3150 


750 


90 


870 


128 


5.2 


50 


3150 


750 



110 


61 1 


120 


6.0 


52 


3130 


1550 


110 


61 1 


120 


5.0 


52 


3130 


1550 


120 


512 


118 


6.5 


53 


3150 


2060 


130 


'.29 


115 


7.0 


5'. 


3120 


2390 



DWARF MISTLETOE INFECTION STARTED AT AGE 10. AND RATING WAS 6.0 AT AGE 130. 

NOTE THAT NOT ALL SCHEDULED THINNINGS WERE POSSIBLE. 

MERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 5.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO A-INCH TOP. 

BO. FT. - TREES 6.5 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO 6-INCH TOP. 



-14- 



YIELDS PER ACRE OF EVEN-AGED STANDS OF LODGEPOLE PINE 

SITE INDEX 70 
THINNING INTENSITY- INITIAL- 120. SUBSEQUENT- 100. 

ENTIRE STAND BEFORE AND AFTER THINNING PERIODIC INTERMFDIATE CUTS 

MERCHANT- SAHTIMBER BASAL TOTAL MERCHANT- SAWTIMBER 

ABLE VOLUME VOLUME TREES AREA VOLUME ABLE VOLUME VOLUME 



STAND 




BASAL 


AVERAGE 


AVERAGE 


TOTA 


AGE 


TREES 


AREA 


P.B.H. 


HEIGHT 


VOLUM 


(YEARS) 


NO. 


SQ.FT. 


IN. 


FT. 


CU.FT 


50 


2500 


123 


3.0 


33 


1830 


50 


2500 


123 


3.0 


31 


1830 



SAHTIMBER 






BASAL 


VOLUME 


TREES 


AREA 


BD.FT. 


NO 




SQ.FT 




















































BD.FT. 



70 1565 158 '>.i '.'. 3360 

70 1565 158 '..3 '•'< 3360 















DWARF MISTLETOE INFECTION STARTED AT AGE 10. AND RATING WAS 6.0 AT AGE 130. 
NOTE THAT NOT ALL SCHEDULED THINNINGS WERE POSSIBLE. 

MERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO '.-INCH TOP. 
BD. FT. - TREES 6.5 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO 6-INCH TUP. 



90 


870 


128 


5.2 


50 


3150 


750 


90 


870 


128 


5.2 


50 


3150 


750 


100 


729 


125 


5.6 


51 


3170 


1 160 


110 


611 


120 


6.0 


52 


3130 


1550 


110 


611 


120 


6.0 


52 


3130 


1550 


120 


512 


118 


6.5 


53 


3150 


2060 


130 


'.29 


115 


7.0 


S*. 


3120 


2390 



Agriculture — CSU, Ft Collins 



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Aoisture Content of Laminated Beams 

in use 
In The Rocky Mountain Area 




Lincoln A. Mueller 
Donald C. Markstrom 
Roland L. Barger 



USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM-73, June 1971 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 

ForestService U.S. Departmentof Agriculture 



ABSTRACT 



Equilibrium moisture contents were measured seasonally for 3 
years in laminated timbers exposed under a variety of interior and 
exterior conditions in 25 structures from South Dakota to Arizona. 
Average EMC remained in a relatively narrow, low range of between 
6.6 and 10.5 percent. Moisture content did not vary significantly with 
season of year, vertical location within the cross section of the 
member, or between interior and exterior exposures. Thus a fabri- 
cation moisture content of approximately 8 percent should prove 
satisfactory for laminated timbers produced for use in the Rocky 
Mountain region. 

Key Words: Laminated wood, lumber seasoning, structural timber. 



USDA Forest Service 

Research Paper RM-73 June 1971 



Moisture Content of Laminated Timbers 
in Use in the Rocky Mountain Area 

by 



Lincoln A. Mueller 
Principal Wood Technologist, 

Donald C. Marks trom 
Associate Wood Technologist, 

and 

Roland L. Barger 
Principal Wood Technologist 



Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station' 



'Central headquarters maintained at Fort Collins, in cooperation 
with Colorado State University. Mr. Barger is located at Flagstaff in 
cooperation with Northern Arizona University. 



Contents 

Page 

Design 1 

Development of Moisture Sensor Used in Study 4 

Installation of Moisture Probes and Thermocouples .... 4 

Duration of Study and Frequency of Observation 4 

Analysis and Discussion of Results 6 

Conclusions 8 

Literature Cited 8 



Moisture Content of Laminated Timbers 
in Use in the Rocky Mountain Area 



Lincoln A. Mueller, Donald C. Markstrom, 
and Roland L. Barger 



Laminated timbers have long been recog- 
nized by architects and engineers for their 
broad range of architectural and structural 
design possibilities. Because laminated timbers 
are also adaptable to the changing quality 
of the Nation's timber supplies (U.S. Dep. Agr. 
1965), considerable effort is warranted to assure 
a continuing market for this versatile product. 

Surface checking of the members after in- 
stallation has had considerable impact on the 
market for laminated timbers. While this check- 
ing is generally superficial, it has created some 
customer dissatisfaction and is, therefore, of 
concern to the industry. Checking most com- 
monly results when the laminated member is 
fabricated at a moisture content appreciably 
higher than the equilibrium moisture content 
(EMC) to which it is exposed in use. The 
severity of checking is usually proportional 
to the rate of drying. Ideally, the fabrication 
moisture content should be approximately the 
same or perhaps a little under that of the EMC 
of the area where the timber is to be used 
(Freasand Selbo 1954). 

This study is part of a national effort to 
develop more complete and accurate informa- 
tion on the moisture content laminated struc- 
tural members reach under the variety of use 
conditions common to the various regions in 
the United States. Such information would 
make it possible for laminated timber manu- 
facturers to tailor their products more pre- 
cisely to meet regional moisture conditions. 

The overall study was initiated by the Forest 
Products Laboratory in cooperation with the 
Southeastern, Pacific Northwest, and Rocky 
Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Sta- 
tions. Member firms of the American Institute 
of Timber Construction also cooperated in the 
work. A report covering the nationwide aspects 
of the study has been prepared by the Forest 
Products Laboratory (Hann et al. 1970), and 
the Pacific Northwest phase has been reported 
by Oviatl (1968). This report covers the work 
within the Rocky Mountain Station area, which 
extends essentially from Canada to Mexico. 



Although the area is characterized by a wide 
range of temperature extremes, precipitation 
is generally light and the area, as a whole, 
rates as semiarid to arid. 



Design 

In consultation with the various coopera- 
tors, a total of 25 structures were selected to 
pro\'ide the laminated timbers for moisture 
measurements. Structures were chosen to rep- 
resent a major use for laminated timbers in 
the area, and one that offered potential for 
future markets. Structures chosen in the \'ari- 
ous areas were similar in design and use (ex- 
posure class) to eliminate some of the variables 
and help isolate climatic effects. .\ number 
of additional test structures were also included 
to sample other, and possibly more extreme, 
exposure conditions in the area. 

The types of structures selected, by loca- 
tion and exposure class, are identified in table 
1. The exposure classes used were developed 
by Oviatt (1968) in the Pacific Northwest: 

1. Internal normal occupancy— a completely en- 
closed, heated, and ventilated exposure, such 
as supermarkets (fig. 1), classrooms, or 
churches. 

2. Exterior protected— an exposure protected 
from above but fully exposed to normal ex- 
terior temperatures and humidities, such as 
beams under roof overhangs or carports 
(fig. 2). 

3. Exterior exposed— a site fully exposed to all 
outdoor conditions, such as beam sections 
extending bevond roofline or crossarms 
(fig. 2). 

4. Special occupancy— one exposed to abnormal 
conditions such as in freezer plants, or over 
swimming pools and skating rinks (fig. 3). 

The laminated timbers in all but two of the 
test structures were Douglas-fir. Those in the 
heated lumber storage building in Denver (struc- 
ture 9) were of lodgepole pine, while those 
in the hardware facility in Albuquerque (struc- 
ture 16) were of southern pine. 



-1 



Table 1. --Moisture content of laminated timbers in service in the interior 
and exterior of test structures studied in the Rocky Mountain area 



Structure 
number 



Location 



Test structure 



Exposure 
class 



Moisture content 



Standard . 
Average , . Minimum Maximum 
deviation 



- Percent of Oven-dry Weight - 



Inches 



INTERIOR 


EXPOSURE 




1 


Rapid City, 


Supermarket 


2 


S. Dak. 


Supermarket 


3 


Ft. Collins, 


Supermarket 


4 


Colo. 


Supermarket 


5 




Supermarket 


6 




College dormitory 


7 


Denver and 


Supermarket 


8 


Boulder, 


Supermarket 


9 


Colo. 


Hardware store 


10 




Bath house 


11 




Heated garage 


12 




School gymnasium 


13 


Albuquerque 


Supermarket 


14 


and 


Supermarket 


15 


Los Alamos, 


Supermarket 


16 


N. Mex. 


Lumber store 


17 


Flagstaff, 


Supermarket 


18 


Ariz. 


Supermarket 


19 




Labora tory 


20 




Swimming pool 


21 


Phoenix, 


Supermarket 


22 


Ariz. 


Supermarket 


23 




Supermarket 


24 




Restaurant 


25 




Storage shed 


EXTERIOR 


EXPOSURE 




1 


Rapid City, 


Supermarket 


2 


S. Dak. 


Supermarket 


3 


Ft. Collins, 


Supermarket 


4 


Colo. 


Supermarket 


5 




Supermarket 


6 




College dormitory 



1&2 
1&2 

1&2 

1&2 

1 

I,2&3 

1&2 
1&2 

1 

1&2 

1,2&3 

1&2 

1&2 
1&2 

1 
1&2 

1&2 
1&2 
1&2 
26<4 

16,2 
1&2 

1 
1&2 

1 



1&2 
1&2 

1&2 

1&2 

1 

1,2&3 



6.7 
6.4 

6.3 
6.5 
7.3 
6.2 

6.3 
6.7 
7.1 
7.3 
7.1 
7.1 

6.1 
6.1 
6.0 
6.1 

6.2 
7.3 
6.1 
9.3 

6.2 
6.7 
6.9 
7.6 
7.4 



7.5 
7.5 

7.6 
7.6 

N 
8.1 



0.5 
.5 

,5 
.5 
.6 
.5 

.5 
.7 
.7 
.5 



.3 
.6 

.4 
.6 

.6 

1.4 

.4 

1.0 



.6 
.5 



.6 



N 
2.2 



7 
7 

7 
7 
9 
7 

7 
8 
9 
8 
9 
9 

7 
7 
7 
7 

7 
11 

7 
11 

7 
9 
9 
9 
9 



9 
11 

N 
19 



15 
24 
23 
16 
18 



9 

10 
11 
12 



Denver and 
Boulder , 
Colo. 



Supermarket 
Supermarket 
Hardware store 
Bath house 
Heated garage 
School gymnasium 



1&2 
1&2 

1 

1&2 

1,2&3 

1&2 



7.8 
7.7 

N 
7.8 
9.2 
7.8 



N 

1.5 
2.2 
1.7 



11 
9 
N 
12 
15 
15 



19 
17 
N 
12 
41 
10 



13 
14 
15 
16 



Albuquerque 
and 
Los Alamos, 

N. Mex. 



Supermarket 
Supermarket 
Supermarket 
Lumber store 



1&2 
1&2 

1 
1&2 



6.3 

6.2 

N 
6.4 



.7 
.6 

N 
.7 



17 
18 
19 
20 



Flagstaff, 
Ariz. 



Supermarket 
Supermarket 
Laboratory 
Swimming pool 



1&2 
1&2 
1&2 
2&4 



7.0 
7.6 
7.0 

8.1 



.7 

.9 

.6 

1.4 



9 

8 
11 



18 
18 
13 
22 



21 
22 
23 

24 

25 



Phoenix, 
Ariz. 



Supeimarke t 
Supermarket 
Supermarket 
Restaurant 
Storage shed 



1&2 
1&2 

1 
1&2 

1 



6.0 
6.0 

N 
6.1 

N 



.9 

N 

1.0 

N 



15 
16 

N 
16 

N 



2- 



figuAz 1 .--Monmal occupancy, 
Cldii 1 zxpoiuAc, 




Development of Moisture Sensor 
Used in Study 

The study was greatly facilitated through 
the development of a relatively simple and 
effective moisture sensor (Duff 1966) (fig. 4). 
This small sensor made it possible to obtain 
accui'ate moisture content readings deep in 
heavy members without impairing their strength 
or appearance. It can be left in place for 
repeated readings over extended periods of time. 

The probes were calibrated to read moisture 
content in Douglas-fir at a temperature of 
70° F. Thermocouples were installed with the 
moisture sensors (fig. 5) at each test installation 
to provide simultaneous data on temperatures 
within the timbers for appropriate moisture 
content corrections. 



Duration of Study and Frequency 
of Observations 

To determine any seasonal effects, moisture 
contents were measured in January, March, 
June, and September for 3 years. The study 
was planned to continue for 5 years, but analy- 
sis showed the variations were so small that 
the study could be safely terminated after 3 
years. 



Installation of Moisture Probes 
and Thermocouples 

To determine possible variations in moisture 
content within the member, probes were located 
in the top, middle, and bottom laminates. 
Thermocouples were installed with the top 
and middle probes to develop temperature correc- 
tion data. Probes were also located near an 
exposed end section and at or near a metal 
connection to determine any possible effects 
of these factors on moisture content (figs. 5, 6). 



Insulated wires 
to meter 




Wood core 



Electrodes 
(silver paint) 



by the U. S. foidit PnodadU Lab- 
on.citoMj [Oa(^{i 1966). 




flguKd S. -'Typical lyiitalZation 
0(5 moiAtuAe pfiobu and thcAmo- 
coupleA in top, middlz, and 
bottom laininatt6. 



Probe and 
thermocouple 



Probe and 
thermocouple 



Probe only 



1_ 



Thermocouple 



1/4 C '^"'AifT Nonobsorbent cotton f Cellulose\^ Air '^W.re 

_k_^ / nitrate N P leads 



T"^ 



Moisture probe 



Cork -^ 




F-cgu^c 6.-- 
Pattzfin {^ottoMzd 
in locating moti- 
tuAc pn.obcA and 
thzfunocoapleA in 
laminated timbcu . 
Pfiobe 1 neoA end i, ac- 
tion, PfLob^ S man. connzcXon.; 
Pfiobu 2,3,5, and 6 o^io have thenmo coupler 



Wall 



5- 



Analysis and Discussion of Results 

All moisture content values were corrected 
for temperature differences, and summarized 
by test structure, location, and exposure (table 
1) and by date of observation and location of 
probe within the beam. Analysis showed that 
the date of observation and location of probe 
within the timber had no significant effect on 
moisture content, so these factors were dropped. 

The data were also segregated by the four 
previously defined exposure classes to be more 
meaningful to laminated timber fabricatox's 
(table 2). 

Perhaps the most striking result was the 
very low and extremely narrow range in moisture 
content found throughout the entire Rocky 
Mountain region. While it was generally antici- 
pated that moisture content would be low, the 
remarkably little variation found, especially 
between interior and exterior exposures, was 
not expected. The average exterior and interior 
moisture contents recorded in supermarkets at 
the different locations in the area (fig. 7) 
illustrate the relatively uniform EMC condition 
that apparently prevails throughout the area. 



The small downward trend of the New Mexico 
and Arizona locations, while indicative of the 
relatively warmer and drier climates, is of 
little practical significance. The increase in 
indoor moisture content for the Phoenix area 
is believed to be due to air conditioning. 

The slightly higher than average exterior 
moisture contents shown for structures 6 and 11 
(table 1), while of relatively minor magnitude, 
are nevertheless worthy of further mention 
since they represent a problem condition 
common to laminated structures in the area. 
In both cases, content was high in a short, 
exposed end section. In both instances the 
timber was rather severely checked (fig. 8) 
becavise of the rapid wetting and drying of the 
exposed end grain under severe drying 
conditions. 

The degree of checking shown in figure 8 
will concern the owners of a structure, and is a 
very common problem in the Rocky Mountain 
area, especially in southerly or westerly ex- 
posures, because of the high intensity of the 
sunlight. In some instances metal caps or 
end coatings have been applied to control or 
mask the problem. 



Rapid City, S. Dak. 
Fort Collins, Colo. 
Denver, Colo. 
Flagstaff , Ariz. 
Albuquerque, N.M. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Indoor moisture 
content 



Outdoor moisture 
content 



v/////////////////^^^ 



D 



i 



yy//////////////yy//y//y/ A 



J L 



J_ I I I I L 



23456789 10 
Moisture content (percent) 



Figure 7 .--OiMtdoofi and Indoox moi^tuAo. contenti o{, laminated timbzHM In iupen.- 
moAkdti in the Rocky Hountain liJzit. Each point i^ an average o^^ SO mo-iituA^ 
contents ipzficent o^ ovendAij lo^ight] at too !:>to^Ui. 



-6- 



Table 2. --Moisture content of laminated timbers in service in the 
Rocky Mountain area by exposure classes 





Exposure class 


Average 


Standard 
deviation 


Minimum 


Maximum 


1 


Interior normal 


6.6 




0.8 


5 


11 


2 


Exterior protected 


7.2 




1.2 


5 


15 


3 


Exterior unprotected 


10.5 




3.2 


6 


19 


4 


Specia 1 


9.3 




1.0 


7 


11 




VlQuAt S.--End bdcJu.on o^ la.\nincU.e.d timber in 
Tut StAuctuJiz 6 6hom ^euete chzdiing iiom 
njipld moAjitixKe. content cltangeA undet ex-te- 
fUon. unprotected zxpoiuAz. 



6. 



Conclusions 

The average equilibrium moisture content 
(EMC) of laminated timbers exposed to en- 
vironmental conditions common to the Rocky 
Mountain area ranges between 6.6 and 10.5 
percent. 

EMC does not vary significantly with season 
of year or with vertical position in the beam. 
EMC values of laminated timbers will differ 
little between interior normal occupancy and 
exterior protected exposure classes as defined 
in this report. 

The higher EMC values associated with end 
grain in exterior unprotected timbers could 
likely be reduced through improved design or 
through the application of effective coatings 
or covers. 

The narrow and relatively uniform moisture 
conditions in the Rocky Mountain region 
simplify moisture content specification for 
designers and fabricators of laminated tim- 
bers. A simple fabrication moisture content 
of approximately 8 percent will prove satis- 
factory for most uses in the area. 
Becavise the range of EMC values is low, 
the area will be less tolerant than most 
others of any deviation from the prescribed 
moisture specifications, especially in the high 
ranges. 

Southerly and westerly exposures will be 
especially severe for end sections of laminated 
timbers. To assure satisfactory performance, 
designers should avoid such exposures or 
provide effective protection. 
Although the study results indicate climatic 
conditions accurately, higher moisture con- 



ditions may exist in specific situations. These 
situations are generally manmade, however, 
and usually require special design features 
such as special coatings or preservative 
treatments. 



Literature Cited 

Duff, J.E. 

1966. A probe for accvu-ate determination 
of moisture content of wood products 
in use. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note 
FPL-0142, 10 p. Forest Prod. Lab., 
Madison, Wis. 

Freas, A.D., and M.L. Selbo. 

1954. Fabrication <ind design of glue lami- 
nated wood structural members. U. S. 
Dep. Agr. Forest Serv. Bull. 1069. 
220 p. 

Hann, R.A., A.E. Oviatt, D.M. Markstrom, and 

J.E. Duff. 

1970. Moisture content of laminated tim- 
bers. U.S.D.A. Forest Serv. Res. Pap. 
FPL-149. 6 p. Forest Prod. Lab., 
Madison, Wis. 

Oviatt, A. E., Jr. 

1968. Moisture content of glulam timbers 
in use in the Pacific Northwest. U.S. 
Dep. Agr. Forest Serv. 21 p. Pacific 
Northwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta., 
Portland, Oreg. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

1965. Timber trenos in the United States. 
Forest Resour. Rep. 17, 235 p. 



Agriculture — CSU. Ft. Collins 



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DETERMINING 

TIMBER 

CONVERSION 

ALTERNATIVES 

THROUGH 

COMPUTER 



ANALYS 



lack D. Heidt v j> 
Donald A.lameson ^ 
Roland L. Barger 
Bernard 1. Erickson 




KNOT INFORMATION 



8-16 



16- 24 



24 + 



12 34 



CARD COLUMN NUMBER 




lUNE 1971 

USDA Forest Service 

Research Paper RM-74 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 

Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Fort Collins, Colorado 80521 



ABSTRACT 



The computer program MULTI accepts basic field inventory data 
describing individual sample trees. It calculates gross board-foot and 
cubic-foot volume, grades or classifies for a number of specified pri- 
mary products, adjusts gross volume for visual defect, and calculates 
standard error. Output tables indicate adjusted gross volume per 
acre, by grade and size class, for each product independently. An 
option allows allocation of volume between several products of a 
multiproduct combination following a specified order of preference. 

MULTI was developed on a CDC 6400 computer system. It is 
written in FORTRAN Extended Language, and can use tape and/or 
disk storage. Although the program was developed for products 
and grading systems common to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa 
Laws.), it is adaptable to other species, products, and grading systems. 

Key Words: Multiproduct timber inventory, primary product evaluation 
(timber), forest surveys, product volume estimates, prod- 
uct volume adjustments, timber utilization. 



USDA Forest Service 

Research Paper RM-74 June 1971 



Determining Timber Conversion Alternatives 
Through Computer Analysis 

by 

Jack D. Heidt, Assistant Wood Technologist, 
Donald A. Jameson, Principal Plant Physiologist, 
Roland L. Barger, Principal Wood Technologist, 

and 
Bernard J. Erickson, Associate Biometrician 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station' 



Central headquarters maintained at Fort Collins, in cooperation with 
Colorado State University; research reported here was conducted at Flagstaff, 
in cooperation with Northern Arizona University. Mr. Heidt is now graduate 
assistant. University of Arizona, Tucson; Dr. Jameson is now Professor of 
ange Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 



tR, 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Timber Product Evaluation 1 

MULTI — A Program to Analyze Product Potential 1 

Program Adaptability 1 

For the Non-Programer — A Program Description 2 

Field Data Input 2 

Product, Grade, and Priority Specification 2 

Volume Determination 3 

Product Grading and Volume Adjustment 3 

Calculation of Errors of Estimate 6 

Form of the Output 6 

For the Programer — Program Implementation 6 

Program Data Cards 7 

Program Control Cards 10 

Product Priority Instructions 11 

Computed Control Variables 11 

Tree Data Cards 11 

Subroutine POLE 12 

Subroutine SAW 12 

Subroutine VENR 12 

Subroutine STUD 12 

Subroutine PULP 12 

Subroutine VOLUM 13 

Subroutine CVOL 13 

Subroutine STDER 13 

Unit Record Output ,13 

Program Operation and Limitations 13 

Loading Procedure 14 

Literature Cited 14 

Appendix A 

Field Inventory Data 15 

Sample Tree Volume Determination 16 

Product Specifications and Grades 17 

Sample Tree Unit Record 19 

Appendix B 

Program MULTI Executive Routine 20 

Program MULTI Subroutines 21 

Program MULTI Sample Output 26 



Determining Timber Conversion Alternatives 
Through Computer Analysis 



Jack D. Heidt, Donald A. Jameson, 
Roland L. Barger, and Bernard J. Erickson 



Timber Product Evaluation 

To achieve the best physical and economic 
utilization of his timber resource, the manager 
of a diversified timber operation must be able 
to evaluate the potential of standing timber 
for a variety of primary products. He must 
also be able to estimate the effects of one 
utilization program upon resource availability 
or suitability for any other program or product 
mix. In the long run, the processor can try 
to establish the utilization program that makes 
best use of the available raw material. In the 
short run, however, he must generally choose 
between existing products and markets. 

A method of evaluating standing timber 
for a variety of primary products has been 
described by Barger and Ffolliott (1970). Their 
system may be used with any valid sampling 
scheme, and involves observing and recording 
for each sample tree the basic physical char- 
acteristics that are quality criteria for most 
primary timber products. Occurrence and sever- 
ity of defects form the basis for estimating the 
potential of the timber stand to produce a 
variety of products. 

Equally as important as the inventory in- 
formation itself is the ability of the manager 
to evaluate these inventory data for the entire 
array of potential timber products. Large vol- 
umes of data must be analyzed to determine 
suitability for individual products and com- 
binations of products in the array of possible 
conversion alternatives (fig. 1). To make prac- 
tical use of inventory data, the timber manager 
or processor must turn to automatic data pro- 
cessing and computer analysis. The computer 
program MULTI has been written as a guide- 
line to show one possible way to implement 
such a system. 



MULTI— A Program to Analyze Product 
Potential 

MULTI was developed on a CDC 6400 com- 
puter system. It is written in FORTRAN Ex- 
tended Language, and can use tape and or 
disk storage. 

The program accepts basic field inventory 
data describing individual trees. It then cal- 
culates gross volume, grades or classifies for 
a number of primary products, adjusts volume 
for visual defect, and calculates standard error. 

Gross volume in cubic feet or board feet, 
or both, may be calculated for each half-log 
or 8-foot stem section, to minimum merchant- 
able saw log diameter. Board-foot volume 
may also be determined for 16-foot saw logs. 
In addition, cubic volume may be calculated 
for the stem section from minimum saw log 
top to a 4.0-inch top diameter inside bark 
(d.i.b.). 

Depending upon the needs of the user, 
the program can be used to grade or classify 
trees or sections of trees for all possible prod- 
ucts, or for the individual products of greatest 
value in a specified order of preference. 



Program Adaptability 

A key objective in writing the computer 
program MULTI was to develop a system that 
could easily be changed to fit individual needs. 
Although the program was developed for prod- 
ucts and grading systems common toponderosa 
pine (Pinus ponderosa L aws.), it is adaptable 
to other species, products, and grading systems. 

Input parameters needed to calculate tree 
and log volumes and estimate product volumes 



- 1 



Pulpwood 

or 
fiberwood 



Commercial 
poles 

classes (ft.) 
15 
20 
25-85 



Veneer logs 

grades 
I 

2 
3 




Saw logs 

grades 
I 

2 
3 
4 



Stud logs 

grades 
I 

2 
3 



Combinations 
of products 

FlguAe l.--Th(iH.(i aJin many pfibncLAij plodact and pn.oduc.t- combination conv^'ifsion aLtannativUi 
^OK any poAtlcuZa/t itand o(^ timbcn. IthihtKattd aJia thd pfiimcifiy timbdfi pfiodaatb con- 

llAnhnA :m ^hr,r,h^iw, Hill T 1 



iJ.d^Ae.d in pKoqficm MLILTI . 

per acre are contained on program data cards 
and control cards. Individual products are 
evaluated and graded through a series oi'product 
evaluation subroutines. Different species or 
products can be accommodated by substituting 
appropriate input parameters and product evalu- 
ation subroutines. Changes in grading systems 
require only that the grading section of the 
affected subroutine be changed. 

For The Non-Programer — 
A Program Description 

The following information will describe for 
the non-programer what data are used and 
what is accomplished by the program. 



Field Data Input 

Field data recorded for each sample tree 
include: 



1. Descriptive and size data, including 

a. Species. 

b. Diameter breast high (d.b.h.). 

c. Total tree height in merchantable half logs. 

d. Pole height for potential commercial poles. 

2. Visual defect characteristics, including 

a. Stem form defects— sweep, crook, fork, 
lean. 

b. Stem scar defects— basal, lightning. 1 

c. Knot or limbing characteristics in the 
first 32 feet. 

How these data are measured and recorded is 
described in detail in appendix A. 

Product, Grade, and Priority Specification 

The program can accommodate the full 
range of primary products and product grades 
appropriate for a particular timber type or 
species. The program illustrated includes and 
is limited to five primary products from ponder- 
osa pine: saw logs, stud logs, veneer logs, 



-2- 



commercial poles, and pulpwood. Within these 
products, the program will accommodate four 
saw-log grades, three stud-log grades, three 
veneer-log grades (plus an "unacceptable" cate- 
gory in veneer and stud logs), and 15 pole 
height classes. 

Product priorities can be specified by means 
of a program control card. If each tree or 
section is to be graded and classified for as 
many products as it is suitable for, no priority 
selection is used. The output will reflect the 
total potential of the stand for each product 
as if the entire stand were being utilized for 
that product. More often, however, a descending 
order of product priority will be specified. A 
typical order might be (a) commercial poles; 
(b) saw logs grade 1, 2, 3; (c) veneer logs grade 
1, 2, 3; (d) stud logs grade 1, 2, 3; (e) saw log 
grade 5; (f) pulpwood. In the program illus- 
trated, pulpwood always assumes lowest priority. 
Each tree or section would then be graded for 
these products in order of preference stated, 
and placed only in the highest product class 
for which it qualifies. If desired, a series 
of different product priorities can be specified, 
to be considered one after another. 



Volume Determination 

Gross cubic-foot and board-foot volume of 
each sample tree is calculated from volume 
equations appropriate for the species. Board- 
foot volume is determined to minimum mer- 
chantable saw-log diameter in the tree, while 
cubic volume is determined to a 4-inch top 
diameter. Average volume distribution values 
are then used to allocate volume by log and 
half-log stem sections. Volume equations and 
volume distribution values used for southwest- 
ern ponderosa pine are shown in appendix A. 

Volume suitable for log products is normally 
expressed in board feet, while volume of pulp- 
wood is expressed in cubic feet. Either ex- 
pression can be used with any product, how- 
ever. For products normally considered by 
number or count, such as commercial poles, 
a piece count is maintained. 



Product Grading and Volume Adjustment 

Each sample tree is graded for the products 
specified by using a combination of recorded 
field data and program grading instructions. 
Grading instructions are based upon grading 



or quality specifications for each product (ap- 
pendix A), and utilize the measured stem defect 
characteristics that form these grading criteria. 
Tree size or estimated stem section diameter 
is used to judge initial suitability for each 
primary product. Trees or stem sections of 
acceptable size are graded for the products 
specified. Gross volume graded is then ad- 
justed for defects that either prohibit use of 
the stem or stem section for the product, or 
reduce merchantable volume. 



Commercial poles. —All sample trees 9.0 
through 20.9 inches in diameter, for which a 
pole height has been field recorded, are con- 
sidered for commercial poles. The programed 
evaluation procedure for a potential commercial 
pole proceeds as follows: 

1. Verify acceptable stem size limits— 9.0 through 
20.9 inches d.b.h. 

2. Accept recorded pole height from input field 
data. 

3. Divide pole height by 8 to find 8-foot stem 
sections or half-logs involved. All fractions 
of sections are rounded upward (pole 
height/8 -i- 0.9) to assure that all sections 
wholly or partially contained in the pole 
are included. 

4. Scan defect data for included stem sections 
for inadmissible or limiting defects. 

a. The stem is dropped from further con- 
sideration as a pole by the occurrence of 
—sweep (class 1 or class 2) 
—lightning scar 

—lean of 10° or more (class 2 or 3) 
—knots 4 inches or larger in diameter 
—major crook (class 2) or fork in any 

except the first or last stem section 

included in the pole height 
—indication of rot. 

b. Reduce merchantable pole height by one 
class (5 feet) if recorded defects include 
—fire or basal scar 

—fork or major crook (class 2) in the 
first or last stem section included in 
the pole height. 

5. Pole count is accumulated by tree diameter 
class and pole height class. 

Pole height is normally recorded in the 
field only for stems that do not have inad- 
missible defect. Programed defect screening 
is consequently a "double check" on the entry 
made in the field. The pole height recorded 
in the field will usually be accepted as correct 
pole potential for the stem. 



Saw logs.— All sample trees of sawtimber 
size (11.0-inch d.b.h. and larger in ponderosa 
pine) are evaluated for saw log potential. Saw 
log grades are determined for lower logs, to a 
maximum of two logs or 32 feet of merchant- 
able height. Grades are arbitrarily assigned 
to logs above that height. Gross saw log 
volume for each log in the tree is adjusted for 
the presence of scaling defects. The programed 
evaluation proceeds as follows: 

1. Verify acceptable stem size— 11.0-inch d.b.h. 
or larger, plus merchantable height of two 
or more half-logs. 

2. Determine gross board-foot volume of the 
tree, and volume by 16-foot saw logs (in- 
cluding a top half-log where present), as 
previously described. 

3. Estimate the grade of each saw log in the 
tree. Procedures for estimating grade depend 
upon the position of the log in the tree and 
the tree species or grading system used. 
Ponderosa pine saw logs are graded as follows : 

a. First 16-foot saw log: 

Scan recorded knot data by 8-foot section 
and face, starting with stem section 1, 
face 1, and proceeding in turn to faces 
2, 3, and 4. For each face, accumulate 
a "clear 4-foot panel" count of: 
—no knots = count two (2) 
—one knot = count one (1) 
—two or more knots = count zero (0) 
Repeat for stem section 2, accumulating 
the panel count for the first two stem sec- 
tions (totaling 16 feet of merchantable 
length). From the accumulated panel 
count, assign a log grade to the log as 
described in appendix A. 

b. Second 16-foot saw log: 

Grade the second full saw log in a tree 
by the same process. Add the clear panel 
count for stem section 3 to panel count 
for stem section 4, and assign a grade. 
Panel count for stem section 4 is limited 
to counting 2 for each clear face (coded 0), 
since knot numbers are not recorded. 
Where the third stem section is the last 
merchantable saw log volume in the tree 
(that is, merchantable tree height of three 
half-logs), the panel count for the one 
section is multiplied by two to determine 
grade. 

c. Third log and above: 

Assign lowest grade (grade 5) to all saw 
logs above 32 feet in the tree. (Alter- 
natively, upper saw logs can be caiTied 
as ungraded volume, or can be assigned 
other grades based on available data.) 
4. Adjust gross volume of each saw log for 
visual defect. Defects considered to reduce 



usable volume, and average scale deductions 
applied, are: 

Scaling deduction 
Defect 16-foot 8-foot 

log (top) log 

(percent) 



a. 


Lightning scar 








(class 1) in tree 


25 


25 


b. 


Lightning scar 








(class 2) in tree 


50 


50 


c. 


Sweep (class 2) in tree 


20 


20 


d. 


Fire scar (class 2) 








in tree 


13 







(reduce butt log 








scale only) 






e. 


Crook (any class) in 








either section of log 


25 


50 


f. 


Fork in either section 








of log 


25 


50 



5. Accumulate both gross and adjusted saw 
log volumes, by tree diameter class and log 
grade. 



Veneer logs.— All 8-foot stem sections with 
an estimated diameter of 10 inches or more 
are potentially suitable for veneer. Veneer 
log quality evaluation is limited to the first 
three stem sections (24 feet), however, since 
knot data needed for grading are limited to 
these sections. Veneer log evaluation proceeds 
as follows: 

1. Verify acceptable stem section diameter. In 
the absence of actual scaling diameters, stem 
sections in the first 24 feet considered to 
have scaling diameters of 10 inches or more 
are: 



Tree d.b.h. class 
12 
14 
16 or over 



Acceptable stem sections 

1st section 

1st, 2nd sections 

1st, 2nd, 3rd sections 



2. Determine gross board-foot volume of the 
tree, and volume of acceptable 8-foot stem 
sections, as previously described. (Merchant- 
able stem volume above 24 feet may also be 
calculated and carried as ungraded potential 
veneer log volume, if so desired.) 

3. Estimate the grade of each potential veneer 
log in the tree. The grade of each 8-foot 
log (maximum of three logs) is estimated 
by scanning recorded knot type and size 
data for the four faces. Using size of largest 
dead and largest live knot, assign a grade 
as described in appendix A. 



4. Adjust gross volume of each veneer log for 
visual defect. Defects considered to reduce 
usable volume, and average scale deductions 
applied, are: 

Defect Scaling deduction 

(percent) 

a. Indication of rot in section 100 
(If by d.b.h. core, apply 
reduction to butt section only) 

b. Crook (class 2) in section 100 

c. Crook (class 1) in section 50 

d. Fork in section 50 

e. Lightning scar (class 2) in tree 50 

f. Lightning scar (class 1) in tree 25 

g. Fire scar (class 2) in tree 25 
(Apply reduction to butt 

section only) 

Scan for occurrence of defects in the oi-der 
shown. If total deduction reaches 100 per- 
cent, omit further scanning and apply 100 
percent deduction. 

5. Accumulate both gross and adjusted veneer 
log volumes by tree diameter class and log 
grade. 



Stud logs.— Stud logs are typically processed 
through chipping headrig mills, or mills similarly 
equipped for the specialty manufacture of studs 
and dimension stock. The logs are often pro- 
cessed in 8-foot lengths, and are restricted 
in maximum diameter by the nature of the 
processing equipment. All 8-foot stem sections 
with an estimated scaling diameter of 17 inches 
or less are potentially suitable for stud logs. 
Stud log quality evaluation is limited to the 
first three stem sections (24 feet), however, 
because of the limitations in grading. Stud 
log evaluation proceeds as follows: 

1. Verify acceptable stem section diameter. In 
the absence of actual scaling diameters, stem 
sections in the first 24 feet considered to 
have scaling diameters of 17 inches or 
less are: 



Tree d.b.h. class 

18 or under 

20 

22 

24 or over 



Acceptable stem sections 

1st, 2nd, 3rd sections 
2nd, 3rd sections 
3rd section 
None 



f. Determine gross board-foot volume of the 
tree, and volume of acceptable 8-foot stem 
sections, as previously described. 
iJ. Estimate the grade of each potential stud 
1 log in the tree. The grade of each 8-foot 
log (maximum of three logs) is estimated 



by scanning recorded knot count and size 
data for the four faces. Using size of largest 
dead and largest live knot, and knot count, 
assign a grade to the stud log as described 
in appendix A. 

4. Adjust gross volume of each stud log for 
visual defect. Defects considered to reduce 
usable volume, and average scale deductions 
applied, are: 

Defect Scaling deduction 

(percent) 

a. Indication of rot in section 100 
(If by d.b.h. core, apply reduction 

to butt section only) 

b. Crook (class 2) in section 100 

c. Crook (class 1) in section 50 

d. Fork in section 50 

e. Lightning scar (class 2) in tree 50 

f. Lightning scar (class 1) in tree 25 

g. Fire scar (class 2) in tree 25 
(Apply reduction to butt 

section only) 

Scan for occurrence of defects in the order 
shown. If total deduction reaches 100 per- 
cent, omit further scanning and apply 100 
percent deduction. 

5. Accumulate both gross and adjusted stud 
log volumes, by tree diameter class and 
log grade. 



Pulpwood.— The cubic volume of all trees, 
to a 4-inch top diameter, is potentially suit- 
able for pulpwood. Pulpwood is a low-value 
product, however, and is usually obtained from 
trees or stem sections not suitable for other 
primary products. Pulpwood evaluation is con- 
sequently limited to cubic volume not accepted 
for other products, including top volume from 
minimum saw log top to a 4-inch diameter, 
plus any ti-ee diameter classes or stem sections 
specifically excluded from other products. Pulp- 
wood evaluation includes: 

1. Specify tree diameter classes or stem sections 
(if any) excluded from prior product con- 
sideration: smaller tree diameter classes 
for which knot data are not recorded, tops 
to 4-inch d.i.b. 

2. Determine gross cubic-foot volume of tree 
or stem sections designated for pulp. For 
sample trees 11.0 inches d.b.h. or over which 
have been evaluated for log products, only 
top volume will be required. 

3. Adjust gross volume of each tree or section 
for visual defect. Defects considered to 



-5- 



reduce usable volume, and average volume 
deductions applied, are: 



Defect 



Volume 
deduction 

(percent) 



a. Lightning scar (any class) in tree 100 
(including top) 

b. Fire scar (any class) in tree 50 
(Applies only as reduction in 

butt section volume when entire 
tree is allocated to pulp) 

Scan for occurrence of defects in the order 
shown. If total deduction reaches 100 percent, 
omit further scanning and apply 100 percent 
deduction. 

4. Accumulate both gross and adjusted pulp- 
wood volumes, by tree diameter class. 



Other products.— Potential for other primary 
conversion products can also be evaluated as 
other products become of interest. An analysis 
of suitability and quality can be made for any 
product for which the recorded stem charac- 
teristics are grading criteria. Potential for a 
specific product can also be reevaluated after 
a grade change or revision of grading rules. 



Form of the Output 

The program prints out the product analyses 
in a series of tables. Each table presents 
potential by tree diameter class for one product 
and one or more grades within the product 
(appendix B). Average gross or adjusted 
volume per acre and standard error are printed 
out for each grade within each diameter class, 
and for the accumulated grade totals. Errors 
for totals are generally sufficient for most 
purposes. 

As an integral part of the program, a per- 
manent unit record is also developed for each 
sample tree. The unit record consists of all 
descriptive variables recorded in the field, and 
variables computed in the course of product 
evaluations (appendix A). Thereafter, output 
information can be obtained fi'om the unit 
records for sample trees, classified or grouped 
by any recorded variables desired. Examples 
might be (1) volume of grade 3 and better 
saw logs in blackjack trees (as opposed to 
old-growth trees); (2) volume of acceptable 
veneer logs in trees with grade 5 saw logs 
in lower sections; (3) volume of acceptable 
veneer logs in trees acceptable as commercial 
poles. 



For the Programer— 
Program Implementation 



Calculation of Errors of Estimate 

The adjusted gross volume of each stem 
section or tree graded is converted to a volume- 
per-acre estimate by means of the expansion 
or conversion factors appropriate for the sample. 
For all products, adjusted gross volume or piece 
count per acre is then accumulated by product, 
grade, and tree diameter class, for each random 
sampling unit. 

Volumes per acre for each random sampling 
unit provide the basis for calculating precision 
of estimate for each product. The program 
uses a simple algorithm to compute standard 
error of the mean for each product and grade, 
by tree diameter class. The algorithm is most 
useful for simple random sampling and sub- 
sampling with units of equal size. It can also 
be used for proportional stratified sampling. 
Subsampling systems with substantially unequal 
sample units may require weighting procedures. 

Calculated error terms are ultimately printed 
out with the volume estimates to which they 
correspond. 



Program MULTI operates as an executive 
routine that provides for initial data card read-in, 
tree diameter class computation, initial tests of 
sample tree diameter against product size limit 
criteria, and preparation of a tape or disk file 
of tree records for further processing (fig. 2). 
Once the initial data have been tape or disk 
filed, MULTI is designed to make multiple 
passes through the data, executing options as 
specified on program control cards. MULTI 
calls on various subroutines to do the neces- 
sary grading, volume computations, and error 
calculations. '\n option is provided for writing 
a unit record tape file for each tree processed. 

The program utilizes eight subroutines. Five 
are the product evaluation routines POLE, SAW, 
VENR, STUD, and PULP, with the names 
corresponding to the product being evaluated. 
The remaining three are VOLUM, which cal- 
culates board-foot and cubic-foot volumes of 
sample trees, CVOL, which converts sample 
volumes to volume per acre, and STDER, which 
calculates confidence limits around the means. 



6- 



A complete printout of program MULTI, in- 
cluding all subroutines, is included as 
appendix B. 



7-9 
etc. 



19 
etc. 



L(10,l) 
etc. 



Program Data Cards 

Program data cards type A, B, and C are 
read in at the beginning of the program. These 
cards provide the board-foot and cubic-foot 
volume distribution percentages needed to cal- 
culate volume by stem section ( see appendix A ) . 

Card type A includes a set of three cards 
containing cubic-foot volume distribution per- 
centages for half-log (8-foot) stem sections, 
plus top to 4-inch d.i.b. The data are used to 
fill the array KCUV8(65). Card type B includes 
three cards containing board-foot volume dis- 
tribution percentages, also by half-log (8-foot) 
stem section. The data are used to fill the 
array KBFV8(55). Card type C includes two 
cards containing board-foot volume distribution 
percentages for 16-foot saw logs. Data are used 
to fill the array KBFV16(29). In each case, 
volume distribution data are included for tree 
heights and log or half-log positions through 
10 half-logs or five saw logs. 

Complete program card data for southwest- 
ern ponderosa pine are shown in appendix A. 
The cards are coded as follows (format 2613), 
with all values right-adjusted in the data fields: 



B 



B-1 



B-2 



B-3 



C C-1 



34-36 


4 


LdO.lO) 


37-39 


2 


L(IO.T) 


1-3 


100 


L(l,l) 


4-6 


66 


L(2,l) 


7-9 


34 


L(2,2) 


10-12 


52 


L(3,l) 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



73-75 


13 


L(7,4) 


76-78 


10 


L(7,5) 


1-3 


7 


L(7,6) 


4-6 


6 


L(7,7) 


7-9 


25 


L(8,l) 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



73-75 


9 


L(10,6) 


76-78 


7 


L(10,7) 


1-3 


6 


L(10,8) 


4-6 


4 


L(10,9) 


7-9 


4 


L(IO.IO) 


1-3 


100 


L(l,l) 


4-6 


75 


L(1.5,l) 


7-9 


25 


L(1.5,1.5) 


10-12 


64 


L(2,l) 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



Card 
type 

A 



Card 
number 

A-1 



Card Percent 
columns value 



1-3 
4-6 
7-9 
etc. 



65 
35 
50 
etc. 



Array 
element 

L(l,l) 
L(1,T) 
L(2,l) 
etc. 



C-2 



73-75 


35 


L(5,l) 


76,78 


27 


L(5,2) 


1-3 


20 


L(5,3) 


4-6 


13 


L(5,4) 


7-9 


5 


L(5,5) 



A-2 



A-3 



73-75 


10 


L(6,5) 


76-78 


8 


L(6,6) 


1-3 


3 


L(6,T) 


4-6 


26 


L(7,l) 


7-9 


18 


L(7,2) 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



73-75 


8 


L(9,7) 


76-78 


6 


L(9,8) 


1-3 


4 


L(9,9) 


4-6 


2 


L(9,T) 



The volume distribution data, illustrated 
here for ponderosa pine, are input by means 
of cards to allow the user to select the set of 
distribution percentages that he wishes to use. 
If values for other species are desired, they can 
be substituted in the same manner. If addi- 
tional values are required which exceed the 
dimensions of the arrays mentioned, array size 
should be increased and the source code modi- 
fied or expanded in initial RP]AD statements 
and in subroutine VOLUM. The data cards 
type A, B, and C are initial input only, and 
are not repeated for successive passes. 



-7- 



GZ) 




i 


Set 


Evdlu, 
Code 


tuin 


(V 


ar. J 


>n) 





-8- 





End F 
File 


le 
4 


♦ 


Rewi 
File 


Id 
4 



ViguAt 2.--?KoqKcm MULTJ mainline, {flow chaMX. 





Card Type 


Variable Card 




name columns 


Format 


PROB 1-80 


8A10 



Program Control Cards 

Program control and option parameters are 
read in on four control cards (card types 1 
through 4) at the beginning of each problem 
and before each pass through the data. 
Program control cards are coded as follows, 
with all values right-adjusted in the data fields: 



Description 

Alphameric code to 
describe problem 
and user options. 



Card Type 2 

IN 1-5 15 IN = 0, read tree 

data from cards. 
IN = 1, read tree 
data from tape. 

NSAM 6-10 15 Number of sample 

units. If "cluster" 
sampling is used, 
NSAM is number of 
clusters. 

R 11-15 F5.3 If R is punched to 

any non-zero value, 
rot occuirence ob- 
served and recorded 
in a subsample of 
trees will be ran- 
domly extended to 
the entire sample. 
If rot occurrence 
data are available 
for all sample trees, 
R should be punch- 
ed zero. 

NPROD 16-20 15 Number of products 

to be evaluated in 
each run. Maximum 
size of NPROD is 
11, 1 pole grade, 4 
saw log grades, 3 
veneer grades, and 
3 stud grades. 

IP(I) 21-75 1115 Sets ihe product pri- 

ority order for pro- 
duct evaluation. 

EXPFC 76-80 F5.0 EXPFC, when equal 

to some value other 
than zero, is a con- 
version factor to 
convert fixed-size 
plot sample values 
to per-acre basis. In 
plotless or point 



Variable Card 
name columns Format Description 

sampling, computed 
conversion factors 
are used, and 
EXPFC = 0. 
Format (215, F5.3, 1215, F5.0) 



JON 1-5 



KPOLE 6-10 



KSAW 11-15 



KVENR 16-20 



KSTUD 21-25 



KPULP 26-30 



KOUT 31-35 



IBUG 36-40 



Card Type 3 

15 JON = 1, specifies 

product evaluation 
on priority basis, 
each stem section 
evaluated only for 
highest priority 
product for which 
it is suited, follow- 
ing specified order 
of preference per 
IP(I), card type 2. 
JON = 2, specifies 
primary product e- 
valuation in which 
each stem section is 
evaluated for all 
products for which 
it is suited. 
JON = 3, specifies 
both evaluations to 
be made. 

15 Trees to be e- 

valuated for poles, 
KPOLE = 1; other- 
wise KPOLE = 0. 

15 Trees to be e- 

valuated for saw 
logs, KSAW = 1; 
otherwiseKSAW=0. 

15 Trees to be e- 

valuated for veneer, 
KVENR = 1; other- 
wise KVENR = 0. 

15 Trees to be evalu- 

ated for stud logs, 
KSTUD = 1; other- 
KSTUD = 0. 

15 Trees to be evalu- 

ated for pulpwood, 
KPULP = 1; other- 
wise KPULP = 0. 

15 KOUT = 1, write on 

output unit record 
tape; KOUT = 0, 
skip this option. A 
unit record can be 
written only if 
JON = 2 or 3. 

15 IBUG = 1, print out 

individual tree sta- 



10 



KYOL 41-45 



BAFV 48-55 



tistics; IBUG = 0, 
skip this option. 
Use only for testing 
or debugging pro- 
gram as a large a- 
mount of output is 
generated. 
15 KVOL = 1, compute 

and output gross 
volume tables; 
KVOL = 2, compute 
and output adjusted 
gross volume tables, 
volumes adjusted for 
visual scaling de- 
fects. 
F8.4 BAF value of the 
prism or angle gage 
used in plotless 
sampling. 

Format (915, 2X, F8.4) 

Sample input for a production run might be: 
3-1-1-1-1-1-1-0-1-25.0000 

Card Type 4 

POINT(I)1-80 16F5.0 Specifies the num- 

ber of sampling 
points in each sam- 
ple unit (NSAM). If 
more than 16 sample 
units are used, con- 
tinue on subsequent 
cards. If cluster 
sampling is not 
used, POINT (I) 
should equal 1 for 
all entries. Decimal 
point need not be 
punched. 

Product Priority Instructions 

If products are to be evaluated on a priority 
basis, the desired order of priority must be 
specified by entries in the IP(I) fields, columns 
21-75, of control card type 2. Entries refer 
to the specific subroutine being called: 

1 Subroutine POLE 

2 Subroutine SAW 

3 Subroutine VENR 

4 Subroutine STUD 

If the desired priority is poles, followed by 

j grades 1-3 saw logs, grades 1-3 veneer logs, 

I grades 1-3 stud logs, and grade 5 saw logs, 

the IP(I) values would be coded as follows: 

Variable Column Number Product considered 

NPROD 19-20 11 

IP(1) 25 1 Poles 

IP(2) 30 2 Saw logs, grade 1 



IP(3) 


35 


2 


Saw logs, grade 2 


IP(4) 


40 


2 


Saw logs, grade 3 


IP(5) 


45 


3 


Veneer, grade 1 


IP(6) 


50 


3 


Veneer, grade 2 


IP(7) 


55 


3 


Veneer, grade 3 


IP(8) 


60 


4 


Studs, grade 1 


IP(9) 


65 


4 


Studs, grade 2 


IP(IO) 


70 


4 


Studs, grade 3 


IP(ll) 


75 


2 


Saw logs, grade 5 



Computed Control Variables 

A number of control variables are com- 
puted during the execution of the program. 
These variables are as follows: 

KMAX Equals the maximum diameter 

class in each data set. 

KMIN Equals the minimum diameter 

class in each data set. 

IND(I) Is an indicator which is set to 

1 = 1, 10 one to indicate that a particular 

log or tree has been utilized 
for a priority product. If ITRHT 
is greater than 10, ITRHT=10. 

KOUNT(I) Equals the number of trees in 
each diameter class. 

NBORE Number of trees sampled for 
rot determination. 

NROT Number of sampled trees con- 

taining rot. 

PROROT Proportion of trees with rot as 
computed by NROT/NBORE. 
The program uses a random 
number generator to randomly 
extend the observed frequency 
of occurrence of rot to the entire 
sample. If rot occurrence data 
are available for all sample trees, 
the program provides an option 
(R = ) to bypass this procedvu-e 
and use rot data directly. In 
either case, occurrence of rot 
should be coded 2 for proper 
program evaluation. 



Tree Data Cards 

Inventory data are recorded on punch cards, 
one card for each sample tree. The data in- 
cluded on the cards, and the coding and format 
required for the program, arc described and 
illustrated in appendix A. 

As many tree data cards as desired, within 
the limits of the disk or tape file, may be read 
in. Data may be entered in any order without 
regard to diameter class or sample number. 



11 



One blank card is used to signal the end of 
tree card input; two additional blank cards 
(read as type 1 and 2 control cards) will termi- 
nate the program after the desired computation 
and output is completed. 

If additional runs or problems are to be 
executed on the filed data, repeat program 
control cards types 1, 2, and 3. Control card 
type 4 is not required for additional runs. 
As many sets of type 1, 2, and 3 control cards 
may be input as desired, with the last set 
being followed by two blank cards. 



Subroutine POLE (PLHT2, POINT, TOTAL, 
ISAM, IMAX, PLHTl) 

The arguments PLHT2, POINT, and TOTAL 
are dimensioned variables, the sizes set by the 
argument ISAM, which is equal to or greater 
than NSAM, the number of sample units used. 
The argument PLHTl accumulates POLE counts 
by diameter class. The argument PLHT2 accumu- 
lates POLE counts by sample number and pole 
height class. In other product subroutines, 
each stem section is evaluated independently 
for the product being considered, and if 
JON = 1 accepted sections are withdrawn from 
consideration for subsequent products. In sub- 
routine POLE, however, the use of a tree as a 
pole eliminates any consideration for other 
products and, conversely, use of any 8-foot 
section for another product eliminates the entire 
tree from being considered as a pole. 



Subroutine SAW ( VCNT, POINT, TOTAL, ISAM, 
IMAX) 

The arguments VCNT, POINT, and TOTAL 
are dimensioned variables, the sizes set by 
ISAM and IMAX. ISAM must be equal to or 
greater than the total number of samples 
(NSAM), and IMAX must be equal to or greater 
than the largest diameter class in the data. 
The array VCNT is an accumulator for saw log 
volumes by diameter class and grade, POINT 
is a vector specifying the number of points 
(or subplots) in each sample, and TOTAL is 
an array for accvunulation of volumes. This 
subroutine evaluates each sample tree between 
a minimum diameter class (KMIN) and maxi- 
mum class (KMAX) that has at least one saw 
log (two 8-foot sections). Descriptive tree 
quality data are screened by 8-fool stem section, 
and a grade from the designated grading system 
is assigned each saw log. The grading system 
and method of evaluating grading criteria in 
ponderosa pine are described in appendix A. 



If priorities are established (JON = 1), selection 
of either or both half-logs for a higher priority 
will eliminate the full log from saw log con- 
sideration. Log volumes can be computed 
and printed out in terms of either gross volume 
(KVOL = 1) or volume adjusted for visual 
scaling defect (KVOL = 2), as previously dis- 
cussed. Information is printed out by diameter 
class and total, for one log grade at a time 
if JON = 1 or for all grades at once if JON = 2. 



Subroutine VENR (VCNT, POINT, TOTAL, 
ISAM, IMAX) 

Input arguments for this subroutine are the 
same as those described for SAW. This sub- 
routine evaluates each sample tree meeting 
initial diameter class specifications; it screens 
by 8-foot stem section and assigns a grade 
from the designated grading system (appendix 
A). Since grades are based on recorded knot 
data, grading is limited to the first three 8-foot 
stem sections in each tree. Log volume can 
be adjusted for visual scaling defects (KVOL =2) 
if desired. If priorities are established 
(JON = 1), printouts will include only the 
three acceptable grades. A "grade 4" (material 
unacceptable because of knot size) is accumu- 
lated, however, and under option J0N = 2 will 
be printed out and listed in the tree 
unit record. 



Subroutine STUD (VCNT, POINT, TOTAL, 
ISAM, IMAX) 

The input arguments and operations of this 
subroutine are the same as those described for 
VENR. The same options and restrictions apply 
to grade evaluation (appendix A) and print- 
outs for the product. 



Subroutine PULP (PULPV, POINT, TOTAL, 
ISAM, IMAX) 

The argument PULPV is a dimensioned 
variable of size ISAM. The other arguments 
are the same as in other subroutines. PULP 
accumulates cubic-foot volumes for all sample 
tree sections not accepted for other products, 
plus top volume from minimum saw log top 
to a 4-inch top diameter for each tree evaluated. 
All trees excluded because of d.b.h. less than 
9 inches are also included in pulpwood totals. 
Pulpwood gross volumes can be adjusted for 
inadmissible visual defect (fire and lightning 
scar) as previously discussed, under the 
KVOL = 2 option. 



12 



Subroutine VOLUM (KCUV8, KBFV8, KBFV16, 
BAFV) 

This subroutine calculates total merchant- 
able board-foot and cubic-foot volume in each 
sample tree. Board-foot volume is calculated 
to minimum saw-log diameter and cubic-foot 
volume is calculated to a 4-inch top diameter. 
Volumes are allocated by log and half-log stem 
sections, by means of average volume distribu- 
tion values. Tree volume equations and volume 
distribution percentages used for ponderosa 
pine are described in appendix A. The argu- 
ments KCUV8, KBFV8, and KBFV16 are di- 
mensioned variables (volume distribution per- 
centage values) read in by the program data 
cards. 

If plotless or point sampling has been used, 
the subroutine also calculates expansion factors 
to convert sample values to per-acre values. 
An expansion factor is calculated for each sample 
tree, from the equation 

EP= BAFV 

0.005454D^ 
where BAFV is input on control card type 
3 and D' is tree d.b.h. squared. 



Subroutine CVOL (VBL, EXPFC, EF) 

This is a function subroutine used to con- 
vert product count or volume per tree or stem 
section to count or volume per acre, when 
plotless sampling has been used. Argument 
VBL is a dummy argument used to pass the 
sample value to be converted to the function 
CVOL. Argument EF is the point sample 
per-acre expansion factor calculated by sub- 
routine VOLUM. 

EXPFC (also called PRISM in some sub- 
routines) is a factor to convert fixed-size plot 
sample values to per-acre values. EXPFC = 
when plotless sampling is used. 



Subroutine STDER (NSAM, Y, S, AMTRX, 
POINT) 

This subroutine uses a simple algorithm to 
compute standard error of the mean for each 
product and grade, as indicated earlier. Cal- 
culated error terms are printed out with the 
volume estimates for the product. Arguments 
for the subroutine are: 
Input 

NSAM Number of sample units 
AMTRX Data vector of size NSAM 
POINT Vector of size NSAM giving number 
of points or subplots per sample. 



Return 
Y 

S 



Mean of vector AMTRX 
Standard error of vector AMTRX. 



Unit Record Output 

A permanent unit record, containing descrip- 
tive variables and a number of computed vari- 
ables, is developed for each sample tree. The 
variables included in the record are described 
in appendix A. Unit record output is gen- 
erated when program control card type 3 speci- 
fies JON = 2 or 3 and KOUT = L The record 
is written on external device logical file 4 
(tape or disk storage) by a WRITE(4) LIST 
statement, and consists of strings of binary 
word values in the form in which they appear 
in storage. Each tree record consists of 105 
binary words. An end-of-file is written after 
the last tree processed; a message is then 
printed that gives the number of records in 
the output file, plus a printout of the last 
tree record processed for check purposes. 

It is assumed that the unit record output 
file would normally be used as input on the 
CDC 6400 system for further processing by the 
IOCS input-output routines. If this is not 
the case, it would be advisable to write the 
unit record output with a WRITE(4,FMT) LIST 
statement in the BCD mode. BCD tapes written 
with this statement can normally be read on 
a different computer, often with the normal 
FORTRAN input-output routines. 



Program Operation and Limitations 

Program MULTI is written in the FORTRAN 
Extended Language Version 1.0, an extension of 
the USASI FORTRAN language, for the Control 
Data 6400 computer system. Operation of the 
program requires a central processor, a card 
reader, output line printer (assigned logical 
file 3) and two external tape or disk storage 
devices (assigned logical files 1 and 4). 

The program contains error messages which 
provide information to help the user correct 
the input data. There are no recovery points in 
the program. When an abort or execution 
failure occurs, all volume accumulations to 
time of failure are lost and the program must 
be restarted from the beginning. 

Maximum diameter class and sample size 
are set in the data statement, DATA IMAX, 
ISAM, 40.4 . Dimensioned variables SAWV, 
VENRV, STUDV, PULPV, VCNT, PLIIT2, 
TOTAL, and POINT contain as their first sub- 



-13- 



script the maximum sample size allowed. 
Because all of these varialDles except VCNT 
are intermeshed with an EQUIVALENCE state- 
ment, their first dimensions must be the same 
and should equal ISAM. The last dimension 
of SAWV, YENRV, and VCNT must equal IMAX. 
Any change in ISAM and/or IMAX requires 
a program coding change in all the variables 
mentioned. Other dimensioned variables do 
not requu-e changes due to changes in sample 
number or maximum diameter class. 

A test version of program MULTI, with 
maximum sample size = 130 and maximum 
diameter class = 34, required a field length 
of 105,700 8 or core storage of 36, o K to 
load the program. A CDC 6400 computer sys- 
tem with 140,000 8 or 50, o K available can 
possibly accommodate maximum variable com- 
binations to sample size = 150 and diameter 
class = 40. Larger combinations may require 
overlay subroutines. 



Loading procedure 

The order for loading the program is: 

1. Computer center control cards. 

2. MULTI-Main and all subroutines. 

3. Program data cards, types A, B, and C 
(a set of eight cards) 

4. Program control cards, types 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

5. Individual tree data cards. 

6. Blank card to signal end of tree data. 

7. Two additional blank cards if run is to termi- 
nate after first pass, or 

Repeat program control cards, types 1, 2, and 



3 as many times as desired, one set for each 
pass. 
8. Two blank cards to tei'minate job, final pass. 



Literature Cited 



American Standards Association 

1963. American standard specifications and 
dimensions for wood poles. ASA 05.1- 
1963, 15 p. 

Barger, Roland L., and Peter F. Ffolliott. 

1970. Evaluating product potential in stand- 
ing timber. USDA Forest Serv. Res. 
Pap. RM-57, 20 p. Rocky Mt. Forest 
and Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 

Gaines, Edward M. 

1962. Improved system for grading pon- 
derosa pine and sugar pine saw logs 
in trees. U.S. Forest Serv. Pacific 
Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta. 
Tech. Pap. 75, 21 p. Berkeley, Calif. 

Myers, Clifford A. 

1963. Volume, taper, and related tables 
for southwestern ponderosa pine. U.S. 
Forest Serv. Res. Pap. RM-2, 24 p. 
Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., 
Fort Collins, Colo. 

Van Deusen, James L. 

1967. Conversion of tree heights in logs 
to heights in feet: Black Hills ponderosa 
pine. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note RM-94, 
2 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Exp. 
Sta., Fort ColUns, Colo. 



14 



APPENDIX A 



Field Inventory Data 



Field inventory methods are described in 
Barger and Ffolliott (1970). Field inventory 
data described here are those taken in inven- 
torying ponderosa pine. For other species or 
primary products, some modification of the data 
recorded may be desirable. For the evaluation 
program MULTI, one data card is punched 
for each sample tree, following the coding 
and format described: 



Variable Card 
name columns 

- 1-2 

ISTRT 3-4 
IDMY 5-11 



DBH 



ISWP 



IPCR 



ILS 



12-16 



IPLHT 18-19 



21 



22 



27 



Format 

2X 
12 
17 

F5.2 
12 



II 



II 



ICRK 


23 


11 


IPFK 


24 


11 


IFRK 


25 


U 


IPS 


26 


11 



II 



KNOT 


29 


11 


(1,1,1) 






KNOT 


30 


11 


(1,1,2) 







Description 

Blank or identifica- 
tion data. 
Sample number, 
range 01 to 99. 
Dummy variable, 
can be used for ID 
data. 

Tree d.b.h., punch 
decimal point, 
XX. XX. 

Pole height, record- 
ed as maximum 5- 
foot height class ob- 
tainable (25', 30'. 
35', etc.). 

Sweep entered as 1 
(minor) or 2 
(major). 

Number of half-log 
in which crook 
occurs. 

Crook entered as 1 
(minor) or 2 (major). 
Number of half-log 
in which fork occurs. 
Coded as 1 if fork 
exists. 

Fire scar entered as 
1 (minor) or 2 
(major). 

Lightning scar en- 
tered as 1 (minor) 
or 2 (major). 
Number of knots in 
face 1, section 1. 
Size of largest live 
knot to nearest inch, 
face 1, section 1. 



Variable Card 
name columns 

KNOT 31 
(1,1,3) 

KNOT 32-34 
(1,2,N) 

KNOT 35-37 
(1,3,N) 

KNOT 38-40 
(1,4,N) 

KNOT 43-54 
(2,M,N) 



KNOT 57-68 
(3,M,N) 



I24P 



I24P(1) 


71 


11 


I24P(2) 


72 


11 


I24P(3) 


73 


U 


I24P(4) 


74 


11 


ITRIIT 


76-77 


12 



LEAN 79 



Format Description 

U Size of largest dead 

knot to nearest inch, 

face 1, section 1. 

311 Repeat for face 2, 

section 1, N= 1,2,3. 

311 Repeat for face 3, 

section 1, N = l,2,3. 

311 Repeat for face 4, 

section 1, N = l,2,3. 

1211 Same knot data re- 
corded by 8-foot sec- 
tion and face for sec- 
ond section (or to 
minimum merchant- 
able top diameter). 

1211 Same knot data re- 
corded by 8-foot sec- 
tion and face for 
third section (or to 
minimum merchant- 
able top diameter). 

For the fourth 8-foot 
section (24' - 32"), 
only presence or ab- 
sence of clear 8-fool 
faces is entered as: 
Face 1: if clear, 
1 if knots occur. 
Face 2: if clear, 
1 if knots occur. 
Face 3: if clear, 
1 if knots occur. 
Face 4: if clear, 
1 if knots occur. 
Tree height, record- 
ed as total half-logs 
or 8-foot sections 
to the minimum 
saw log top diam- 
eter. If tree heigiit 
is recorded in to- 
tal feel or in 
16-foot sections, a 
conversion to half- 
log height is re- 
quired. 
II Lean, recorded by 
5 degree classes 
(nearest class) as: 
- Less than 3 de 
grees 



15 



Variable Card Format 
name tolumns 



Description 



1 - 5 degrees 

2 - 10 degrees 

3 - 15 degrees or 

more 
IROT 80 II Rot, as observed in 

subsample by means 
of increment cores 
or other indicators, 
recorded as: 

- not sampled 

1 - sampled, no rot 

2 - sampled, rot 
Card format (2X12, 17, F5.2, 1x12, 1x711, 1x1211, 
2x1211, 2x1211, 2x411, 1x12, 1x211) 



Sample Tree Volume Determination 

Cubic-foot Volume Determination 

Determine tree height in half-logs (8-foot 
sections) to minimum merchantable saw log 
diameter. If only total tree height has been 



recorded, estimate half-log height from total 
height (Van Deusen 1967). 

Calculate total merchantable cubic-foot vol- 
ume of sample tree to 4.0-inch top, by equation. 
For tree height in 16-foot logs to nearest half- 
log (H) and d.b.h. outside bark (D), equations 
for southwestern ponderosa pine are (Myers 
1963): 



(1) Tree d.b.h. under 19.0 - 
D' II 800 or less: 

V = 0.04(3000 DMI + 
DMI over 800 : 

V = 0.044204 D^'U + 

(2) Tree d.b.h. over 19.0 — 

D'll 1,000 or less : 

V = 0.050666 D 
DMI over 1,000 : 



6.800000 



8.266000 



H + 5.866800 



V = 0.045736 DMI + 10.857212 

Nineteen inches is the assumed breaking point 
between blackjack and old-growth trees. 

Determine volume distribution among stem 
sections of the tree. Apply percentages to total 
tree volume to estimate volume of sections. 
Average cubic volume distribution in south- 
western ponderosa pine of specified half-log 
height is: 



Tree 






Half- 


■log 


pos i tion 


in tree 








Top to 


height 
ha If- logs 






















/i 


0- 




1 





3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 




d, 


,i.b. 


Number 


65 


- - 


Percent of 


total 


CL 


[bic - 


-foot 


tree 


vol 


ume 


- 


_ _ 


1 




















35 


2 


50 


31 






















19 


3 


43 


29 


17 




















11 


4 


38 


27 


17 


11 


















7 


5 


32 


24 


17 


13 


9 
















5 


6 


28 


21 


16 


14 


10 


8 














3 


7 


26 


18 


15 


13 


10 


9 


6 












3 


8 


24 


16 


14 


12 


10 


9 


7 


5 










3 


9 


22 


15 


13 


12 


10 


8 


8 


6 


4 








2 


10 


19 


15 


12 


11 


10 


8 


8 


6 


5 


4 






2 



Board-foot volume determination 

Determine tree height in half-logs (8-foot 
stem sections) to minimum merchantable saw- 
log diameter. If only total tree height has been 
recorded, estimate half-log height from total 
height. 

Calculate total merchantable board-foot vol- 
ume of sample tree to minimum merchantable 
top diameter (variable), by equation. For tree 
height in 16-foot logs to nearest half-log (H) 
and d.b.h. outside bark (D), Scribner rule equa- 



tions for southwestern ponderosa pine are 
(Myers 1963): 

" (1) Tree d.b.h. under 19.0— 
D ' II 800 or less: 

V = 0.224793 D ' II + 8.165600 
D ' H over 800: 

V = 0.300081 D ' H - 52.090112 
(2) Tree d.b.h. 19.0 or over — 

D ' H 1,130 or less: 

V = 0.275784 D Ml - 5.091250 
D ^ H over 1,130: 

V = 0.326427 D Ml - 62.962331 



-16- 



Nineteen inches is the assumed breaking point 
between bhickjack and old-growth trees. 

Determine volume distribution among stem 
sections of the tree. Average board-foot 
volume distribution in southwestern ponderosa 
pine of specified log height is indicated below. 
For saw logs, normally expressed in terms of 



16-foot logs and half-logs, refer to the first 
tabulation. For veneer and stud logs or other 
log products utilized in 8-fool lengths, refer 
to the second tabulation. Apply percentages 
to total tree volume to estimate volume of 
individual logs or sections. 



Tree height in 



16-foot saw log position in tree 



Logs Ha If- logs 1 1,5 



2.5 



3.5 



4.5 



Number 


- I 
100 


ercent 


of total b 


oard- 


-foot tree volume - 




1 2 














1.5 3 


75 


25 












2 4 


64 


-- 


36 










2.5 5 


58 


-- 


32 


10 








3 6 


49 


-- 


33 


-- 


18 






3.5 7 


41 


-- 


32 


-- 


19 


8 




4 8 


44 


-- 


31 


-- 


17 


8 




4.5 9 


39 


-- 


29 


-- 


19 


10 3 




5 10 


35 


-- 


27 


-- 


20 


13 


5 



Tree 

height, 

half-logs 



8-foot halt-log position in tree 



10 



Number 


Percent 


of total 


board- 


-foot 


tree volume 


1 


100 
















2 


66 


34 














3 


52 


32 


16 












4 


43 


30 


18 


9 










5 


36 


26 


18 


12 


8 








6 


31 


23 


18 


14 


9 


5 






7 


28 


20 


16 


13 


10 


7 


6 




8 


25 


18 


15 


13 


10 


9 


6 


4 


9 


23 


16 


14 


12 


10 


9 


7 


5 4 


10 


21 


15 


13 


11 


10 


9 


7 


6 4 4 



Product Specifications and Grades 
Ponderosa Pine Commercial Poles 

All trees 9.0 through 20.9 inches in diam- 
eter and of acceptable pole form are con- 
sidered potential poles. Grading specifications 
for commercial poles were adapted from those 
of the American Standards Association (1963). 

Inadmissible defects in commercial poles 
include 

—sweep (deviation greater than 1/3 d.b.h. ) 

—major crook (deviation greater than 12 
pole diameter at crook) 

—knots larger than 4 inches in diameter 
(dead or green) 



— knot whorls or clusters aggregating more 
than 8 inches of knot diameter within 
1 linear foot 

-fork 

— heart rot 

—lightning scar 

—fire scar 

—compression wood (considered present 
in stems leaning 10° or more) 

For trees meeting minimum merchantable 
specifications, stem length to the first limiting 
defect, such as length to first inadmissible knot, 
is field recorded. Such defects as fork, crook, 
and fire scar, if located near the butt or top of 
the stem, may not eliminate the pole but re- 
quire a reduction of acceptable pole length. 



17- 



Vari 
nai 



IRC 



Programed grading procedures scan defect 
data tor stem sections included in pole height, 
and either verify or change recorded pole height 
as necessary. 



Ponderosa Pine Saw Logs 

All trees 11.0 inches d.b.h. and larger are 
considered sawtimber trees, and logs 8.0 inches 



and larger in scaling diameter are evaluated 
as saw logs. 

All grading specifications apply to 16-foot 
log lengths. The same specifications apply to 
shorter logs, in proportion to their length. 

All logs meeting the minimum merchant- 
ability standards are graded by the improved 
grading system for ponderosa pine logs (Gaines 
1962). 

Abbreviated grading specifications are as 
follows: 



Defects Permitted 



Cai 
2x1 



Grade Primary (log knots) 

1 One log knot not over '^ inch 
in diameter. 



Secondary (scar, etc.) 

Confined to three 4-foot panels 
or less. 



Confined to four 4-foot panels 
or less. 



Secondary plus primary confined 
to six 4-foot panels. 



Cu 



sec 
dia 



3 Six 4-foot panels free of all grading defects. 

4 (Logs of the type described by grade 4 of this system do not 
generally occur in southwestern ponderosa pine; consequently, 
the grade is omitted from consideration.) 

5 All other logs with net scale of one-third or more of gross scale. 



Be 



st( 

lO] 

rei 
he 

un 
toi 
he 
an 



Programed grading instructions estimate 
the number of clear 4-foot panels in each log, 
based on recorded knot data. Accumulated panel 
count is used to assign a log grade to the log, 
as follows: 



Clear panels, 
1/4 circumference x 4 feet 

15-16 
12-14 
5-11 
I^ess than 5 



Log grade 

1 
2 
3 
5 



Ponderosa Pine Veneer Logs 

Logs 10.0 inches and larger in scaling diam- 
eter are considered potential veneer logs. 

All grading specifications apply to 8-foot 
log lengths. 

Logs that meet the minimum merchant- 
ability requirements for veneer logs are graded 
according to the following arbitrary grading 
rules for ponderosa pine veneer logs, written 
for use in multiproduct inventory analysis. 

GRADE I Veneer logs from which a high 
proportion of grade A and B 



veneer can probably be re- 
covered. 
Grade Specifications 

Dead knots - none allowed. 
Green knots - allowed up to 
2 inches in diameter. 
GRADE II Veneer logs from which a high 
proportion of grade C veneer 
can probably be recovered. 
Grade Specifications 

Dead knots - allowed up to 
2 inches in diameter. 
Green knots - allowed up to 

2 inches in diameter. 
GRADE III Veneer logs from which a high 

proportion of grade D veneer 
can probably be recovered. 
Grade Specifications 

Dead knots - allowed up to 

3 inches in diameter. 
Green knots - allowed with- 
out size limit. 

UNACCEPTABLE Logs identified as 
"grade 4" for computer 
programing and output 
purposes. 

Dead knots - 4 inches 
or more in diameter. 



18- 



Ponderosa Pine Stud Logs 

Logs 6.0 through 16.9 inches in scahng 
diameter are considered potential stud logs. 
All grading specifications apply to 8-foot 
log lengths. 

Logs that meet basic size requirements for 
stud logs are graded according to the following 
arbitrary grading rules for ponderosa pine stud 
logs, written for use in multiproduct inventory 
analysis. 

GRADE I Stud logs from which a high 
proportion of SELECT and CON- 
STRUCTION grade studs can 
probably be recovered. 
Grade Specifications 
Dead knots - allowed to 1 inch 
in diameter. 

Green knots - allowed to 2 
inches in diameter. 
Total number of knots - can- 
not exceed 16. 
GRADE II Stud logs from which a high 
proportion of STANDARD grade 
studs can probably be recovered. 
Grade Specifications 

Dead knots - allowed to 2 
inches in diameter. 
Green knots - allowed to 2 
inches in diameter. 
Total number of knots - can- 
not exceed 32. 
GRADE III Stud logs from which a high 
proportion of UTILITY and 
ECONOMY grade studs can 
probably be recovered. 
Grade Specifications 
Dead knots - allowed to 2 
inches in diameter. 
Green knots - allowed to 3 
inches in diameter. 
Total number of knots - un- 
limited. 
UNACCEPTABLE Logs identified as 
"grade 4" for computer pro- 
graming and output pur- 
poses. 

Dead knots - 3 inches or more 
in diameter. 

Green knots 4 inches or 
more in diameter. 

Sample Tree Unit Record 

The unit record for each sample tree in- 
cludes the following descriptive and computed 
variables applicable to the tree, printed in the 
following order: 

Tree diameter class (K) 

Sample number (ISTRT) 



second stem section 
third stem section 

fourth stem section 



KNOT 
KNOT 



Sample identification data (IDMY) 

Treed.b.h. (DBII) 

Commercial pole merchantable height 
(IPLIIT) 

Defect occurrence: 
Sweep (Class 1, 2: ISWP) 
Crook (Location and Class 1, 2: 

IPCR, ICRK) 
Fork (Location and occurrence: IPFK, 

IFRK) 
Fire scar (Class 1, 2: IFS) 
Lightning scar (Class 1, 2: ILS) 

Knot data: 
Count, size, first stem section KNOT 

(N,L,D) 
Count, size, 

(N,L,D) 
Count, size, 

(N,L,D) 
Clear face count 
I24P(N) 

Half-log merchantable tree height (ITRIIT) 

Lean (Class 1, 2, 3: LEAN) 

Indication of internal rot (IROT) 

Pole selector indicator (0 = No, 1 = Yes) 

(KP) 
Total tree cubic-foot volume to 4-inch top 
(TCFV) 

Total tree board-foot volume to saw log 
top (TBFV) 

Vol. /Acre expansion 
(EF) 

Volume of saw logs (board feel), by log 
position and grade 
BFSW(1,1), grade 1, log position 1 
BFSW(2,2), grade 1, log position 2 
BFSW(1,3), grade 1, log position 3 
BFSW(1,4), grade 1, log position 4 
BFSW(1,5), grade 1, log position 5 
Repeat for saw log grades 2, 3, 4 (grade 
4 = 5) 

Volume of veneer logs (board feet) 
log position and grade 
BFVN(1,1), grade 1, log position 1 
BFVN(1,2), grade 1, log position 2 
BFVN(1,3), grade 1, log position 3 
Repeat for veneer log grades 
(grade 4 = unacceptable) 

Volume of stud logs (board feet), by log 
position and grade 
P>FST{1,1), grade 1, log position 1 
P,FST(1,2), grade 1, log position 2 
P,FST(1,3), grade 1, log position 3 
Repeat for stud log grades 
(grade 4 = unacceptable) 

Volume of pulpwood (cubic feet); top piece 
and other sections 

CFPL(l), in top, saw log to 4-inch top 
CFPL(2), all sections not acceptable for 
other products 



factor used for tree 



by 



2. 3, 4 



2, 3. 4 



19- 



Var 
na 



APPENDIX B 



IR( 



Ca 

2x: 



Cu 



se< 



Bi 



St 

lo 
re 
h( 

ui 
to 
h( 
ar 



PROGRAM MULTI 
1 ( INPUT,0UTPUF,rAPE5=INPUT,TAPEl = iDUTPUT,TAP€l,TAPEA) 

C COMPUTER PROGfiAM TO CONVERT MUL T I PROOUC T INVENTORY DATA TO VIELD 

C HY PRODUCT 

C RY 

C JACK 0. HEIOT AND DONALD A. JAMESON 

C ROCKY MOUNTAIN FOREST AND RANuE EXPfRIMENT STATION 

C PROGRAM CONTRHL CARDS 

C 

C DATA CAROfSI TYPE A 

C 

C a SET OF THREE CARDS TO INPUT THE PERCENT OF TOTAL CUBIC FOOT VOL 

C BY a-FT. STEM SFCTIONS. SEF PHOG. DESCRIPTION FOR ORDER AND FQHMA 

C 

C DATA CARO(S» TYPE 8 

C 

C A SET OF THREE CARDS TO INPUT THE PERCENT OF TOTAL BOARD FOOT VOL 

C BY e-FT. STEM SECTIONS. SEE PROG. DESCRIPTION FOR ORDER AND FORMA 

C 

C DATA CARDISI TYPE C 

C 

C A SET OF TWO CARDS TO INPUT THE PERCENT OF TOTAL BOARD FOOT VOL. 

C BY Ifo-FT. STEM SEC T I ONS ( S AWLOGS ) . SEE PROG. DESCRIPTION FOR ORDER 

C AND FORMAT 

C 

C CONTROL CARD TYPE 1 

C 

C PROBfl )= PROBLEM IDENTIFIER 

C 

C CONTROL CARD TYPE 2 

C 

C IN=0 INDICATES TREE DATA TO BE INPUT FROM CARDS 

C IN=l INDICATES TREE DATA TO BE INPUT FROM TAPE 

C NSAM=NUMBER OF SAMPLE UNITS IF CLUSTER SAMPLING IS USED, NSAM IS 

C THE NUMBER OF CLUSTERS. 

C FOR PROPORTIONAL ROT REDUCTION, R=NON-?ERO 

C NPROD=NUMBER OF PRODUCTS TO RE EVALUATED 

C IP(1 )=PRODUCT PRIORITY 

C IF USING PRIMARY PRODUCT SELECTION CRITERIA IPIII SPECIFIES ORDER 

C OF PRODUCT PRIORITIES 

C FOR PLOTLESS CRUISING, EXPFC=0. FOR FIXED PLOT SIZE CRUISING, 

C E):PFC is a conversion factor to ADJUST RESULTS BASED ON PLOT SiZF 

c 

C CONTROL CARD TYPC 3 

C 

C JON=l INDICATES PRIMARY PRODUCT SELECTION CRITERIA 

C J0N=2 INDICATES SAMPLE HlLL BE EVALUATED FOR ALl PRODUCTS 

C J0N=3 GIVES BOTH TYPES OF EVALUATION 

C FOR POLE STUDY, KPnLE=U TO OMIT KPOLE = 

C FOR SAWLOG STUDY KSAW=l, TO OMIT KSAW=0 

C FOR VENEER STUDY, KVENR=1, TO OMIT KVENR=0 

C FOR STUO LOG STUDY, KSTUD=l, TO OMIT KSTUD=0 

C FOR PULP STUDY KPUIP=1,T0 OMIT KPULP=0 

C FOR UNIT RECORD OUTPUT T APE , JON=20R3 , KOUT= 1 , TO DMIT KOUT=0 

C FOR INDIVIDUAL TREE COMPUTATIONS IBUG=l,TO OMIT IBUG=0 

C FOR GROSS VOL OUTPUT KVOL = l,FOR ADJUSTED GROSS VOL OUTPUT KVDL=2 

C UNIT RECORD OUTPUT IS ACCUMULATED ONLY FOR GROSS VOL. KVOL=l. 

C flAFV=BASAL AREA FACTOR VALUE OF THE PRISM OR ANGLE GAUGE USED IN 

C PLOTLESS CRUISING 

C 

C CONTROL CARD TYPE <. 

C THIS CARD WILL BF READ ONLY ON INITIAL PASS THROUGH DATA 

C POINT(I) = NUMBER OF PLOTS PER CLUSTER 

C USE ADDITIONAL CARDS IF NEEDED 

C IF CLUSTER SAMPLING IS NOT USED, POINT(n = l FOR ALL ENTRIES 

C 

C COMPUTED CONTROL VARIABLES 

C 

C KMAX=MAX|MUM DIAMETER CLASS IN DATA 

C KMIN=MIN1MUM DIAMETER CLASS IN DATA 

C lNDII)=PRinR USE INDICATOR 

C KOUNTf I )=NUMBER OF TREES PER DIAMETER CLASS 

C NRORE= NUMBER OF TREES BORED 

C MRHT = NUMBER OF BORED TkEES WITH ROT 

C 

C INDIVIDUAL TREE DATA CARDS 

C 

C THESE CARDS WILL NOT BE READ IF IN.NF.O 

C ISTBT = SAMPLE NUMBER 

C 1DMY=0UMHY VARIABLE. CAN BE USED FOR TREE ID INFORMATION 

C DBH=D!AMErfR BREAST HIGH 

C 1PLHT = P0LE HEIGHT 

C 1SWP=SWEEP CLASS ' 

C IPCR = CRODK LOCATION 

C 1CRK = CR00K CLASS 

C IPFK = FORK LOCATION 

C IFRK=FORK CLASS 

C IFS = FIRE SCAR 

C ILS = LIGHTNING SCAR 

C KNOT I K,L ,M) = KNOT NUMBER AND SIZE 

C IP^tPn )=CLEAR FACE CLASSES 

C ITRHT=TREE HEIGHT IN HALF LOGS 

C. LEAN=LEAN CLASS 

C IROT = ROT CLASS 

C END TREE DATA CARD INPUT WITH ONE BLANK CARD 

C INDICATORS INTERNAL IN THE PROGRAM 

C VARIABLE DIMENSIONS OF ALL DIMENSIONED VARIABLES ARE SHOWN IN 

C DATA STATEMENT, SEE SUBROUTINE DIMENSIONS FOR GUIDE 

C NO CHANGES ARE REQUIRED [iJ SUBft. AS VARIABLE DIMENSIONS ARE USED 

C ISAM EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN NSAM 

C [MAX EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN KMAX 

C FOR UNIT RECORD OUTPUT. REQUEST TAPE^ FOR OUTPUT. HAS EOF MARK END 

C 

DIMENSION SAWVCt.'^.'tn 1 , VEN" V [ '■ , '. , '.O ) , S TUDV ( '. . 4 , 9 ) ,PLHTl( 15,20}, 
1PLHT2(*., lSl,TOTALI<.,'^),POINT('.),PULPVI'.),KCUVfil65),K0rV8(55l, 
2KBFV16I29) 

C 

COMMON KNOT(5.'»,3),I?<.P(',), IP( U 1. INDt 10 I , KOUNT ( 50 ) , Y ( 15) ,S( IS) , 
IPHOBIBI ,PCUV8III).PRFV8( 10),PSFVI6(5),BFSW(4,5),BFVN(4,3) , 
2BFSTU,1),CFPL(2) , NPROD, KM] N , KMAX , NS AM , K , I S TR T , DBH, I PLHT , ISwP, 
MPCR.ICRK, IPFK.IFRK, IFS, 1LS,ITRHT,LEAN,|H0T,NSAW,NVENR,NSTUD, JON, 
<.LAST,TCFV,TPFV,ieUG,ICARO,PRISH,KP,IDMY,KVOL,EF 



MUL 


80 


MUL 


90 


MUL 


100 


MUL 


no 


. MUL 


120 


T MUL 


130 


MUL 


I'.O 


MUL 


150 


MUL 


IfaO 


. MUL 


170 


T MUL 


180 


MUL 


190 


MUL 


200 


MUL 


210 


MUL 


220 


MUL 


230 


MUL 


2^.0 


MUL 


250 


MUL 


260 


MUL 


270 


MUL 


260 


MUL 


290 


MUL 


300 


MUL 


310 


MUL 


320 


MUL 


330 


MUL 


3^0 


MUL 


550 


MUL 


360 


MUL 


370 


MUL 


380 


MUL 


390 



fUlVALfcNCE (SAWV(1,1, 
I 1 SftWV( 1 f 1 .61 .PULPVt 1 ) 1 
?( I .1 .101 1 


1 ).PLHT2( I, 
. (SAWVIl.l 


11 1 


ISAM 

POINT 


( 1 
11 


Data |n«x,lsaM/40.';/ 

KP«Si=0 

NBFC=n 
KI- = 

EF=o.n 

DO 100 1=1.4 











1,5) 



( l.l) I . 



MUL -^20 
MUL '.30 
MUL AAO 
MUL 'tSO 
MUL ^60 
MUL ^^70 
MUL ASO 
MUL ^90 
MUL 500 
MUL 510 
MUL 520 
MUL 530 
MUL S^tO 
MUL 550 
MUL 560 
MUL 570 
MUL 580 
MUL 590 
MUL 600 
MUL 610 
MUL 620 
MUL 630 
MUL 6<.0 
MUL 650 
MUL 660 
MUL 670 
MUL 680 
MUL 690 
MUL 700 
MUL 7 10 
MUL 720 
MUL 730 
MUL 7.^0 
MUL 750 
MUL 760 
MUL 7 70 
MUL 780 
MUL 790 
MUL 800 
MUL 810 
MUL n20 
MUL 830 
MUL 8^0 
MUL 650 
MUL 860 
MUL 8 70 
MUL 880 
MUL 890 
MUL 900 
MUL 910 
MUL 920 
MUL 930 
MUL 940 
MUL 950 
MUL 960 
MUL 970 
MUL 980 
MUL 990 
MUL 1000 
MULIOIO 
MUL1020 
MULI030 
MULIO'.O 
MUL1050 
MUL 1060 
MUL 10 70 
MUL 1080 
MUL 1090 
MULl 100 
MUL 1 1 10 
MUL1120 
MULl 1 30 
MUL ll'.O 
MUL 1150 
MUL 11 60 
MUL 1 170 
MUL 1 180 
MULl 190 
MUL1200 
MUL1210 
MUL1220 
MUL1230 
MUt-12A0 
MUL1250 



no ion J=i,3 

BFVNl I . J1=0.0 
100 BFSTU , J1=0.0 

DO 102 1=1,4 

on 102 J=l,5 
102 RFSHl I , J)=0.0 

CFPLt 1 1=0.0 

CFPL 12)=0.0 

WFAD VOLUME PERCENTAGE TABLES FOR CUFT-8 , BR FT -8 , AND BRFT-16. 

INPUT CARDS, TYPES A, B.C. 

RE AD I 5, 106 1 [KCUV8( I ), 1 = 1,6 5) 
106 FnHMAT(26I3/(26I 31 ) 

READ (5, 106) (KPFvqt I ) , 1 = 1 ,S5 1 

RE AD (5, 106 1 (KBFVlh(I),I^l.2'5 1 

REWIND 4 
999 REWIND 1 

KPASS=KPASS * 1 

RFAO CONTROL CARDS CARD TYPES 1,2.3,4 

READ (5.40) 1 PRORI I ) , l=l,Rl 

READ (5, 421 IN.NSAM.R.NPROO, I IP( I 1, I = 1,NPR0D1,EXPFC 

IF INSAM.GT.ISAM) WRITE (3,411 NSAM 

IF (NSAM. GT. 1 SAM) GO TO 39 

IF INSAM.EQ.O) GO TO 39 

PRISM=EXPFC 

READ! 5,4 3) JON , K POLE . K SAW , KVF NR , KS T UD , KPULP ,KOU T , I BUG , KVOL , BAF V 

JONREF= JON 

JON=AMINOI JON.ll 

IF(KPASS.GE.2I GO TO 2 

READ (5,441 I PO 1 NT ( I ) , I = 1 , NS AM ) 

2 KMAX=0 
KMIN=100 
NROT=0 
NRORE=0 
PWOROT=0.0 

DO 3 K=2,Sn,2 

3 KOUNMK)=0 

4 IF ( IN.NE.O) GO TO 5 

READ TREE DATA CARDS. THE FORMAT AND INPUT LIST MAY BE CHANGED TO 

AGREE WITH USERS COOED DATA. ALL VARIABLES NOT INCLUDED IN USERS 

INPUT LIST SHOULD RE SET TO ZERO FOR FURTHER USE IN THE PROGRAM 

RFAD(5,45)ISIRT.I0MY,0BH.IPLHT.ISWP, 1 PCH . I CRK , I PFK , 1 FRK , I F S , 1 L S , ( ( 
l(KN0T(L,M,N).N=l,3l,M=l,4),L = l,3),(I2 4PII),I = l,4), ITRHT.LEAN, I ROT 
IFl I THHT.GT. 10) ITRHT=10 

COMPUTE DIAMETER CLASS 

K=D6H/2.0tn.5 



IF (K.GT.IMAX) WRITE (3,46) 

IF (K.GT. IMAX) GO TO 4 

IF ( ISTRT.GT.ISAM) WRITE (3, 

IF ( ISTRT.GT.ISAM) GO TO 4 

-RECORD TREE DATA ON TAPE 



DBH 



WRITE (lIKtlSTRT, I DM Y, DBH, IPLHI, ISWP, IPCR, 1CRK,|PFK,IFRK,1FS,ILS,(I 
llKNaTIL.M,N),N=l,3l,M=l,4I,L=l,3), ( I24P1 I 1 , 1 = 1 , 4 ) , I TRHT , LE AN , I ROT 

GO TO 6 



C IF DATA IS TAPE FILED, READ FROM TAPE 



5 READI I 1 K. I STRT, I DMY.OBH 
1KN0T(L,M,N),N=1 ,31 .M=l, 

6 IF lOBHI 11,11,7 

7 KOUNT (K)=KOUNT IK 1*1 

IF IIROT.GT.O) NRORE = NRORE*-l 
IF (IROT.GT.ll NRnT=NROT*l 
IF (K-KHAX ) 9,9,8 

8 KMAX=K 

9 IF (K-KMIN) 10,4,4 

10 KMIN=K 
GO TO 4 

11 REWIND 1 

IF (R.NE.O) PROROT=FLOAT(NROT)/FLOAT(NeUPe) 

ICARD=0 

GO TO 112,26,12), JONREF 

BEGIN PRUDUCT PRIORITY ROUTINE 

12 LAST=1 

IF (IBUG.EO.l) WRITF (3,48) PROROT 

READ AND EVALUATE DATA BY PRODUCTS 

DO 25 KX=KMIN.KMAX,2 

L]M=KOUNT(KX) 

IF (LlM.EQ.O) GO TO 25 

00 24 J=l ,L1M 

DO 13 1 = 1, 10 

13 IN0( I )=0 

READd )K,ISTRT,IDMY,OSH,IPLHT,|SwP, IPCR, ICRK, IPFK,IFRK,|FS.ILS,(( 
1KNQT(L,M,N),N=1,3I,M=1,4),L=1,3).(I2 4P|11,I=1,41,ITRHT,LEAN,IH0T 
IFIITRHT.LE.OI WRITE(3.471) I TRHT, IDMY 
|F( I TRHT.LE.O) go to 24 
CALL VOLUM (KCUVa,KBFV8.KBFV16,RAFVl 

IF RANDOM NUMBER Gf NEH ATOR ( R ANF ( 1 ) I IS NOT USED TO DETERMINE SUR- 

SAMPLE FOR ROT REDUCT I ON , I NSERT A GO TO 16 BRANCH CARD HEkE. R = 

GO TO 16 

IF (KANF( 1 ).LT. PROROT ) 14,15 

14 IR0T=2 
GO TO 16 

15 IROT=0 

16 IF I IRUG.EO.Ol GO TO IR 
ICAfiD=lCARDtl 

WRITE (3,49) 1 CARD, I STRT, POINT If STRT) ,FF,K,DBH, I PL HT , I TRHT , I SHP , 
ILFAN,ICRK,|PCH.IFRK, IPFk, IFS, ILS, I ROT, I I2 4P( IM), IM^1,41 
DO 17 L=l,3 
DO 17 M=l,4 

17 WRITE (3,50) L , M , ( KNOT ( L . M, N ) . N= 1 , 1 1 

18 IF ( IKX.eO.KMAX I . AND. ( J.EO.L IM) I LAST=3 



NSA 



= 



NVENR=0 

NSTUD=0 

nn 23 I=l,NPROD 

ISUB=1P( I ) 

GO TO (19,20.21,221. ISUB 

CALL POLE (PLHT2, POINT. TOTAL, ISAM, IMAX, PL 

GO TO 2 3 



HUL1260 

MUL I 2 70 

MUL1280 

MUL1290 

MUL 1300 

MUH310 

MUL 1 320 

MULl 330 

MUL1340 

MUL 1350 

MUL1360 

MUL1370 

MUL1380 

MUL1)90 

MUL1400 

MUL 14 10 

MUL1420 

MUL1430 

MUL1440 

MUL1450 

MUL1460 

MUL 1470 

MUL1480 

MUL1490 

MUL1500 

MUL1510 

MUL1520 

MUL1530 

MUL1540 

MUL1550 

MUL 1560 

MUL1570 

MUL1580 

MUL1590 

MUL 1600 

MUL1610 

MUL1620 

MUL 1630 

MUL1640 

MUL1650 

MUL 1660 

MUL1670 

MUL1680 

MUL 1690 

MUL 1700 

MUL1710 

MUL1720 

MUL1730 

MUL 1740 

MUL 1750 

MUL1760 

MUL1770 

MUL 1780 

MUL 1790 

MULlflOO 

MULiaiO 

MUL1820 

MUL1830 

MUL 1840 

MUH850 

MUL1B60 

MUH870 

MUL 1880 

MUL1890 

MUL1900 

MUL1910 

MUL 1920 

MUL 1930 

MUL 1940 

MUL 1950 

MUL 1960 

MUL 1970 

MUL1980 

MUL1990 

MUL2000 

MUL2010 

MUL2020 

MUL 2030 

MUL2040 

MUL2050 

HUL2060 

MUL2070 

MUL2080 

MUL2090 

MUL2100 

MUL 2 110 

MUL2120 

MUL2130 

NUL2140 

MUL2t50 

MUL2160 

MUL2170 

MUL2180 

MUL2190 

MUL220O 

MUL2210 

MUL2220 

MUL2230 

MUL22A0 

MUL2250 

MUL2260 

MUL 2270 

MUL22flO 

MIIL2290 

MUL 2 300 

MUL2310 

MUL2320 

MUL2330 

MUL2340 

NUL2350 

MUL 2 360 

MUL2370 

MUL23B0 

MUL2390 

MUL2400 

MUL2410 

MUL 2420 

MUL2430 

MUL2440 j 

MUL2450 j 

MUL2460 j 

MI)L2470 

MUL2480 

MUL2490 

MUL 2500 

M1IL2510 



20 



20 NSAH=NSAW*l 

CALL SAW (SAWV, POINT, rOTAl, ISAM, IM&X ) 
CO TO 23 

21 NVE'<R = NVENR» I 

CALL VFNR IVF NRV, POINT, TOTAL. ISAM, IMAX) 

GO TO 23 
72 NSTUO=NSTUn*l 

CALL STUO ISTUDV,t>niNT,TurAL.ISAP^,IMAX( 
23 CONTINUE 

CALl PULP (PULPV.POINT.niTAL. ISAM, I MAX) 

LAST^? 
2^ COrjT INUe 

25 CONTINUF 

SfGlN ALL PRODUCT ROUTINES 

IF IJONHEF.NE. 31 GO TO 99"* 

26 J0N=2 
RFWINO 1 
ICARD=n 

IF ( t i*ur,.eu. I ) WRITE n»«-fti prorht 

LAST=1 

HEAD AND fcVALUATE DATA fUR SfLECTED PRODUCTS 

on 39 KX=KMI N.KMAX ,2 

LIM=KOUNT (KX ) 

IF (LlM.CO.Ol r,0 TO 3fl 

00 37 J=I ,LIM 

no 27 1=1,10 

27 INO( 1 1=0 

REAOlllK.ISTRT, inMY.nBH, IPLHT, ISwP, 1PCR, ICRK,IPFK,IFRK,lFS,|LS,(r( 
lKNOT(L.M,Nl,N=i,31,M=l,*.l,L = l,3), ( I 2<.P ( I) . I = 1 . A 1 , I TRhT , LE AN t I ROT 
[Ft ITRHT.LF.O) WRlTE(3,'.7n ITWHI.IDMY 
1F( ITSHT.LE-0) CO TO 37 
CALL VOLUM IKCUVa,KBFVfl,K0FVl6.eAFV) 

IF RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR I «ANF ( I ( ) IS NOT USED TO DETEHMINe SUB- 

SAMPLE FQH ROT RE DUC T I flN , I NSE R T A GO TO 30 BRANCH CArtD HERE. R = 

r,0 TO 3 

IF IRANF ( I l.LT.PRORnT) 28,2'J 

28 IR0T=2 
GO TO 30 

29 1R0T=0 

30 IF (IBUG.EO.O) GO TO 32 
ICARO=ICARD»l 

WRITE (3, ^9) lCARD,lSTRT,PniNT( ISTRTl ,FF,K,DflH, I PL HT , I TRHT , I SWP , 
ILEAN.ICRK.IPCRilFRK.lPFK, IFS, ILS, IROT,IU'.PI IMj.lM^l.'.l 
DO 31 L=l,3 
DO ^l M=l,'. 

31 WHITE (3,51) L,H,(KNOT(L,M,N),N=l, 3) 

32 IF ( IKX.EQ.KMAX) .AND, IJ.EO.L IMI I LAST = 3 
IF (KPOLE.eO.Ol GO Tn 33 

CALL POLE (PLHT2, POINT, TOTAL, ISAM, IMax,PLHTl ) 

33 IF (KSAW.EO.O) GO TO 3*- 



NSA 



= 



CALL SAW (SAWV. POINT, TOTAL, ISAM, IMAX ) 
3^ IF (KVENR.EO.O) GO TO 35 
NVFNH=0 
CALL VENK ( VENRV , POI VT , TOT AL , I S Af* , I H AX ) 

35 IF (KSTUO.EO.O) GO Tn 36 
NSTUD=n 

CALL STUO (STUnv, POINT. TOTAL, ISAM, IMAX ) 

36 IF(KPULP.EO.O) GO TO 60 

CALL PULP IPULPV.PQINT.TOTAL.ISAM.IMAXJ 
60 IF(KUUT.EQ.O) GO TO 62 

IFIKP.EO. I) IPLHT=IPLHT»5 

WRITFK) K,ISTRT,inMY,OBH,IPLHT, ISWP, IPCB.tCRK, IPFK, IFRK, IFS, ILS, 

1 ( ( IKNOT(L,M,N) ,N=l,3),M=l,'.),L=l,3),r 1 2<.P ( I t , I = 1 , i. ) , I TB HT , LE AN, 
2IR0T,KP,TCFV,TBF\/.EF,((8FSWII,L),L = l,5l,l=I,'.l,l(BFVN(I,L),L-I,3), 
3I = l,^),((eFSTII,L),L=l,3),I = l,'.l,(CFPLIII,I=U2) 

NREC=NHEC ♦ 1 
62 LAST=2 

37 CONTINUE 

38 CONTINUE 
EMOFILE u, 
REWIND *. 

IFIKOMT.EQ.O) CO TO 9qq 
WRITt(3,53) NREC 

WRITE (3,5^) K, ISTRT,IDMY,D[1H, IKLHT, ISWP, IPCR, ICRK.IPFK.IFRK.IFS, 
IILS,(IIKN0TIL,M,N),N=1,3),M=1,*,),L = 1,3),1 IZ'fPI 1 ), 1=1,^) , I TRHT, 
2LfAm,IR0T.KP,TCFV,THFV,FF,l (RFSWIl.L ),L = l,5),I = l,'tI,( (BFVNl I,L).L = 
31,3),I = l,<.).((HFSTlI,L),L = 1.3),I = l,',l,ICFPLtIl,I = U2) 

GO TO 199 

39 CALL EXIT 

«0 FORMAT (3A10) 

*l FORMAT (1H0«SAMPLF S I ? E * I 6 , 2X *L AHGER THAN ALLOWASLE, SEE DATA STAT 

lEMENT*) 
«2 FORMAT I2I5,r5.3,12I'i,rs.O) 
*3 F0RMAT(9I5,2K,F<1.*.) 
4* FORMAT ( 16F5.0) 
A5F0aMATI2Xl2,l7,F5.2,lXl2,U7Il,Ul2Il.2X12ll.2X12II,2X';il,IXI2, 

UX2II) 
*6 FORKAT f lHOeoiAMETER«F6.2,2X»EXCEEOS MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE, OATA FROM 

ITHIS TREE NOT USED*) 
*r7 FORMAT ( IH ^SAMPLE NUMBER* 1 6 ,2X«EXCFEnS MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE, OATA FR 

lOM THESE SAMPLES NOT USED»1 
'.71 FORMATUH *TREE HE I CHT • U . 2 XSEXCEEOS MINIMUM OR MAXIMUM FOR VOL CA 

ILCULATION, OATA FOR TREE 10*18, • NOT USED*) 
«fl FORf^T (IHI,130(*=*)/IH0*TREF STATISTICS PIECE BY P I ECE •F20. 5 , 3X*n 

IF BUTT LUGS DISCARDED PASED ON ROT S AMPl. F */ 1 HO, I 30 ( * = * 1 ) 
*9 FORHATIlH , I 30 ( * = • 1 / I H 'TREE NUMQFR*I6,* SAMPLE NUMHER*I5,* SUBP 

ILOTS IN THIS CLUSTC«*f 5.0,* VOL/ACRE EXPANSION F AC TOR *F9. '^Z* TREE 

2 SIZE DIAMETER CLASS*13,* 01 AMF TF R*F6 . ? , « POLE HFIGMT*n,* T 
3WEE HriGHT*I3/* OFFFCTS SweEP*I2.* LFflN*I2,* CR(lOK*I2,* CROO 
<.K LaCATI0N*I2,* F0RK«12,* FORK LOC AT I ON* I 2, • FIRE SCAH«I2,* LI 
5CHTNING SCaR*I2,* RaT*I2/" CLEAR FACES IN FOURTH P 1 FCF* <- 1 2 , / • KNO 
6TS PIECF FACE T,OTAL LIVE DEAD*) 

50 FORMAT t I H , I 10 , <, I 9 1 * 

51 FORMAT tlH ,110, im 

i3 FORMAT I IHO* ENO-I)F-RlIN TOTAL HCfOROS OUTPUT ON TAPE ^ UNOFK OPTI 

ION 2 =*I5,* LAST RECORD PROCESSEn WAS •) 

5« FORrATIlMO, 13, K, 19, F6. 2, 13, 1X712, 1X1212, IX12I2. 1X1212, 1X^12, 13, 
l2I2/lH0.1XI2,2F8.2,FT.'V/lH0,2X,7OF6.2/lHn,2X,20F6.2/lHO,2X.6F6.2) 
ENO 
SUBROUTINE POLE ( PLHT2 , POI NT , TOT AL , ISAM, IHAX,PLHT1 1 



MUL2520 
MUL2530 
MUL25'.0 
MUL2550 
MUL2560 
MUL2570 
MUL2580 
MUL2590 
MIIL2600 
MUL2610 
MUL2620 
MUL2630 
MUL26'.0 
MUL2650 
MUL266n 
MUL2670 
MML26aO 
MUL2690 
MUL2700 
MUL2710 
MUL2720 
KUL2730 
MUL27'.0 
MUL2750 
MUL2760 
MUL2770 
"UL2780 
MUL2790 
MUL2800 
MUL2aiO 
MUL2a20 
MUL2830 
MUL^B'tO 
MIJL2a50 
MUL?fl60 
MUL2870 
MUL28eO 
MUL2890 
MUL2900 
MUL2910 
MUL2920 
MUL2930 
MUL29'.0 
MUL2950 
MUL2960 
MUL2970 
MUL29«0 
MUL2990 
MUL3000 
MUL3010 
MUL3020 
KUL 1030 
MUL30<.0 
MUL3050 
MUL3060 
MUL3070 
MUL3080 
MUL3090 
MUL3100 
MUL31 10 
MUL 1120 
MUL3130 
MUL31<.0 
MUL3150 
MUL 3 160 
MUL3170 
MUL 3 I 80 
MUL3190 
MUL3200 
MUL3210 
MUL 3220 
MUL3230 
MUL32'.0 
MUL3250 
MUL3260 
MUL3270 
MUL 3280 
MUL 3290 
MUL 330O 
MUL 33 10 
MUL3320 
MUL 3330 
MUL 33^0 
MUL3350 
MUL3360 
MUL3170 
MUL33e0 
MUL3390 
MUL I'.OO 
MUL3*.10 
MUL3'.20 
MUL3'.30 
MUL3*.A0 
MUL i<.50 
MUL 3^60 
MUL3<.70 
MUL 3^.80 
MUL 3'.90 
MUL3500 
MUL3510 
HUL3520 
MUL3530 
MUL35',0 
MUL3550 
MUL3560 
MUL 1570 
MIJL3580 
MUL 3590 
MUL360O 
MI]L3610 
MUL3620 
MUL 36 30 
MUL36',0 
MUL3650 
MUL 3660 
MUL 3670 



<.LAST,TCFV.IBFV, I BUG, 1 C ARD , PR 1 SM , K P , 10MY,KV0L.tF 



IF tt 



I l.'-.'t) , LAST 
MIN.GT.IO) KMN=KMIN 



10 



:::: 



DIMENSION PLHT2( ISAM, 151 , POINTIISAMl, TOT AL ( I SAM , ^ 1 , PLHT1(15,20) 

COMMON KNOT13,<.,3),I?'iP('iJ, IPll! >. I N0( 10 I ,KOUNT ( 50 1 1 Y ( 1 5 ) .S( 15), 
iPROB(n),PCuvfl{ui,pprvfn lOi ,pbfvi6( 51 .pfshi 4,51 .BFVNI*. 3) , 

2fiFST(A,31.CFPl(21 ,NPHnO,KMlN,KMflx,NSAM,K, IS TB T , DBH, I PLHT , I SWP , 
31PC«,ICRK, IPFK, IFHK, [TS, ILS, I IWHT,i CAN, I HOT , »J SAW , NVFNR , NS lUO , JON , 



POL 
POL 
POL 
POL 
POL 
POL 



POI 90 
POL 100 
POL 110 



KMX=20 

IF (KMAX.LT.20) KMX^KMAX 

00 3 11=1,15 

00 2 KK=KMN,KMX,2 

2 PLHTl II 1 ,KK1=0 
00 3 J J= 1 , NSAM 

3 PLHT2( JJ,1 I 1 = 

^ IF I IPLHT. LF.O) on TO ?0 

IF 1K.GT.20.0R.K.LT. 10) GO TO 20 

IF1NK=1 1 IPLHT/fl.OI to. 41 

IF (IFINK.GT. 1 TRHT ) IFINK = ITHHT 

GRADING SECTION 

iTnp=o 

ICUT=0 

GO TO (5,71, JON 

5 DO 6 L = l, IF1NK 
I F ( 1 ,■^0 ( L ) ) 6,6,20 

6 CONTINUE 

7 IF ( ISWP) a, ft ,20 

1 IF( ILS.GT.n.OR.IROT.GT.l) GO TO 20 

IF(LEAN.GC.2) GO \sy 20 

IF(ICRK-n in, 10,9 
9 IF( IPCR.GT. IF INK) GO TO 10 

IF( IPCR. NE. 1. OR. IPCR. NE. iriNK ) G'l TO 20 

IF( IPCR.FO.l) 1CUT = 5 

1F( IPCR.Ey. IF INK) inP = 5 
10 IFdFRKl 14,1A,|2 
12 IFl IPFK.GT.IFINKI GO TO 14 

1 F I IPFK.NE.l .OR.IPFK.NE. IFINK ) GO TO 20 

IF! IPFK. FO. 1 .AND. ICUI.FQ.O) ICUI^5 

IFIIPFK.EO.IFINK.ANO. ITOP.EO.U) IT OP =5 
14 IF( IFS.GI .0. AND.ICUT.FO.Ol KUT = ^ 

LlM=AMINO( 3. IFINK) 

tlO 17 L=l ,LIM 

on 17 M=l,/, 

IF IKN0T(L,M,2)-4) 16,20.20 

16 IF IKNOT(L,M,3)-4) 17,20,20 

17 ClINTlNUC 
1PLHT=1PLHT-ICUT-IT0P 
IF|NK=| I 1PLHT/R.0)*0.9I 

I Fl IFINK.GT. ITRHT) IFINK = I TRHT 
ZZ = CVllL(l.O, PRISM, EF) 

ADO INTO REGISTER 



IF I IPLHT. LT. 2) GO TO 20 
KP = l 

PLHT1(1PLHT,K)=PLHI1[ |PLHT,K)+ZZ/P01NT{ ISTHT) 
PLHT2( ISTRT, IPLHT)=PLHT2( ISTRT, Il'LHT 1 tZZ 
GO TO I 18,201 , JON 
1ft on 19 L = l ,10 

19 I NOIL 1=1 

20 IF (LAST. NE. 31 GO TO 27 
WRITE 13, 29) lPRUP(I),l:l,ftl 
GO TU 121 ,221 , JON 



C PRODUCT PRIORITY HEADING 



SINGLF PRODUCT HEADING 

22 WRITE (3,31) 

23 WRITE (3,32) 

DO ?5 KK=KMN,KMX,2 
00 24 1 1=2,15 

24 PLMTIII I ,KK1=PLHT1111 .KKl/NSAM 

WRITE (3,33) KK, I PLHTI I 1 I ,KK 1, I 1 = ?, l-.) 

25 CONTINUE 

no 26 1 1=2,15 

26 CALL STDER ( NS AM , Y ( I 1 ) , S ( I I 1 , PL NT 2 ( I . 1 I 1 , PO I N T 1 
WRITt (3,34) I Y( II ) , 1 1=2, 15) 

WRI TE (3,351 (S( 1 I 1 , 1 1 = 2, 15) 

27 RETURN 

28 FORMAT IIH *TRFb NUMBER* 1 6, 1 2X , *ACCFPTEO AS POLE CLASS*I3,2 
1 *WITM PER ACRE WEIGHT OF*F 10, 3, 2X ,*0I AHt Tf R CLASS*I31 

29 FORMAT ( lHl,ftA10) 

30 FORMAT ( I HO, 1 30 I *= • ) / I HO , *POL ES BASED ON PRODUCT PRIORITY CRI 
1* ) 

31 FORMAT ( IHO, 130(*=*)/1H0, 'POLES CONSIDERED AS SINGLE PRODUCT* 

32 FORMAT ( 1 HO, 1 30 ( * = * 1 / 1 HO «D 1 AMt T ER • 37X 'POL E S PER ACRE BY HEIGH 
1SS*/1H0* CLASS*16X 

2*10*5X*15*5X*20*5X*2S*5X»30*5X*15*5X*40*5X*45*5X*50*5X*55*5X* 
3 SX*65«5X*T0*5X«7S»/!Hn,l30l*=*)) 

33 FORMAT (IH 1 5 . 1 1 X , 1 4F 7 . 2/ 1 H I 

34 FORMAT ( 1 HO , 1 30 I • = • 1 / 1 HO 'HM GH T CLASS SUM •,14F7.21 

35 FORMAT (IHO'STO F 'i R MF AM*6X , I 4F 7 . 2/ I HO , llfl ( t^ • 1 1 
END 

SUBROUTINE SAW ( tf CNT , PHI NT , TOT AL , I S AM , I M A X ) 



COMMON KNOT I 3,4, 3 1 , I 24P ( 4 1 , 1 1' ( I 11 , I NDI I 1 , XOUNT I 50 ) , Y( 151 ,S( 1 
[PROP 181 ,PCUVR( 11 1 ,PBFV«( 101 ,PBFV16(5),BFSW(4.5),BFVN(4,3) , 
2BFST(4,3),CFPL(21 , NPROD , K M I N , KM AX , NS AM, K . ISTRT,06H, IPLHT, I SWP 
3IPCR,ICRK,lPFK,IFflK,IFS,ILS,ITRHT,LCAN, I ROT , NSAH , NVENR , NS TUO , 
4LAST,TCFV,TBFV,IBUG, I C ARD, PR I SM, K P , lOMY.KVOLiEF 

GO TU (1,3,3) ,LAST 

1 KHN=12 

IF (KM IN. G I. 12) KMN=KMIN 
DO 2 KK=RMN,KMAX,2 
DO 2 J=l ,4 
00 2 1=1, NSAM 

2 VCNT( 1 , J,KKI=0.0 

3 1F(K.LT.121 GO TO 200 
IF (NSAW-l )4,4,5 

4 on 7 1=1,4 
no 1 J =1,5 

7 BFSWd .J1=0.0 



POL 120 

POL I 30 

POL 140 

POL 150 

POL 160 

POL 170 

POL 180 

POL 190 

POL 200 

POL 210 

POL 220 

POL 230 

POL 240 

POL 250 

POL 260 

POL 2 70 

POL 2M0 

POL 290 

POL 300 

POL 310 

POL 120 

POL 3 10 

POI 340 

PUL 150 



POL 


380 


POL 


190 


POL 


400 


POL 


410 


POL 


42U 


POL 


430 



POL 


470 


priL 


480 


POL 


490 


POL 


500 


POL 


510 


POL 


520 


PPL 


5 30 


POL 


540 


PML 


550 


POL 


560 


POL 


570 


POL 


580 


PML 


590 


POL 


600 


POL 


610 


POL 


620 


POL 


6 30 


POL 


640 


POL 


650 


POL 


660 


P(IL 


6 70 


POL 


680 


POL 


690 


POL 


700 


POL 


710 


POL 


720 


POL 


7 30 


POL 


740 


POL 


750 


POL 


760 


POL 


770 


PUL 


780 


POL 


790 


POL 


800 


POL 


810 


Pf L 


820 


POL 


830 


POL 


340 


POL 


850 


POL 


860 


POL 


B70 


POL 


880 


POL 


890 


POL 


90O 


POL 


910 


POL 


920 


POL 


930 


POL 


940 


PnL 


950 


POL 


960 


POL 


970 


PML 


9U0 


POL 


990 


POLIOOO 


POL 1010 


POL 1020 


POL1030 


POL 


040 


POL 1050 


POL 1060 


POL 


070 


POL 1080 


POL 1090 


POLl 100 


POLl 110 


POL 11 20 


POL 


130 



S«u 


100 


^«H 


1 10 


sau 


wo 


S«u 


no 


5AH 


1«0 


litK 


150 


S«U 


160 


%M 


1 70 


SAM 


Iflo 


s»u 


ISO 


SA> 


?00 


SAM 


710 


SAW 


220 


SA« 


2 30 


sa» 


240 



21- 



Ca 
2x: 



Cu 



se< 
die 



St 

lo 
re 
h( 

ui 
to 
h( 
ai 



C TEST FOR TWO t)R MORE H&LF LOGS IN TREE 
C 

5 IF 1 lTRHT-2)200.6,6 

6 tnci^i 

LPCl=l 

LPC2=2 

IF ( 1 TRHT,GT.2 ) GO TO fl 

KHr = 

GO TO 10 
R KHT=1 
10 GO TO I 12 ,1*., 12) , JON 
12 IF( INniLPCH*lN01LPC2l-ll lit.AT.AT 

c 

C GRADE FIRST LOG 12 SECT(nNS) 
C 

14 NP=0 

00 22 L=l,2 

ND=0 

N1=0 

00 20 »=1,^ 

IFIKNOI (L.M, 1 )-l ) 16, 19.20 
16 N0=N0 + 2 

GO TO 20 
18 N1=N1 ♦ 1 
20 CDMTINUE 

NP=NP*N0*N1 
27 CONTINUE 

IF (NP12fe,2iS,2<. 
2'. on TO (26, 26, 26. 26. 2R. 28 



.2fl. 28, 2*1, 2B. %0, 30, 30.32,32) 



C IGR^i. DENOTES LOG GRADE ^ 
C 

26 [GR = <. 

IHG = 5 

GD TO J'. 
28 IGH=3 

IMC=3 

GO TO 34 
30 IGR=2 

IWG = 2 

GO TO 34 
32 1GH=1 

IRG=1 
34 GO TO ( 36,40, 36 ) , JON 
16 1F(NSAW-1GR147,39,47 
38 IND(LPC11=1 

IND(LPC2 1=1 

40 IFIKVOL-M 901. ''O^, 900 
C 

C ADJUST GROSS LOt, VOL FOR VISUAL OEfECTS FOR 16FT LOG 
C 

900 PCNr=0.0 

IFdLS.EO.ll PCNT = PCnT ♦ ,25 

IF(ILS.Ey.2) PCNT=PCNT * .50 

IF I 1 SWP.eO.2 1 PCNT = PCNT ♦ .20 

IFIIFS.EO.Z.AND.LPCl.EQ.l) PCNT=PCNT + .13 

IF ( ICRK-GT.O. AND. t PCR.FO-LPCl.OR- 1PCR.E0.LPC2I PCNT=PCNT ♦ .Zb 

IF( IFRK.GT.O.ANO.TPFK.FQ.LPCl.OR. IPFK.Eil.LPC2) PCNT = PCNT ♦ .25 
C 

C ADD INTO REGISTERS 
C 

41 IFIPCNT-1.1 42.44,44 

4? VLM=(P6FVl6(LnG)-(PBFvl6(L0G)*PCNT ) ) 

43 VLM=CVOL(VLM, PRISM, EF 1 
00 TO 46 

44 VLM=0.0 
1FILPCI.E0.LPC21 GO TO 45 
iriD(LPCl 1=0 
IND(LPC2I=0 

r.O TO 4 6 

45 INOILPC1I=0 

46 VCNTI ISTRr,IGR.K)=VCNTnSTRT, IGR.K ) * VLM 
IF( IBUG.EQ.I.AND.LAST.NE.3) GO TO 904 

GO TO 4 7 
C 

C NO CROSS LOG VOL ADJUSTMENT FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 16FT LOG 
C 

903 VLM=PBFV16tL0G) 

BFSWI IGR,Ln&l=OFSH( IGH.LOG) ♦ VLM 
GO TO 43 
C 

904 GO TO (906,903) ,KVOL 

908 WRITE(3.571) I C A» D , LOG , I RG, VL M, K . PCNT 

571 FORMATIIH *TREF NUMBE R* I 6, ?X» LOG* I 3 , 2X 6 ACCE PT ED AS SAWLOG GRADE* 
II3,2X*H!TH ADJUSTED WT VOL OF *F 1 . 3 , 2 X 'D I AMET ER C L ASS* I 3 . 2X»PR V =• 
2F5.2) 
GO TO 47 
906 WRITE(3.570) I CARD . LOG, I H& , VL M . K 

570 FORMATdH *THEE NUMBER* I 6 . 2X * LOG* I 3 , 2X •ACCEPTED AS SAHLOG GRADE* 
1I3,2X»HITH HEIGHTEO VOLUME OF *E 10. 3, ?X *0 I AME TER CLASS*I3I 
C 

C TEST FOR SFCOND LOG 
C 

47 CONTINUE 

GO TO 148,48,98.98, 1 la, I 18, 126, 126, 200, 200), LPC2 

48 IF(ICHTI200,200,5C 
50 IF(ITRHT-4)52,82,12 

C 

C ITKHT=3 NEXT SECTION IS 

C 

52 LnG=2 

LPC1=3 

LPC2=3 

KHT = 

GO TO (54,56,54) , JON 
54 IF I INDILPCl) 156,56,47 
C 
C GRADE A HALF LOG SECTION 



ALF LOG (8FT) 



BET) 



56 N0=0 

N1=0 

DO 62 M=l .4 

If (KNOT( 3.M,l)-l)5a,60,62 
58 NO=NO ♦ 2 

GO TO 62 
60 Nl=Nl ♦ 1 
62 CONTINUE 

NP:NO+Nl 

NP=NP*2 

IF (NP)fc6,66,64 
64 GO TO 166,66,66,66.6*1,68,68, 



,68,68, 70.70,70, 72.72) , 



SAU 


2 70 


saw 


280 


SAU 


290 


SAM 


300 


SAU 


310 


SAW 


320 


SAU 


330 


SAU 


340 


SAU 


350 


SAU 


360 


SAU 


370 


SAU 


3S0 


SAU 


390 



SAU 


500 


SAU 


510 


SAU 


520 


SAU 


530 


SAU 


540 


SAU 


550 


SAU 


5 60 


SAU 


5 70 


SAU 


580 


SAU 


590 


SAU 


600 


SAU 


610 



6 9 IGR=3 
IRG = 3 
GO TO 74 
70 IGR=2 
IRC = 2 
GO TO 74 
72 IGR=1 
IRG=1 
74 GO TO (76,80.76) , JON 
76 IFINSAW-IGR)47,70,47 
76 IND(LPC2)=1 
aO IFIKVOL-l )91 3,913,912 
C 

C ADJUST GROSS LOG VOL FOR VISUAL DEFECTS FOR 8FT LOG 
C 

912 PCNT=0.0 

IFdLS.EO.ll PCNT = PCNT * .25 

lF{lLS.Ea.2) PCNT=PCNT ♦ .50 

IFdSWP.EO.2) PCNT = PCNT ♦ .20 

IF(ICRK.GT.O.AND.IPCR.FO.LPCl) PCNT^PCNT t .50 

IFIIFRK.GT.O.AND. IPFK.EO.LPCn PCNT = PCNT * .50 

GO TO 41 
C 

C tjO GRDSS log vol ADJUSTMENT FOR VISUAL OEFECTS BFT LOG 
C 

91 3 CONTINUE 
GO TO 903 

C 

C 1TRHT=4 NEXT SECTION IS FULL LOG (16FT1 

C 

82 L0G=2 
LPCl=3 
LPC2=4 

IF I I TRHT.GT.4) GO TO 81 
KHT:0 
GO TU 8 3 
81 KHT=l 

fl3 GO TO (84,86,R4) , JON 

84 I FUNDI LPCl) + IN0ILPC2 1-1 ) 86,4 7,47 
C 
C GRADE SECOND LOG ( 16FT1 



DENOTES GRADE 5 



66 1GR=4 
!RG = 5 

GO TO 74 



SAU 680 


C 








SAU 690 




86 


N0=0 




SAW 700 






N1 = 




SAW 710 






N2 = 




SAW 720 






DO 92 M=l ,4 




SAW 730 






IF (KNOT I 3, M, 11-1 188,90, 92 




SAW 740 




88 


N0=N0 ♦ 2 




SAW 750 






GO TO 02 




SAW 760 




90 


Nl»Nl • 1 




SAU 7/0 




92 


CONTINUE 




SAW 780 






DO 96 M=l,4 




SAW 790 






IFI 124PIM) 194,94,96 




SAU 800 




94 


N2=N2 • 2 




SAW 810 




96 


CONTINUE 




SAU 820 






NP=N0*N1*N2 




SAU 8 30 






IF1NP126,26,24 




SAU 840 


C 








SAW 850 


c 


TEST FOR SECTIONS ABOVE TWO LO&S 




SAW 860 


c 








SAU 870 




98 


1F(KHT)200,200,100 




SAU 880 




100 


IFI ITRHT-61102. 108,108 




SAW 890 




102 


L0G=3 




SAU 900 






LPC1=5 




SAU 910 






LPC2=5 




SAW 920 




103 


KHT = 




SAU 930 






GO TO 1 104,106,1041 , JON 




SAU 940 




104 


IFI INDILPCl) 1 106, 106,47 




SAU 950 




106 


IGR«4 




SAW 960 






1RG = 5 




SAW 970 






GO TO 74 




SAU 980 




108 


L0G = 3 




SAU 990 






LPC1=5 




SAUIOOO 






LPC2«6 




SAUIOIO 






IFI 1 TRHT.GT.6) GO TO 110 




SAU1020 




109 


KHT.O 




SAU1030 






GO TU 112 




SAW1040 




110 


KHT=1 




SAW1050 




112 


GO TO 1114,116,114) , JDN 




SAU1060 




1 14 


IFIIN0ILPC1).1NDILPC2)-1) 116 


4 


SAWI070 




116 


1GR = 4 




SAWloeo 






1RG = 5 




SAU1090 






GO TU 34 




SAUUOO 


c 








SAUIUO 




118 


1FIKHT)200,200, 120 




SAKU20 




120 


IFI I THHT-8) 122,124,124 




SAW1130 




122 


L0G = 4 




SAW1140 






LPCU7 




SAUl 150 






LPC2=7 




SAW1160 






GO TO 103 




SAU1170 




124 


100.4 




SAUliaO 






LPC1=7 




SAUl 190 






LPC2.8 




SAU1200 






IFIITRHT.GT.Bl GO TO 110 




SAU1210 






GO TO 109 




SAU1220 


c 








SAU1230 




126 


IF((<HT)200,200,I28 




SAU1240 




128 


IF(ITRHT-10)130,H2,132 




SAU1250 




130 


L0r.= 5 




SAH1260 






L PC 1=9 




SAU1270 






LPC2»9 




SAU1280 






CO TO 103 




SAW1290 




132 


L0G = 5 




SAU1300 






LPC1"9 




SAU1310 






LPC2=10 




SAWI320 






GO TO 109 




SAUH30 


c 








SAU1340 




200 


IFILAST.NE.31 GO TO 500 




SAW1350 






URITEI3,5a01 IPRORI I ) , 1=1 ,8) 




SAW1360 






GO TO 1204,202) , JON 




SAW1370 


c 








SAU1380 


c 


SINGlT PRODUCT HEADINGS 




SAU1390 


c 








SAU1400 




202 


GO TO 1914, 9161, KVOL 




SAU1410 




914 


URITEI3,586) 




SAW1420 






GO TO 918 




SAU1430 




916 


WRITEI3,588) 




SAU1440 




918 


WRITE 13,590) 




SAU1450 






GO TO 212 




SAU1460 




204 


IFINSAU-4)206,208,206 




SAU1470 




206 


NSUU=NSAW 




SAuiAeo 






GO TO 210 




SAU1490 




208 


NSWW=5 




SAH1500 


c 








SAU1510 


c 


PRODUCT PRIORITY HEADINGS 




SAW1520 


c 








SAW1530 




210 


GO TU 1920. 922). KVOL 




SAW1540 




920 


UR1TE(3,596) NSHW 





SAW2" 

SAU2: 
SAU2I ' 



-22- 



CO TU 92* 



^22 



<}2<. NRITei 1,6001 
212 DO 21*. l = l,NSAM 

on 21*. j=i ,«. 

21*. TOTAH I , J)=0.0 

00 226 KK=KMN,KMAX,2 
00 216 J=l ,<. 
216 C»LL STOEft (NSAH.YtJ) 

GO TO 1220.211), JON 
?18 MRITE(3.610} KK. ( Y( 1 I 
C 
C SINOLF PKOr-JCT OUTPUT 



C PHOOUCT PRIORITY DUTPUT 



,S( J),VCrjT( !.J, 



220 HRITEO.630) KK.YINSAM) 

HRITE(),6'W0) SINSAW) 
222 no 22'> J=l,4 

no 22A i=i,NSaM 

22* TOT«L( I .J) = T0TAL ( I , JltVCNTI I , J.KK ) 
226 CONTINUe 

on 229 J=l ,* 
229 CAIL STDER I N5AM , Y I J ) , S ( J 1 , T ni aL ( 1 , J ) . PO INTl 

GO rn (232.2101 , JON 
210 HflITE(3,6SOI (Y( 1 1,1-1,*) 

WRITE(3,6iS0) (S(I I ,I = 1,*> 

GO TO 500 
2'i2 HRITE(3,670) YlNSAWl 

MRl TE(3.680I SINSAWI 
500 HETUHN 

560 FORMAT llHl ,3A10) 

586 FORMAT! 1M0,13C(»=6)/IH0*SAWL0GS CONSIDfHED AS SINGLE PRODUCT GRO 
ISS VOLIIME NUT AOJUSTFD FOR VISUAL DEFECTb*) 

598 FORMAT! IHOt I 30( •=•) /IH0»SAWL0GS CQNSIOrPFO AS SINGLE PRODUCT GR(I 
ISS VOLUME ADJUSTFn FOR VISUAL DEFECTS*) 

590 FORMAT! lHO,I3Dl* = »l/lH0*f)lAMETER»32X*BOAKD FUOT VOLUMES PER ACRE 8 
lY &RAOE«/lHO» CLASS»25X<-1*17X«2*17X*1»17X»5*/1H0, |30l* = ») ) 

596 FORMATHH0,130( » = *)/lHO*GRAOE«n,« SAHLOG VOLUMES BASED ON PRODUCT 
I PRIORITY CWITERIA GROSS VOLUME NOT ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS*) 

599 FnRMATnHO,130(*=«)/lHn*GHADE«l3,* SAHLOG VOLUMES BASED ON PRODUCT 
1 PRIORITY CRITERIA GROSS VOLUME AtJJMSTEO F0» VISUAL DEFECTS*) 

600 FDRMATl 1H0,130I*=*)/1H0*DIAMETER*17X*B0A«D FOOT VOLUMES PER ACRE • 
1/lH • CLASS*/lM0,13n( •=«) ) 

610 FORMAT ( IHO , I * , 6X , "ME AN*F 20 . 2 , 3 ( F 1 8 . ? ) ) 

620 FORMAT (IH ,lOX*STf) EHR*F 1 7 .2 , 3 ( F 1 R . 2 ) ) 

630 FORMAT I IHO , 1 * , ?*X 'MF AN*f ?0 . 2 ) 

6*0 FORMAT (IH ,?8X*ST0 ERR*F17.?) 

650 FORMAT (1H0.130(»=*)/1 HO 'TOTAL MEAN*1X,F20.2,31F1B.2J) 

660 FORMAT IIHO'STO ERR HE AN*7X . F20 .? , 3( F 18 . 2 )/ IHO, I 30 I • =• I ) 

670 FORMAT II HO, 1 30 ( » = * ) / IH0*T0T AL •Z 3X *ME flN*f 20. 2 ) 

680 FORMAT (IH0.28X«STD ERR*F I 7 . '/ 1 HH , MO 1 *-* ) ) 

END 

SUBROUTINE VENR I VCNT , POl NT , TOTAL , I SAM, I MAX ) 

GRADES FO-l VENEER POTENTIAL USING A THREE GRADE SYSTEM 

ACCUMULATES VENEER VOLUMES 

DIMENSION VCNT I 1 SAM, * , I MAX ) , POI NT ( ISAM), TOTAL I ISAM,*) 

COMMON KNOT(3,*,3), I 2*P I * ) , 1 P I I I ) , INO ( 10 1 , KOUNT I 50 ) , Y ( 15) ,SU51 , 
IPROeia) .PCUVfld l ) .PBFVSI 10),PBFV16(5),BFSHU,5I,8FVNI*,3) , 
2BFSTU,T) ,CFPLI2l .NPRPD.KMI N.KMAx , NSAM.K. ISTRT.DBH. IPLHT, ISWP, 
3IPCR.ICRK,IPFK,|FRK, IFS, ILS. |TRHT,LEAN, I ROT . N SAW , NVENH , NS TUD , JON , 
*LAST,TCFv,TBFv,!PuG,ICARn,PRISM,KP. 1DMV,KV0L.EF 

GO TO ( 1,3,3) , LAST 

1 KMN=10 

IF IKMIN.GT.IO) KMN=KMIN 

00 2 KK=KMN,KMAX,2 

DO 2 J=t.* 

00 2 1 = 1 ,NSAM 

2 VCNTll , J,KK)=0.0 

3 IF IK.LE. 10) GO TO 21 . 
IF (K-l*) *,5,6 

* LIM=1 

CO ru 7 

5 LIM=2 
GO TO 7 

6 L|M=3 

7 LIM=AMINO(LIM,ITRHT) 
IFINVENR-1 )8,8, 10 

8 DO 9 1=1,* 
DO 9 J=l,3 

9 OFVNI I , J)=0.0 
10 on 20 L=l,llM 

CO TO 150,52) , JON 
50 IFIINn{L))52,52,20 

GRADING SECTION 

52 ICH=l 

00 5* MsU* 

IFUN0TlL,M,3).CT.0.nR.KNOT(L,M,2).GT.2) lGR=AMftX0( ICR,2) 

IF(KN0T(L.M,31.CT.2.nR.KN0T(L,M.2) .CT.2) IGR=&MAXO( ICR,3) 

IFIKNOT(L,M,3).Cr.3) I'.Rs'V 

IFUN0T(L,M,3).CT.3) GO TO 55 
5* CONTINUE 

IF(K.Lr.l6) I&R=APAX0(IGR.2) 

55 CONTINUE 

CO TO (56,60) , JON 

56 IFINVENR-|CR)2C,58,20 
58 IN0(L)=1 

60 IFiKvni.-l)l02,l02,lOO 

-Iin*'*""'^^ ^ROSS LOG VQJ. FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 
100 PCNT«0.0 

IFI IRDT.GT.l.AND.L.EO.n PCNT = PCNT ♦ l.O 
IFUCi'K|6*,6*,^2 
62 If IICHX.CE.2.AND.I.E0. IPCR) PCNT = PCNT ♦ 1.0 

IFIICRK.tO.l.AND.L.EO.IPCR) PCNT=PCNT ♦ .5 
At If IIFRK.CT.O.AND.L.EO.IPFK) PCNT=PCNT » .5 

IF<ILS)68.68,66 
*" lF(IlS.&E-2) PCNT = PCNT ♦ , •> 
IFIILS.EQ.l) PCNT=PCNT ♦ .25 
^^69 »FIIfS,CE.2.AN0.L.F0.n PCNT = PCNT ♦ .25 
; lOQ njyfj REGISTERS 

If (PCNT-l,)70,72,72 
TO VLM=IPBfvaiL)-rPftFVftlL)*PCNT) ) 
71 VLM=CVnL(VLM, PRISM, EF) 

CO TO 7* 



SAH28 30 
SAW28*0 
SAK2850 
SAU2B60 
SAW2P70 
SAW2680 
SAW2890 
SAW2900 
SflW?910 
SAW2920 
SAH2930 
SAW29*0 
SAW2950 
SAW2960 
SAW2970 
SAW2980 
SAH29g0 
SAW 3000 
SAW3010 
SAW3020 
SAH5030 
SAW30*0 
SAW3050 
SAW3060 
SAW3070 
SAH3080 
SaW3090 
SfiW3100 
SAW3110 
SAW3120 
SAW3130 



SAM3l*0 
SAW3150 
SAW3160 
$AW3170 
SAH31B0 
SAH3190 
SAW3200 
SAW3210 
SAW3220 
SAW3230 
SAM32*0 
SAW3250 
SAW3260 
SAW3270 
SAW3280 
SAW3290 
SAH33O0 
SAW3310 
SAW3320 
SAH3330 
SAW33*0 
SAH3350 
SAH3360 
SAW3370 
SAW3380 
SAW3390 
V E 'J 10 
Vf N 20 



VfN 


100 


VEN 


110 


VfrN 


120 


VFN 


no 


VI N 


140 


VE-J 


150 


VFN 


160 


MfN 


170 


VEN 


180 


VEN 


190 


VE-i 


200 


VEN 


?10 


VEN 


220 


VEN 


2 30 


VEN 


240 


VFN 


250 


VEN 


260 


VEN 


2 70 


VEN 


280 


VEN 


290 


VEN 


300 


VEN 


110 


VFN 


120 


VEN 


130 


VEN 


140 


VEN 


150 


VEN 


360 


VEN 


370 


VEN 


380 



VEN 


*60 


VEN 


*70 


VEN 


*80 


VFN 


*90 


VFN 


500 


Vf-N 


510 


VEN 


520 


VFN 


5 30 


VEN 


5*0 


VGN 


550 


VEN 


560 


VFN 


5 70 


VEN 


580 


VCN 


590 


VEN 


600 


VEN 


610 


VEN 


620 


VtN 


630 


VEN 


6*0 


VtN 


650 


VFN 


660 


VtN 


6 70 


VEN 


680 


VFN 


690 


VfcN 


700 


VFN 


710 



7? VLM=0.0 

1N0IL)=0 
'* VCNT(ISTHT,ICR,K)=VCNTI ISTRT.IGR.K) * VLM 

IFI IBUC.EQ.l. AND. LAST. ^E. 1) r.n Tu 10* 

on TO 20 
C 

C NH GROSS LOG VOi ADJUSTMENT FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 
C 

C 102 IF ( IROr.GT.l. ANO.L.EO.U CO TO 9*) 
C IFI ICRK.GT.l.AND.L.EQ. IPCR) GO TD 99 
C IF I IFRK.GT.O.AND.L.EO. IPFK) GO TD 99 
C IFI ILS.Cr.O) GO TO 99 
C IFI IFS.GE.2. ANIl.L.EQ. I I GO TO 99 
102 VLM=PPFVfl|L) 

HFVNI IGR,L ) = BFVNI IGR,L ) * VLM 

GO TO 71 
C 
C SET INO SELECTOR OFF PIECE FAILED VISUAL DEFECTS TEST 



10* GO Tl) (108,1061, KVOL 

106 WR|Te(3,361l I C ARD, L . I GH . VL M 

G(l TIJ 20 
lOR W«ITE(3,56) I C AWO, L , I G« , V LM , 

20 CONTINUE 

21 IF (LAST,NE.3) GO TO 35 
WRITE (3,37) IPROBI 11,1=1,8) 
GO TO 123,221, JON 



VLN 


720 


VfcN 


730 


VFN 


740 


VEN 


7 50 


VEN 


760 


VEN 


770 


V( N 


780 


VEN 


790 


VEN 


800 


VI N 


»10 


VEN 


820 


VEN 


830 



-SINGLE PRODUCT HEADING 



22 GO TO (110,1121 ,KVnL 
110 WRI TE (3,376) 

GO TO 11* 
112 rtRITE(3,378) 
11* W«I TE (3,38) 

GO TO 2* 



-PRODUCT PRIORITY HEADING 



23 CO TO (116,118) ,KVO 
1 16 WRI TE (3,386) NVENR 
GO TU 120 

119 WRI TE(3,38R) NVENR 

120 WRITE(3,391 
2* DO 25 J=l,* 

on 25 1 = 1 ,NSAM 
25 rOTALI I , Jl =0.0 

DO 31 KK=KMN,KMAX,2 



00 26 J=l. 



NSAM 



,S( J 1 ,VCNTI I, J.K 



-SINGLE PRODUCT OUTPUT 



27 WRITE (3,*0) KK , I Y ( I 1 , I = 1 , 
WRITE (3,*n (Sd ), 1=1,*) 
GO TO 2 9 



nr.r.r^ 




28 


WRITE (3,*2) KK,Y(NVE 




WRITE 13, *3) SINVENH) 


29 


no 30 J=l,* 




on 30 1=1 ,NSAM 


30 


TOTAL! I , J) = TOTAL( 1 .J) 


31 


CONTINUE 




DO 32 J=l,* 


32 


CALL STDER (NSAM.YIJI 




GO lU 1 3*,33) . JON 


13 


WRITE (3.**) (Y( 11,1= 




WRI TE (3,*51 ( S( I ) , 1= 




Cn TO 35 


3* 


WRITE (3,*6) YINVENR) 




WRITE (3,*7) SINVFNR) 


35 


RETURN 



,S1 Jl , TOTAL I 1 , J) , POINT) 



36 FORMAT (IH »TREE NUMBER* 1 6 , 2X*P I FCE • I 3 , 2 X • ACCEPTED AS VENEER GRADE 
1*I3,2X*HITH HEICHTEO VOLUME OF*F 1 . 3 , 2X*r)I AMF TER CLASS*I3) 

361 FORMATdH tTREE NUMBER * I 6 , 2X*P I EC f * I 3 , 2X « ACCEPTED AS VENEER GRADE* 
1I3,2X*WITH ADJUSTED WT VOL OF *F I . 3 , 2X*0 I AME T FR CL ASS* I 3 , 2X*PfiV •• 
2F5.2) 

37 FORMAT ( 1H1,8A10) 

376 FOHMAT( IHO, 130(* = *I/IH0*VENFFR CONSIDERED AS A SINGLE PRODUCT GRO 

ISS VOLUME NOT ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS*) 
378 FnRMAT(lH0,1301 •=*)/lH0*V6NEER CONSIDERED AS A SINGLE PRODUCT GRO 
ISS VOLUME ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS*) 
3ft FORMAT! IHO, 130(*=*)/lHn*01AMFTER«?3X*pOARD FOOT VOLUMES PER ACRE B 
lY GftAnF*/lHO» CLASS*?5X*1*17X*?»17X*3*17X***/1M0, 130(*=*) ) 
386 FORMAT! IHO, 130(*=» l/lHO*GRADe*I 3,* VENEER BASFO ON PRODUCT PRIORIT 

lY CRITERIA GROSS VOLUME NOT ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS*) 
388 FORMAT( 1H0,130( •=*)/lHn*GRA0E*I3,* VENEER BASED ON PRODUCT PftlORIT 
lY CRITERIA GROSS VOLUME ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS*) 
39 FORMAT! IHO, I 301 •=*)/lHO*DIAMFTER*17X*80ARO FOOT VOLUME P£R ACRE • 

1/lH • CLASS*/1H0, 130( • = •) ) 
*0 FORMAT ( lMO,I*.6X*MFAN*E?0.2,3(Flft.?) ) 
*1 FORMAT IIH ,10X*STD F RR *F 1 7 . 2 , 3 ( F 1 8 . 2 I ) 
*2 FORMAT ( IHO, 1*,2*X*MFAN*F20.? ) 
*3 FORMAT (IH ,28X*STD CRR*Fir.2) 

** FORMAT I IHO.l 30(*=«)/lH0, 'TOTAL ME AN* 3X , F 20. 2 , 3 I F 1 8. ? ) ) 
*5 FORMAT (1H0*STD ERR ME AN* 2X , F 20 . 2 , 3 ( F 1 8 . 2 I / IHO, 1 30 ! * = * ) ) 
*6 FORMAT 11HO,1301»=*)/1HO*TOTAL*23X*MFAN*F20.2) 
*7 FORMAT llH0,2flX*ST0 F R R 'F 1 7 . ?/ IMP , 1 10 ( • = • ) ) 
END 
SUBROUTINE STUD ( VC N T , POl NT . T OT AL ■ ( S AM, I M AX ) 

GRADES FOR STUD POTENTIAL USING A THREE GRADE SYSTEM 

ACCUMULATES STUD VOLUMES 

DIMENSION VCNT (ISAM,*, 9) .POINT ( I SAM), TOTAL! ISAM,*) 

COMMON KNOT! 3,*,3),12*P(*),IPini.INO{l01 ,K0UNT(50I ,Y!15),SI15], 
IP ROB 18) ,PCUV8(U) ,PBFVft! l0).PBFV16(SI,flFSW(*,5),BFVN(*,3), 
2BFST!*,3J .CFPL(2) , NPROD.KM! N,KMAX , NSAM.K , ISTRT.DBH, IPLHT, ISWP, 
31PCH,1CRK,|PFK,IFRK,1FS,1LS,ITRHT,IEAN,IR0T,NSAW.NVENR.NSTUD, JON, 
*LAST,TCFv,TBFV,IPUG,ICARD,PRISM,KP.IDMY,KVOL.fF 



VEN 860 
VI N 870 
VLN 880 
VFN 890 
VEN 900 
VEN 910 
VEN 920 
VFN 930 
VEN 9*0 
VEN 950 
VEN 960 
VEN 970 
VFN 980 
VEN 990 
VtNlOOO 

V F rj 1 1 
VEN1020 
VtN1030 
VEN10*0 
VEN1050 
VEN1060 
VEN1070 
VEN1080 
VFN1090 
VEN 1100 

V F N 1 I 1 
VFN1120 
VtNll 30 
VEN11*0 
VFN1150 
VENn60 
VEN1170 
VtNllBO 
VEN1190 
VEN1200 
VFNI210 
VtN1220 
VEN12 30 
Vf N12*0 
VENI250 
VeN1260 
VEN12/0 
VEN1280 
VEN1290 
Vf Nl 300 
VEN1310 
VFN1320 
VEN1330 
VEN13*0 
Vf Nl 350 
VENl 360 
VEN13;0 
VFN1380 
Vf N13^*0 
VEN1*00 
VFNl*10 
VENl*20 
VENl* 30 
VFN1**0 
Vf Nl*50 
VEN1*60 
VFN1*70 
VFNl*80 
VEN1*90 
VENISOO 
VEN1510 
VfNl520 
VEN1550 
VtN15*0 
VEN1550 
VfN1560 
VEN1570 
VENl 580 
VEN1590 
VEN1600 
VEN1610 
VEN1620 
V6N1630 
VEN16*0 
VEN1650 
VENt660 
VFN1670 
VEN1680 
Vf-Nl690 
Vf N170O 
VfNl710 
VEN1720 
VFN1750 
VEN17*0 
VFN1750 
VFM760 
VE'll770 
STU 10 
STU 20 



30 



STU 80 



STU 



90 



STU 100 

STU no 

STU 120 
STU 130 



GO TO ! 1 , 3,31 

KMN = 6 

IF 1KMIN.GT.6 



LAST 



STU 



1*0 



KMX=22 

IF IKMAX.LT.2?) K 
on 2 KK=l ,9 
00 2 J=l,* 
DO 2 1 = 1 ,NSAI- 
? VCNT I I , J,KK) sO.O 



STU 150 
STU 160 
STU 170 
STU 180 
STU 190 
STU 200 
STU 210 
STU 220 



-23- 



Var 
na 



IR( 



Ca 
2x: 



Cu 



se< 
die 



Bi 



St 

lo 
re 
h( 

ui 
to 
h( 
ar 



3 IF (K,LT.6) GO TO 22 

IF (K-22) 5,'*,22 

4 LIM=3 

[in TU 12 

5 IF lK-201 7,6.6 

6 LIM=2 

GO TO 12 

7 LIM=l 

12 LHT=AMINOl ITRHT.II 

IF (LIM.GT.LHT) GO TO 22 

iF(NSTuo-i la.a, 10 

H on 9 1=1,4 
00 9 J=l,3 
9 BFSTl I , J)=0.0 
10 on 21 L=LIM.LHT 

GO TO 150. S2 ) , JON 
^0 1 F ( 1 NOIL ) 152, 52.21 
52 N1=0 



C GWADINC SECTION 



DO 5^ 



= 1 



= 1. 



M=Nl*KNOT(L,M,l ) 

1F(KN0TIL,M,3).GT.1.0R.KN0T1L,M,2 ) .GT.?! IGR = AMAXO I I GR . 2 ) 

IF (KNOT IL,M,3).GT,2,0R,KN0TIL,M,^) .GT.2) ir,R=AMA)(OI IGR, 31 

IF{KN0T(L,M,3 1 . CT . 2 . OR . KNOT ( L , M , 2 1 .GT.3) IGR =4 

IF (KNnT(L,M,3 ) .GT.2.0R.KN0T(L.M,2) .GT. 3) GO TO 55 

54 CONTINUE 

IFIN1,GT-16) IGR=aMAK01 IGR, 2) 
IF(N1.GT.32) IGR=AMAXO( IGR, 3) 

55 CONTINUE 

GO TO (56,60) .JON 

56 IF(NSTUD-1GR)21 ,58.21 
58 INDIL)=l 

60 IF(KV0L-1 I 102, 102.10n 



C ADJUST GROSS LOG VOL FT 



VISU 



DEFECTS 



100 PCNT=0.0 

IFUROT.GT. t .ANO.L.EQ.l) PCNT = PCNT ♦ 1.0 

IF( lCRK)ft4.64,62 
62 IF I ICRK.GE.2. AND.L.EO. IPCR) PCNT=PCNT * 

IF( ICRK.EQ. l.AND.L.EO.IPCR) PCNT = PCNT «■ 
64 IF( IFRK.GT.O.ANO.L.EO.IPFK) PCNT=PCNT * 

IFI ILS)6fi,68.66 
66 lFnLS.GE.2) PCNT = PCNT ♦ .5 

IFIlLS.EO.n PCNT = PCNT ♦ .25 
68 IFI IFS.GE.2.AN0.L.FQ. 1 ) PCNT=PCNT + .25 



C ADD INTO RFGISTERS 



IFIPCNT-1. 170,72,72 
VLM=(PBFVRfL)-(PflFvg(L) 

VLM=CVULIVLM, PRISM, FF ) 



T> 



GO TU 
72 VLM = 0.r) 

1 NOIL 1=0 
7(. VCNTl I STRr,IGR,KI'l=VCNTI ISTPT, IGR.KK ) ♦ VLM 
IF IIBUG.EO.I. AND.LAST.NE.3J GO TO 10^ 
GO TO 21 
C 

C NO GROSS LOG VOL ADJUSTMENT FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 
C 

C 102 IF I IkOT.GT. 1. AND.L.EO. 1 ) GO TO 99 
C IFI ICRK.GT.l. AND.L.EO. IPCRl GO TO 99 
C IFIlFRK.GT.O.AND.L.EO.IPfK) GO TO 99 
C IFI ILS.GT.OI GO 10 99 
C 1 F I IFS.GE.2. AND.L -FO. U GO TO 99 
102 VLM=PRFV8IL) 

BFSTl IGR, L) = 6FSTI IGR. L) ♦ VLM 
GO TO 71 
C 

C SET IND SELECTOR OFF PIECE FAILED VISUAL DEFECTS TEST 
C 

C 99 IND(L)=0 
C GO TO 21 
C 

104 GO TO ( 10ft, 1061 .KVOL 

106 WRITC(3,371) KAHO,L,iGR,VLM.K,PCNT 

GO TU 21 
108 WRITEI3.37) I CAR D , L . 1 GR , V LH. K 

21 CONTINUE 

22 IF (LAST.NE.3) GO TO 36 
WRITE (3,38) (PROBd 1 .1 = 1 .8) 
GO TO (24,23) . JON 

C 

C SINGLE PRODUCT HEADING 

C 

23 CO TO (110,112) .KVDL 
110 WRl Tb I 3,3861 

GO TO 11*. 

112 HRITfcl3.388) 

114 WRITE 13,39) 

GO TO 25 

C 

C PRODUCT PRIORITY HEADING 

C 

24 &n TO ( 116, 1 18) ,KVOL 
116 WRITE 13.396) NSTUD 

GO TO 120 
118 WRITtl3,398) NSTUD 
120 WRITE(3.4ni 

25 DO 26 J=l,4 

DO 26 1=1,NSAM 

26 TOTAL ( I , J)=0.0 
DO 32 KK=KMN,KMX 
KX = KK*2*'. 

DO 27 J=l ,*. 

27 CALL STOER (NSAM,V1J),S(.)),VCNT(I,J,KK),P0INT) 
GO TO 129,281, JON 

C 

C SINGLE PRODUCT OUTPUT 

C 

28 WRITE (3.41) KX,(V( n, 1 = 1,4) 
WRl TC (3,421 (S( I I . 1 = 1,4) 

GO TO 3 

C 

C PRODUCT PRIORITY OUTPUT 

C 

29 WHITE (3,43) KX.YINSTUDl 
MRITL (3,44) SINSTUO) 

30 00 31 J=l ,4 

DO 31 I=1,NS6M 

31 TOTAL I I , J) = TOTAL I I , J I * VC NT ( I , J , KK 1 



STU 


2 30 


SIU 


2<.0 


STU 


!50 


STU 


260 


STU 


270 


STU 


280 


STU 


290 


STU 


300 


STU 


310 


STU 


320 


STU 


330 


STU 


3<.0 


SIU 


350 


STU 


360 


STU 


370 


STU 


380 


STU 


390 


STU 


400 


STU 


<.10 


STU 


420 


STU 


430 


STU 


440 



STU 500 
SIU 510 
STU 520 
STU 530 
STU 540 
STU 550 
STU 560 
STU 570 
STU 580 
STU 590 
STU 600 
STU 610 
STU 620 
STU 630 
STU 640 
STU 650 
STU 660 
STU 670 
STU 680 
SIU 690 
STU 700 
STU 710 
SIU 720 
STU 730 
STU 740 
STU 750 



SIU 



760 



STU 770 
SIU 780 
STU 790 
STU 800 
STU 810 
STU 820 
STU 830 
SIU 840 
STU 850 
STU 860 
STU 870 
SIU 880 
STU 890 
STU 900 
STU 910 
STU 920 
STU 930 
STU 940 
STU 950 
SIU 960 
STU 970 
STU 980 
SIU 990 
STUIOOO 
STUIOIO 
STU1020 
STU1030 
STU1040 
SIU1050 
STUi060 
STU1070 
STU1080 
STU1090 
STUllOO 
STUltlO 
STU1120 
STU1130 
STU1140 
STU1150 
STU1160 
STU1170 
STU1180 
STU1190 
STU1200 
STU1210 
STU1220 
STU1230 
STU1240 
STU1250 
STU1260 
STU1270 
STU1280 
STU1290 
STU1300 
STU1310 
STU1320 
STU1330 
STU1340 
STU1350 
STU1360 
STU1370 
STU1380 
SIU1390 
STU1400 
STU1410 
SIU142n 
STU1430 
STU1440 
STU1450 
STU1460 
STU I 4 70 
SIU14e0 
STU1490 
STIJ1500 



Y( J) ,S( J) ,TOTAL( l.J) .POINT) 



GRADE* 



32 CONTINUE 
DO 33 J=l,4 

33 CALL SIDER 
GO TO (35.3i. ) , JON 

34 WRITE ( 3.451 (Ylll,I = l,'.l 
WRITE 13,46) ISI I ) ,1 = 1,41 
GO TO 36 

35 WRITE (3.47) YINSTUDl 
WR I IE (3. 48) S INSTUO) 

36 RETURN 

37 FORMAT (!H •TREE NUMBER' I 6, 2X6P I ECC*I 3, 2X*ACCEPTE0 AS STUD 
1«I3,2X*W1TH WEIGHTED VOLUME OF*F 10 . 3 . 2X* D I AME lEft CLASS*13) 

371 FORMATHH «IREE NUMBER* 16, 2"*? 1 ECE* I 3, 2X»ACCEPTED AS STUD 

113,2X*HITH ADJUSIFD WI VOL OF 'F 10 . 3, 2X*0 I AME I ER CL AS S • 1 3, 2X*PR V = 
2F5.2) 

38 FORMAT IIH1.8A10) 
386 FnRMATIlH0,l30(»=*)/lH0*STU0S CONSIDERED AS SINGLE PRODUCT CROSS 

IVOLUME NOT ADJUSIFD FOP VISUAL DEFECTS*) 
388 FORMATI IH0,130( * = *)/lH0*STUUS CONSIDERED AS SINGLE PRODUCT GROSS 
IVHLUME ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS*) 

39 FOHMAK 1H0,1301*=*)/1H0*DIAMETER*23X*B0ARD FOOT VOLUMES PER ACRE 
lY GRAO£*/1HO* CL ASS*25X* 1 * 1 7X* 2* 1 7X * 3* 1 7X*',* / IHO , 1 30 ( * = * ) ) 

396 FORMATI IHO, 1301 *=*)/lH0*GRA0e*I3,* STUDS BASED ON PRODUCT PRIORI! 

I CRITERIA GROSS VOLUME NOT ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS*) 
39R FORMATI IHO, 130(»=*)/1HO*GRAOE*I3,* STUDS BASED ON PRODUCT PRIORII 

1 CRITERIA GROSS VOLUME ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS*) 

40 FORMAT ( IHO, 130(*=*)/IH0*DIAMEIER*17X*80AR0 FOOT VOLUME PER ACRE * 
I/IH • CLASS*/1H0.130I *=*) ) 

^1 FORMAT I IHO. I4,6X*MEAN*F20.2.3( FIR,2) ) 

42 FORMAT (IH ,10X*STD E RR *F 1 7 . 2 , 3 ( F 18. 2 ) ) 

^3 FORMAT ( IHO, 14 ,24X*MEAN*F20.2) 

44 FORMAT IIH ,28X*STD ERR*F17.2) 

45 FORMAT llH0.l30(*=*)/lHn»T0TAL*2X*MEAN*.3X,F20.2,3(Fia.2)) 

46 FORMAT 11H0*SID ERR ME AN»2 X , F 20 . 2 , 3 ( F 1 8 . 2 ) / IHO, 1 30 I • = • ) ) 
4 7 FORMAT I I H(l , 1 30 I *= * 1 / 1 HO* TOT AL *2 3X «ME AN* F 20. 2 ) 
48 FORMAT I1H0,29X*SI0 E RR *F 1 7 . 2/ IHO , 1 30 I * = * ) I 



END 

SUBROUTINE PULP |PULPV,P0INT,T0TAL,1SA 



STU1510 
STU1520 
STU1530 
STU1540 
STU1550 
STU1560 
SIU1570 
SIU1580 
STU1590 
STU1600 
STU1610 
GRADE STU1620 
STU1630 
STU1640 
STU1650 
STU1660 
STU1670 
SIU1680 
STU1690 
STU1700 
STU1710 
SIU1720 
SIU1730 
STU1740 
SIU1750 
SIU1760 
STU1770 
STU1780 
STU1790 
STUieOO 
STU1810 
STU1920 
SIU1830 
STU1840 
STU1850 
STU1860 
STU1870 
STU1880 



, IMAX) 



PUL 
PUL 

C ACCUMULATES CURIC FOOT VOLUME FOR PIECES NOT USED AS OTHER PRODUCT PUL 

PUL 
( ISAM) .POINT ( ISAM) , TOTAL ( I SAM, 4) PUL 

PUL 
PUL 
PUL 



10 



DIMENSION PULPV 



COMMON KNOT I 3,4, 3) , I24P('. I , I P I 1 1 1 , INO I 10 ) , KQUNI ( 50 I ,Y(15),S(15I, 
IPROBI H) ,PCUV8( ll),PBFV«(lO),PBFV16(5),CFSW(i..5),BFVN14,3), 
2BFST(4,31 ,CFPLI2) ,NPBOD,KMIN,KMAX,NSAM,K, ISTRT.DBH.IPLHT.ISWP. 
3IPCR,ICRK.IPFK,lFRK.IFS,RS,lIftHT,LEAN, I ROT , N SAW , N VE NR , NS TUO , JON , 
4LAST,TCFV,I6FV,IRUG, I C ARG , PR I SM , KP , 10MY,KV0L,EF 



GO TO (I, 20, 20), LAST 
1 00 15 1=1,NSAM 
15 PULPV( I )=0.0 
20 NT=0 

KTOP=irRHT + 1 

00 25 1=1,2 
25 CFPL(I)=0.0 

00 30 I=1,ITRHT 
30 NT = NT ♦ 1ND( I ) 

IF(NT135,35.85 

TREE EXCLDOEO FROM PRIOR PRODUCT CONSIDERATION 

MAKE GROSS VOLUME ADJUSTMENTS FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 

35 IF(KV0L-1)60,60,37 
37 on 50 1=1, IIRHT 

PCNI=0.0 

IE(ILS)42,42.40 
40 PCNT=PCNI ♦ 1.0 
42 IFI IFS.GT.O. AND. I .EQ. 1) PCNT = PCNT ♦ .5 

1F(PCNT-1. )'t'V.46,46 
4 4 VLH=IPCUVfl( I )-lPCUVS( I jepCNT 1 1 

GO TO 48 
46 VLM^O.O 
48 VLM=CVOL( VLM. PRISM, EF) 

PULPV( ISTRT)=PUt.PV( ISTRT 1 ♦ VLM 

IF( I BUG. EQ. LAND. LAST.NE.3) WR1TE(3.10U I C ARO. I , VLM. K , PCNT 
50 CONTINUE 



-DO TOP PIECE FOR ADJUSTED GROSS VOLUME 



51 IF(ILS)52,52,54 

52 VLM=PCUV8(KI0P) 

PCNI=0.0 

GO TU 56 
54 VLM=0-0 

PCNI=1 .0 
56 VLM:CVOL IVLH. PRISM. EF ) 

PUIPVI ISIRT1=PULPV{ ISTRT 1 

IF( IBUG.E«.l .ANO.LASI.NE. 
58 IFILASI.NE.Jl GO TO 900 



51 WR1TE(3,103I ICARO, VLM, K, PCNT 



-DO TREE FOR GROSS VOLUMES--NO ADJUSTMENT FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 



60 DO 62 1=1 .ITRHT 
VLM=PCUV8( I) 
CFPL(2)=CFPLI2) ♦ VLM 
VLM=CVOL( VLM, PRISM, EF ) 
PULPV( ISIRT)=PULPV( ISTRT) ♦ 
IFI I BUG. EQ.l. ANO.LASI.NE. 3) 

62 CONTINUE 



WRITEI 3.10) ICARD.l.VLH, 



DO TUP PIECE FOR GROSS VOLUME — NO ADJUSTMENT FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 

64 VLM=PCUV8IKT0P) 

CFPLd )=CFPL(1) + VLM 

VLM=CVOL IVLM.PRISM.EF) 

PULPVI lSTftI)=PULPV( ISTRT) ♦ VLM 

IF I IBUG.EQ.l. ANO.LASI.NE. 3) WR1TEC3,9) 1CARD,VLM,K 

GO TO 58 

STEM SECTIONS EXCLUDED FROM PRIOR PRODUCT CONSIDERATION PLUS TOP 

MAKE GROSS VOLUME ADJUSTMENTS FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 

85 IFIKVOL-l 198,98,87 
87 DO 96 1=1. IIRHT 

IF( IND( 1 ).E0- I) Gn TO 96 

IFI ILS)90,90,92 
90 VI.M=PCUV8 ( I ) 

PCNI=0.0 

GO TO 94 
92 VLM=0.0 

PCNT=1.0 
9t, VLM = CVOL (VLM, PRISM. EF) 

PULPV(1STRI)=PULPVIISTHT1 ♦ VLM 

IFl IBUG.EQ. LAND. LAS T.N 
96 CONTINUE 



HIIEI3,101) ICARD.I,VLM,K,PCNI 



PUL 8 71 
PUL 881 
PUL 891 



24 



GO TO 51 
-DO STEM FOR GROSS VOLUMES — NO AOJUSTHENT FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 



00 too l=l,ITRHT 

IF{IN0( I l.EQ.U GO TO 100 

VLH=PCUV8(I ) 

CFPL12)=CFPL(2) ♦ VLM 

VLMiCvnnVLM,PRISM,EF) 

PULPV(ISTRT)=PULPVIISTRT) ♦ 

IFllBUG.EQ.l.ANn-LAST.NE.3) 

CONTINUE 

GO TO 6* 

WRIT£(l,m (PROHI n , l = l,ft) 

GO TO 16. S) , JON 



R I TE( "1, 10) (CARD, I , VLM.K 



ALL PRODUCTS HFADING 

5 GO TO I 10?. 10^1 .KVOL 
102 WRITE(3,12) 

GO TO 7 
10*1 HRl Tfc 13, 12 I J 

CO TO 7 

6 GO TO I I 06, 108) ,KVOL 
lOfo WRITE n.l3) 

GO TO 7 
108 WRITE(3.131 ) 

7 on 6 1 = 1 ,NSAM 
9 TOTALd ,n=0.0 

CALL STOER ( NS AM , Y l 1 ) , S I 1 ) , PHL PV I 1 ) , PO IN T ) 
WRI TE (3,14) Yl I 1 ,SI I) 

900 RETURN 



<) FHRMATllH •TREE NUMBF R « I 6 , 2X»T0P 
I TH WEIGHTED VOLUME OF »F 1 O. 3 , ?X •0 

FORMiT IIH •TREE NUMBER* I 6, 2X *P I 
IH WEIGHTED VOLUME OF* F 1 . 3 , ?X ^D I 

1 FOkMATIlH 'TREE NUMBER » 1 6 , ?X 'P I E 
I ADJUSTED HT VOL OF 'F 1 0. 3 , 2 X*D I Ai 

3 FORMATdH «TREE NUMBER • I 6 , 2X •TOP 
ITH ADJUSTED WT VOL OF *F 10, 3 , 2X ^0 

1 FORMAT (IHI.SAIO) 

2 FnRMAT(lH0,130(«=*)/lH0*PULP CON 
lOLUME NOT ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL OE 

1 FORMAT ( IHO, 1301*=* )/lHO*PULP CON 
lOLUME ADJUSTED FQR VISUAL DEFECT 

3 FnHMATllH0.1301*=*)/lHn*PULP CON 
IbHOSS VOLUME NOT ADJUSTED FOR Vl 

1 FORMAT ( IHO.l 301 •=*1/1HD*PULP CON 
IGRnSS VOLUME ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL 
<. FilRMAT (IH *TGTAL PULP VOLUME IN 
U1B*F3S.2/1H0, 1301*=*) ) 
END 
SUBROUTINE VOLUM (KCUVR,KBFV8,KRFVl6, 

ROUTINE CALCULATES GROSS CUFT 



PIFCE*. lX*ACCEPTEn AS PULP*13X*WI 
I AMETEW CLASS*I 3) 

ECt»l 3,2x*ACCEPTEO AS PULP*13X*WIT 
AMFTFR CLASS*I3) 

CE*I 3,2X*ACCEPTED AS PUL P* 1 3X*W I TH 
METER CLASS*13.2X*PRV =*F5.2) 

lECE*. lX*ACCEPrED AS PULP*13X*Wl 
METER CLASS*I3,2X*PRV =*FS.2) 

SIDERED AS SINGLE PRODUCT GROSS V 

FECTS*/1H0, 1301*-*) » 

SIOFRED AS SINGLE PRODUCT GROSS V 

IHO, 130{ • = •) ) 
SIOEREO AS RESIDUAL PRODUCT ONLY 
SUAL DEFECTS*/lHn, 1301* = * ) ) 
SIDERED AS RESIDUAL PRODUCT ONLY 

DEFECTS*/1H0.130( * = •) ) 

CUBIC FEET*F18.2/1H0*STAN0ARD ERR 



AFV) 



PUL 910 
PUL <>20 

PUL 9 30 

PUL q'.o 

PUL 950 
PUL 960 
PUL 970 
PUL 980 
PUL 990 
PUL 1000 
PULIOIO 
PUL 1020 
PUL 1030 
PUL lO'.O 
PUH050 
PUL1060 
PUL 1070 
PUL1080 
PUL 1090 
PULl 100 
PUL 11 10 
PUL 1120 
PUL 11 30 
PUL1140 
PULl 150 
PUL 1 160 
PUL 1170 
PULl 180 
PUL1190 
PUL1200 
PUL1210 
PUL1220 
PUL1230 
PUL 12<»0 
PUL1250 
PUL1260 
PUL1270 
PUL1280 
PUL 1290 
PUL 1300 
PUL1310 
PUL1320 
PUL 13 30 
PUL13'.0 
PUL 1350 
PUL 1360 
PUL1370 
PUL 1380 
PUL 1390 
PUL 1*.00 
PUL I^-IO 
PULl't20 
PUL1430 
PULl^.'.O 
PUL K^O 
PUL l<.60 
VOL 10 



THIS ROUTINE CALCULATES GROSS CUFT AND PRFT TREE VOL USING HGT IN 16FT 
LOGS AND DBH AND ALSn CALCULATES A vnL./ACBE EXPANSION FACTOR FOR EACH 
SAMPLE TREE USING DPH AND THE INPUT BAF VALUE OF THE ANGLE GAUGE USED. 
THE CALCULATED GROSS VOLUMES ARE ALLOCATED AMONG STEM SECTIONS OF THE 
TREE BY SELECTED PERCENTAGE TABLES. 



DIMENSION KCUVfl(65),KBFV8l55) ,KflFV16(29) 



NO ( 10 1 ,K0UNTI50) ,Y(15),S(15), 
S) , BFSW(4,5) ,BFVN(4,3) . 
SAM.K, ISTRT,DBH,IPLHT, ISWP, 

, IRUT.NSAW.NVENR.NSTUD.JON, 

V.KVOL.EF 



COMMON KNOT( 3,4,31,I2'.P(A),1P(11) 
IPROBia) .PCUVBd 1 1 ,P6FV8( 10) ,PBFVl 
2BFST(4,3I.CFPLI2t , NPROO, KM I N , KMAX , NS 
31 PCH,ICRK, IPFK, IFRK, IFS, ILS.ITRHT.LE 
'.LflST.TCFV.TBFV, I BUG, ICARD.PRISM.KP,! 

A = 0.0 
EF=0.0 
DO 5 N=l,ll 
5 PCUV8(N)=0.0 
DO 10 N=1.10 
10 PBFV8(N)=0.0 
DO 15 N=l,5 

15 PBFV16(NI=0.0 

ASSUME 6RKNG POINT OF 19.0 INCH OBH FOR BLACKJACK AND OLD GROWTH TREES 
TOT TREE VOL EQUATIONS FROM MYERS, C . A. , USFS RES. PAPER RM-2.1963. 
CONVERT HALF-LOG HTIITRHT) TO LOG HTI16FT SECTIONS) 

HTlfc=FLOATI ITRHT 1/2. 
DS0R=DBH**2 
IF(PRISM) 13,13.1*. 
13 DIV = OSOR*0. 00545*. 
EF=BAFV/OIV 
GO TU 16 

l<. EF = PR|SM 

16 A=DSQR*HT16 
IFIOeH-19.0) 17, 1R,18 



VOL 60 

VOL 70 

VOL 80 

VOL 90 

VOL 100 

VOL 110 

VOL 120 

VOL 130 

VOL 1<.0 

VOL 150 

VOL 160 

VOL 170 

VOL 180 

VOL 190 

VOL 200 

VOL 210 

VOL 220 

VOL 230 

VOL 2<t0 

VOL 250 

VOL 260 

VOL 270 

VOL 280 

VOL 290 

VOL 300 

VOL 310 

VOL 320 

VOL 330 

VOL 340 

VOL 350 

VOL 360 

VnL 370 

VOL 380 

VOL 390 



17 I F { A.GT .800. ) TC F V = 0. 0*.<.20*, • A ♦ H.2t(> 

1 F [ A.GT.800. 1 TBFV = 0.3000H1 'A - 52.090112 

IF( A.LE.ROO. ) TCFV = 0.0*,6*A ♦ 6.fi 

IFIA.LE.SOO. 1 TBFV = 0.224793»A ♦ H.I656 

GO TU 19 
IB IFIA.GT.IOOO. ) TCFV = 0.O*.5 736*A • 10.857212 

IF(A.GT.ll30.) TBFV = 0.326*.2T*A - 62.962331 

IF I A,LF. 1000. ) TCFV = 0.050666*A ♦ 5.8668 

IFIA.Le.ll30. ) TBFV = 0.275784*A - 5.09125 
C 

C CUBIC FT VOL BY HALF-LOG THIS TREE * TOP 
C 

19 KTnP=ITRHr ♦ I 
IF( ITHHT-I )20,20,25 

20 ISKP=1 
L-O TO 35 

25 ISKP=0 

DO 30 N=2. ITRHT 
30 I SKP=I SKP ♦ N 

ISKP=ISKP ♦ 1 
35 on 40 N=l,KTOP 

PCUV8(N) = (TCFV*KCUVR( ISKP) (/lOO. 

ISKP=|SKP t I 
40 CONTINUE 
C 

C BOARD FT VDL BY HALF-LOG THI*, TRFE 
C 

KTOP=ITHHT - 1 

IF I I TRhT-1 )45,45.50 
45 ISKP=1 

GO TU 60 
50 ISKP=0 

on 55 N=l .KTOP 
55 ISKP=1SKP ♦ N 

ISKP=ISKP ♦ 1 
60 DO 65 N=l .ITRHT 

P8FV8(N)= (TBFV*KBFV8( ISKP) )/l00. 

ISKP = |SKP *■ 1 
65 CONTINUE 
C 

C BOARD FT VOL BY SAW L0GII6FT) THIS THEE 
C 

LP=HT16 - 0.5 

IF(HT16-1. )100,70,75 
70 LS = 1 

GO TO 90 
75 N=HT16 

X = N 

D=HT16 - X 

IF 10180. PO, 85 
80 LS=N**2 

GO TU 90 
85 LS=N*«2 4 N 
90 KTDP=LP * I 

DO 95 N=1,KT0P 

PBFV16fN) = (TBFV*KBFV16(LS) ) /lOO. 

LS=LS ♦ 1 
9b CONTINUE 
100 RETURN 

END 

FUNCTION CVOL ( VBL . PR I SM , EF ) 

C 

C ROUTINE TO CONVERT VOLUME TO VOLUME/ACRE FOR PLOTLESS CRUISING 

C AND TO CONVERT VOLUME OF FIXED SIZED PLOTS ACCORDING TO A CONSTANT 

C 

IFIPRISM.NE.O.Ol CVOL=VBL*PRISM 

IFIPRISM.NE.O.OI GO TO 5 

CVnL=VPL*EF 
5 RETURN 

END 



VOL 4 00 

VOL 4 10 

VOL 420 

VOL 4 JO 

VOL 440 

VOL 4 50 

VOL 46C 

VOL 4 70 

VOL 4fl0 

VOL 490 

VOL 500 

VOL 510 

VOL 520 

VOL 530 

VOL 540 

VOL 550 

VOL 560 

VOL 5 70 

VOL 580 

VOL 590 

VOL 600 

VOL 610 

VOL 620 

VUL 630 

VOL 640 

VOL 650 

VOL 660 

VOL 670 

VOL 680 

VOL 690 

VOL 700 

VOL 710 

VOL 720 

VOL 7 30 

VOL 740 

VOL 750 

VOL 760 

VOL 770 

VOL 780 

VOL 790 

VOL 800 

VOL 810 

VOL 620 

VOL 830 

VOL 840 

VOL 850 

VOL 860 

VOL 870 

VOL 880 

VOL 890 

VOL 900 

VOL 910 

VOL 920 

VOL 930 

VOL 940 

VOL 950 

VOL 960 

VOL 970 

VOL 980 

VOL 990 

CVO 10 



SUBROUTINE STDER (NSAM,Y,S.AMTRX, POINT) 

C CALCULATES STANDARD ERROR OF THE MEAN FOR CLUSTER SA^ 

C UNEOUAL NUMBER OF SUBPLOTS PER CLUSTER 

DIMENSION AMTRXIl), POINTfll 

C NSAM=NUMeEH OF SAMPLE CLUSTERS ( INPUT ) 

C V = OUT PUT MEAN 

C S=OUTPUT STANDARD ERROR OF THE MEAN 

C AMTHX^INPUT DATA VECTOR OF SIZE NSAM 

C PQINT=NUMRER OF SAMPLE POINTS FOR NSAM CLUSTERS 

P=FLOAT (NSAM) 

V = 0.0 

G = 0.0 

DO 1 NC=1,NSAM 

IF (POINTING) .EO. 0.0) GO TO 1 

DIV=AMTRXINC ) /POINTING) 

Y=Y*01V*0IV 

G-G*OIV 
1 CONTINUE 

XB=(Y-(G*G)/P)/(P-1. ) 

S=SQRT(XB/P) 

r = G/P 

RETURN 

END 



PL ING WI TH 



cvn 


?0 


CVCJ 


ao 


CVO 


90 


cvn 


100 


STO 


10 


STD 


20 


STD 


30 


<;ID 


40 


STD 


SO 


Sin 


60 


STO 


70 


SID 


80 


SID 


90 


SID 


100 


SID 


110 


SIO 


120 


STO 


130 


SID 


140 


SID 


150 


SID 


160 


SID 


170 


SIO 


180 


SID 


190 


SIO 


200 


SIO 


210 


MO 


220 


STU 


2 30 



-25 



fULTI Pi<ni:(ICT I'JVLNTOKY PKOGKAM TEST 04TA SAMPLt OUTPUT 



Var 
na 



PULHS CO.MSIDl^RfiP IS SINGLE PRODUCT 



OlAMETEK 
CLASS 



10 



15 



20 



POLES PER ACRE BY HEIGHT CLASS 
25 ?n 35 40 45 



50 



55 



60 



65 



70 



75 



IR( 



12 
14 
16 
18 

20 



0.00 0.00 0.00 .58 
0.00 0.00 0.00 .52 
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 



.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 

.47 .49 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 O.OO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 



U.OO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 



0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 O.OO 0.00 0.00 0.00 





HEIGHT CLASS SUM 


0.00 


0.0 


0.00 


i.oq i.Ofi 


.49 


0.00 


0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 


Ca 


STC ERR MEANJ 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


.55 1.08 


.49 


0.00 


0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 


2x. 


" — = = = = = = = = = = 














=======.„=„=.==„.==========================.= 



MULTIPRODUCT INVENTORY PROGRAM TEST DATA SAMPLE OUTPUT 



Cu 



se( 



SAHLOGS CONSIDERED AS SINGLE PRODUCT GROSS VOLUME NOT ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 



DIAMETER 
CLASS 



BOARD FOOT VOLUMES PER ACRE BY GRADE 
2 3 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



292.60 
40.11 



B( 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



0.00 

0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 

n.oo 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 

0.00 



60.08 
60.08 



0.00 
0.00 



49.58 
49.58 



300.44 
73.05 



53.38 
53.38 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



80.42 
80.42 



102.95 
93.11 



0.00 
0.00 



63.10 
63.10 



St' 

lo 
re 
h( 

ui 
to 
h( 
ai 



TOTAL MEAN 
STD ERR MEAN 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



109.66 
109.66 



892.89 
67.47 



MULTIPRODUnT INVENTORY PROGRAM TEST DATA SAMPLE OUTPUT 



PULP CONSIDERED AS SINGLE PRODUCT GROSS VOLUME NOT ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 



TOTAL PULP VOLUME IN CUBIC FEET 
STANDARD ERROR 



234.43 
13.63 



26 



MULTIPRODUCT INVCNTORY PROGRiM TEST DATA SAMPLE OUTPUT 



VENEER CONSIDERED AS A SPICLE PRODUCT GROSS VOLU'^E NOT ADJUSTED EOR VISUAL DEFECTS 



DIAMETER 
CLASS 



BOARD FOOT VOLUMES PER ACRE BY GRADE 
I ? 3 



12 



MEAN 




STD 


ERR 


MFA\ 




STD 


ERR 


MEAN 




STD 


ERK 


MEAN 




STD 


ERR 


MEAN 




STD 


ERR 


MEAN 




STD 


ERR 


MEAM 




STD 


ERR 


MEAN 




STD 


ERR 


MEAN 




STD 


FRR 


MEAN 




STD 


ERR 


MFAN 




STD 


FRR 


MEAN 




STD 


ERR 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 

o.nc 



0-00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0-00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 

0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



74.11 
37.07 



<J'i.52 

11. ^(6 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 






103.00 
14. AO 



0.00 
0.00 



65.36 
65. 36 



73.61 
18.20 



121.03 
58. 31 



42.70 
42. 70 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 

0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



14.4B 
14.48 



0-00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 

0.00 



12.02 
12.02 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



TOTAL MEAN 
STD ERR MEAN 



0.00 
0.00 



380.42 
165.55 



251.82 
113.56 



12.02 
12.02 



MULTIPRODUCT INVENTORY PROGRAM TEST DATA SAMPLE OUTPUT 



STUDS CONSIDERED AS SINGLE PRODUCT GROSS VOLUME NOT ADJUSTED FOR VISUAL DEFECTS 



DIAMETER 
CLASS 



BOARD TOOT VOLUMES PER ACRE BY GRADE 
1 2 1 



14 



20 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD ERR 



MEAN 
STD FRR 



MFAN 
STD FRR 



MLAN 
STD ERR 



42.06 
42.06 



9.78 
9-78 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



115.54 
63.70 



76.67 
45. 17 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



3 2.93 
32.93 



17.85 
17.85 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



93.98 
8.76 



159.55 
75.95 



42. 70 
42.70 



0.00 

0.00 



0.00 

0.00 



0.00 
0.00 



TOTAL MEAN 
STD FRR MLAN 



51.83 
38.12 



192.21 
108.25 



50.70 
50.78 



296.23 
111.14 



Agriculture — CSU. Ft. Collins 



-27- 



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SDA Forest Service 
esearch Paper RM-75 

eptember 1971 

ocky Mountain Forest and 
ange Experiment Station 

jDrest Service 

. S. Department of Agriculture 

prt Collins, Colorado 



AN EXPERIMENT 
IN MODELING 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN 
FOREST ECOSYSTEMS 



by John R. Jones 




-10 



-8 -6 -4 -2 

CLIMATE -SOIL MOISTURE INDEX 



ABSTRACT 

This prototype model consists of a temperature regime 
ordinate, a moisture regime ordinate, and a regression equation 
relating them to aspen site index in the Southern Rocky Moun- 
tains. Its construction required a close look at a number of 
problems and considerations, and some possible methods, in eco- 
system modeling. Clonal variation in aspen height growth pre- 
vented a good test of the model, however. 

The temperature regime ordinate is analogous to degree-days, 
and integrates elevation and latitude within subregions. The 
moisture regime ordinate integrates estimates of monthly precipita- 
tion, monthly mean temperatures, potential direct-beam insolation, 
water-holding capacity of the soil, and factors influencing runoff. 

Equations are provided for estimating mean monthly pre- 
cipitation, based on topographic and other factors. 

Key Words: Ecosystems, modeling. Southern Rocky Mountains, 
moisture regime, temperature regime, site index, pre- 
cipitation estimates 



USDA Forest Service c ^* u io-,n 

Research Paper RM-75 September 1971 



An Experiment in Modeling 
Rocky Mountain Forest Ecosystems^ 



by 



John R. Jones, Plant Ecologist 
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station^ 



■^This paper is based on a dissertation presented to Colorado State 
University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. 

^Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, 
Colorado, in cooperation with Colorado State University; author is now 
located at Flagstaff, Arizona, in cooperation with Northern Arizona 
University. 



CONTENTS 

Introduction l 

Temperature Regime Ordinate 1 

Effects of Temperature on Height Growth l 

Selection of Factors 2 

Air Temperature Index 3 

Moisture Regime Ordinate 4 

Selection of Factors 4 

Precipitation 4 

Water-Holding Capacity of the Soil 6 

Air Temperature ^ 

Direct Beam Insolation ^ 

Adjusted Monthly Temperature 9 

Climate-Soil Moisture Index 

Runoff 12 

Topographic Index 

Moisture Surplus Index 13 

Runoff Index 13 

Moisture Regime Ordinate Chart ^^ 

Aspen Site Indexes 15 

Discussion Of The Model 15 

Temperature Regime Ordinate 

Moisture Regime Ordinate 16 

Literature Cited 17 

Appendix 19 



An Experiment in Modeling 
Rocky Mountain Forest Ecosystenns 



John R. Jones 



INTRODUCTION 

Soil-site equations have been made for 
decades and some have been quite effective. 
Although they are models of ecosystems, de- 
signed specifically to express environmental 
effects on the height growth rates of dominant 
trees, they are strictly empirical and do not 
pretend to be analogs of ecosystems. They 
make very little use of knowledge about how 
environmental factors interact to influence 
growth. Their central assumptions are that 
assorted interacting factors can be treated as 
statistically independent, with additive effects, 
and that where interactions are recognized 
they are reflected by their arithmetic products. 
Because those assumptions are mostly untrue, 
a narrow limit is set on the number of factors 
that can be included in the model. An implicit 
corollary assumption is that the factors used 
are adequate. 

An alternative kind of ecosystem model 
is structured theoretically, with the factors 
integrated in the model in the way they are 
thought to interact in nature. Available data 
are used to develop the constants in the rela- 
tionship. The central assumption is that we 
know enough about the ecosystems to make 
a model that works effectively. 

In 1961 I was assigned to develop a soil-site 
equation for quaking aspen ( Populus tremu- 
loides Michx.) in the Rocky Mountain Station 
territory. The literature on soil-site studies 
(Jones 1969) emphasized the importance of 
confining a soil-site study to an area with an 
essentially homogenous macroclimate. The 
Rocky Mountains hardly qualified. It appeared 
that climate would have to be included in 
the model. 

That was done by developing a model 
integrating climate, soil, and topography in a 
way that seemed analogous to their interactions 
in nature. 

Bakuzis (1959) and Loucks (1962) modeled 
the environment as a multi-dimensional space 
defined by ordinates. Three of Bakuzis's ordi- 
nates— moisture regime, temperature regime, 
and nutrient regime— seemed appropriate for 
my needs. It developed that some plots among 



the lowest in nutrient status had fair to very 
good aspen site indexes, however, so a nutrient 
regime was not constructed. 

Rather than using vegetation composition 
to assign coordinates, as Bakuzis did, I used 
Loucks' approach. He integrated physical site 
factors to define his ordinates. But his purpose 
was to relate vegetation to habitats, and he was 
working in a single New Brunswick watershed. 
My purpose was different and my study area 
enormously more varied, so my methods had 
to be different. 

Models usually are tested by comparing their 
output to output by the real system. The 
output against which I planned to test my 
model was aspen site index. It developed later, 
however, that different aspen clones growing 
next to each other on the same site can have 
considerably different site indexes. ^ There- 
fore aspen site indexes do not provide a good 
test for the model. 

Even untested, however, the model serves 
a useful purpose. Description of its construction 
gives a close look at many of the problems 
and considerations, and some possible methods, 
in modeling forest ecosystems. 

The area that the model represents is pri- 
marily Fenneman's (1931) Southern Rocky 
Mountain (physiographic) Province, but also 
includes adjacent forested uplands of the Colo- 
rado Plateau Province and the Great Plains 
and Wyoming Basin Provinces (fig. 1). 

TEMPERATURE REGIME ORDINATE 

Effects of Temperature on Height Growth 

In modeling the temperature regime, the 
temperature effects considered were those essen- 
tially not part of the hydrologic cycle. The 
effects of temperature on moisture supply were 
considered in modeling the moisture regime. 

Temperature affects the intensity level of 
most physiological activities. Different activi- 
ties, for example photosynthesis and respiration, 
may have very different temperature response 
curves (Tranquillini 1955). 

^The subject is reviewed by Jones (1967) . 



WYOMING 




TIquaq, U-'Thd S,ou,the.n.n Rocky 
Mountain Region <u dii(^in(id 
()0H tiild 6tudy (enc/o6e(i by 
IhA^QuZoA llm) . 

Height growth is a complex activity; its 
temperature response surface integrates the 
varying responses of a number of basic physio- 
logical activities. Apparently, height growth rate 
as a function of temperature has not been 
worked out for any tree species beyond the 
early seedling stage. 

Lovcij (1962) found evidence that the very 
low temperatures of the 1939-40 winter in north- 
ern Russia caused reduced diameter growth for 
the subsequent 3 to 5 years. In the present 
study, it was assumed that winter minimums 
seldom if ever affect the height growth of 
native trees in the Southern Rocky Mountains. 

Gates (1968) pointed out the importance of 
transient temperature fluctuations to organisms. 
Too little is known to consider the effects of 
transient fluctuations here, however. Instead 
it will be assumed that the effects of periodic 
and nonperiodic temperature fluctuations do not 
differ from place to place where general tem- 
peratui-es are similar, so far as the height 
growth of indigenous trees is concerned. 



Selection of Factors 

Air temperature can usefully be regarded 
as a base from which plant temperatures vary. 
For our purposes, heat released by the chemical 
activities of the plant is insignificant (Meyer 
and Anderson 1952, p. 396). During the day- 
time, the amount of radiation absorbed by the 
plant surface and the rate at which that energy 
is disposed of largely determines how much 
tissue temperatures will differ from air 
temperature. 

It is assumed here that in forest stands 
the important temperature effect of summer 
radiation is on leaves. Stems normally are 
more or less shaded in summer. Furthermore, 
the outer bark, with its low thermal conductivity, 
intercepts the radiation reaching the stem and 
reduces the energy reaching the phloem and the 
vascular cambium. Roots, of course, are shielded 
from insolation by the (usually shaded) soil 
with its low thermal conductivity, and experience 
a conservative temperature regime (Jankovic 
1962). 

Clouds have an important effect on radiation 
intensity, but it is not clear how variable aver- 
age summer cloudiness is from place to place 
in the Southern Rocky Mountains. Certainly 
clouds are abundant in summer even over 
the driest part of the region— the San Luis 
Valley with its 6 to 7 inches of annual pre- 
cipitation. 

At any rate, the effectiveness of insolation 
in raising leaf temperature probably is most 
often determined by the rate of heat dispersion. 
Evaporation, back radiation, conduction, and 
even convection all are negative feed-back 
mechanisms; the greater the energy received 
by the leaves the more rapidly it is disposed of. 
Wind tends to speed cooling by sharpening 
the gradients of temperature and vapor pressure 
near the leaf. Even with transpiration stopped 
experimentally, the temperature of strongly 
irradiated leaves was reduced to near air tem- 
perature by a small amount of wind (Reifsnyder 
and Lull 1965, p. 66). 

There is no basis for dealing with wind in 
this study. The consequences of ignoring it 
depend on whether daytime cooling by wind 
varies importantly from place to place within 
the region. Actvially, wind cooling of plants 
is not a linear function of wind. Gates (1968) 
showed that, during the growing season in the 
Southern Rocky Mountains, winds of 2 miles 
per hour are enough to bring leaf temperature 
close to air temperatures. Stronger winds 
have little additional temperature effect. It is 
doubtful that calms are frequent or of appreci- 
able duration during the day at the upper 
crown levels of aspen forest in the region. 



2 - 



In constructing the temperature regime 
ordinate it was assumed that (1) air temperature, 
radiation, and wind are the keys to aspen tem- 
perature in the Southern Rocky Mountains, 
and (2) the temperature effects of radiation and 
wind on aspen site index do not vary im- 
portantly from place to place within the region. 
The temperature ordinate consequently will 
consist simply of an air temperature index. 

Air Temperature Index 

A heat sum is the sum of daily average 
temperatures above some threshold tempera- 
ture. Went (1957, p. 224) stated that the re- 
lation between plant growth and heat sum is 
not linear but usually is expressed more ade- 
quately as a cubic function: 

g = a -I- bt -I- ct^ + dt^ 
g representing growth, t temperature, and a-d 
constants, d always being negative. This func- 
tion expresses the sigmoid response curve typi- 
cal of many biological activities. 

Went did not believe this function is useful 
for expressing field behavior, however. Among 
his reasons were: 

1. The parameters are not constant throughout 
the growing period. 

2. "Since heat is not a form of available energy 
for plants, and only modifies other processes, 
it is logically impermissible to talk about— 
or even calculate— heat sums." 

But Lanner (1964), working with 4-yeai--old 
knobcone and digger pines, concluded that the 
use of heat sums is appropriate where growth 
rate is closely tied to chemical reaction rates. 
As a general rule the height growth of trees 
varies with both the warmth and the length 
of the growing season (Paterson 1956), pre- 
sumably through their effect on biochemical 
reaction rates. This amply justifies the use 
of heat sums. 

Both Armson (1962) and Lanner (1964) 
found the height growth of coniferous seedlings 
exponentially related to heat sums. Many such 
exponential functions approach linearity over 
an important part of their range, however. 

In some regions, normal heat sums for 
heights above about 5 feet can be estimated 
for a study area simply by using data from the 
nearest weather station. In the Rocky Moun- 
tains, however, the climate of a temperature 
station only 10 miles from the study area may 
be radically different. 

A regression equation for estimating heat 
sums from elevation and latitude could be 
developed from published mean temperatures, 
but it would involve an important bias. A 



disproportionate number of weather stations 
in the region are located in valleys or at the 
foot of mountain ranges, and are subject to 
strong nocturnal temperature inversions. Be- 
cause of the abnormal minimums, their average 
temperatures are somewhat lower than on moun- 
tain slopes at similar elevations. 

Temperatvu-e maximums a few feet above 
open ground are less affected by terrain than 
are minimums (Jackson and Newman 1967); 
in the Rockies, considerably less. What might 
be the result of ignoring minimums— of using 
maximums alone instead of means to character- 
ize the air temperature macroclimate? 

In this region, aspen stands occur mainly 
above 8,000 feet. At those elevations nighttime 
temperatures in summer ordinarily drop below 
50° F., and occasionally below freezing in valley 
bottoms. Tranquillini (1955) found that night- 
respiration rates of young Pinus cembra (4-17 
years old) in the Alps were almost as low at 
50° F. as at the freezing point. If respiration 
is regarded as the limiting growth factor at 
night, perhaps the different minimums in South- 
ern Rocky Movnitain forests do not differ im- 
portantly in their effects on height growth. 
An exception would be hard frosts, for example 
25° F., which affect the structure of plastids 
and other protoplasm and reduce photosyn- 
thesis temporarily (Tranquillini 1964). Another 
exception would be frosts severe enough to 
damage the growing points of stems. 

Therefore, to reduce the problem of bias 
in weather station locations, maximums were 
used instead of means. A threshold temperature 
was subtracted from the normal daily maximum 
for each month. The sum of positive monthly 
values, closely analogous to a heat sum, is 
called here the air temperature index. 

The threshold temperature used, 45° F.,was 
obtained by compiling a list of high-elevation 
weather stations and plotting their average daily 
maximum temperatures for July over elevation. 
The curve was extrapolated to 14,400 feet— 
approximately the height of the highest peaks 
in the region. Theoretically this threshold 
value should also provide positive air tem- 
perature indexes for alpine studies. 

In general, aspen buds do not open in 
the Southern Rocky Mountains until the course 
of maximum temperatures rises above about 
55° to 60° F. Therefore it could be argued 
that 55° or 60° would have been a better choice. 
However, when temperature indexes based on 
a threshold temperature of 58° F. were graphed 
over temperature indexes for the same weather 
stations based on 45° F., a close linear relation- 
ship was found. Therefore growth should have 
the same regression slope on temperature index 
whichever threshold is used. 



- 3 



Air temperature indexes can be estimated 
from latitude and elevation for plots in any of 
three subregions. The subregions are shown 
in figure 2 and described in the appendix. The 
estimating equations, with their standard errors 
of estimate (S y.x ) and coefficients of deter- 
mination (R^ ) are: 
Western subregion: 

EL 



EL 



Tl = 


= 592.5 


- 3 


59 L - 


0931 


(S 

y 


^=10; 


r2 


= 0.96) 




Eastern 


subregion: 






Ti = 


= 800.3 


- 9 


76 L - 


0800 


<=y 


= 15; 

X 


r2 


= 0.91) 




Southern subregion: 




Ti = 


= 507.2 


- 


1105 EL 




(S 


= 14; 


r2 


= 0.86) 





yx 



where Ti is temperature index, E is elevation 
in hundreds of feet and L is latitude in degrees 
and tenths. 




FZguAd 2.-- 
SubH.tgion.i {)0^ tumpzAcutuAii aqucitioni, . 
Pctiie. 6tlpptlng--zciiiteAn iubAzgion. 
Open i tippling --i,outhzn.n 6ub^zglon. 



Ti estimates usually are close at lower forest- 
ed elevations— 7,000-8,000 feet— which are near 
the mean elevation of the stations used in de- 
veloping the equations. They are usually fairly 
close at subalpine and upper montane elevations 
(the major forest zone) and for the plains. 

Considering the derivation of the threshold 
temperature, Ti might be expected to equal 
zero at about 14,400 feet. Using average sub- 
regional latitudes, however, estimated Ti drops 
to zero at 12,600 feet in eastern Colorado, 12,700 
feet in northern New Mexico, and 12,900 feet 
in western Colorado. It is not clear whether 
this is due to extrapolating the estimating equa- 
tions or whether it results from extrapolating 
the curve of temperature over elevation to get 
the threshold temperature. 

MOISTURE REGIME ORDINATE 

Selection of Factors 

Precipitation varies greatly from place to 
place in the region, and so does the water- 
holding capacity (WHC) of the soil. Soil tex- 
ture and depth, two important elements of 
WHC, have been widely used in soil-site studies 
and usually prove closely related to tree growth 
(Jones 1969). WHC should be especially im- 
portant in areas with marked periodic pre- 
cipitation deficits during the vegetative season. 

After moisture has fallen it may be re- 
distributed from one site to another as runoff, 
mainly within the substrate. Water gained 
or lost by runoff often is important to the 
moisture supply on a site (Gysel and Arend 
1953, Trimble aiid Weitzman 1956, Hewlett 1961a, 
Hewlett and Hibbert 1963, McDonald 1967). This 
should be especially so in mountainous regions 
with periodic moisture surpluses and deficits. 

Evaporative stress, the other side of water 
balance, is a function of vapor pressure gradient 
and therefore of air temperature, radiation, 
humidity, and wind (Lowry 1969). Useful data 
on humidity and wind are not available in the 
mountains, however, even at most weather 
stations. 

The variables combined in the moisture 
regime ordinate are precipitation, watei'-holding : 
capacity of the soil, air temperature, insolation, 
and runoff. 



Precipitation 

Within the region, normal annual precipi- 
tation at weather stations is as low as 6.56 
inches at Alamosa, Colorado, and as high as 



5 r 



i 



^ 

o 



s 



I 




/ Cumbres, Colo. 
/ 10,015 ft. elev. 



Lake Moraine, Colo. 
10,250 ft. elev. 



J J A 

MONTHS 

ViguAd ^.--Szoiionat dlitAlbiitlon o{^ pA-ECyip-otation at two iabcitpim 
iMncuthtfi itcvtlom at 6imltaA ^Z^vatlom . 



44.04 inches at Wolf Creek Pass 4W, Colorado. 
Normal precipitation on aspen forests seems 
to range from more than 45 inches a year 
in the wettest areas to less than 15 inches 
in the driest. 

A number of factors influence normal pre- 
cipitation, interacting and changing their rela- 
tive importance from season to season. As a 
result, the pattern of seasonal distribution differs 
from place to place, as demonstrated by records 
from two stations of very similar elevation 
(fig. 3). The seasonal distribution of precipita- 
tion influences its effectiveness and the im- 
portance of terrain and storage. Therefore, 
seasonal or monthly precipitation values ex- 
press the precipitation climate more usefully 
than do annual values. Tables byThornlhwaite 
and Mather (1957) offer a way that is both 
reasonable (Penman 1963, p. 40, 49, 60; Fraser 
1966) and feasible to integrate moisture income 
and loss. They were used in this study to 
develop the moisture regime ordinate, and re- 
quire monthly values of precipitation. 

No monthly isohyetal maps of the region 
were found, so regression equations were de- 
veloped for estimating monthly precipitation. 
The approach was provided by Spreen (1947) 
who constructed a graphical system analogous 
to multiple regression to estimate winter pre- 
cipitation in western Colorado. In the present 



study, 134 weather stations were used in or 
immediately adjacent to the region. For each, 
a number of topographic variables were read 
from maps and analyzed graphically for their 
relation to monthly precipitation. Precipitation 
values were the observed norms for 1931-60, 
or averages for some other period normalized 
to a 1931-60 base as described by Landsberg 
(1962, p. 91). Based on the graphical analyses, 
more than 20 expressions of those variables 
were defined, and screened by stepwise multiple 
regression analyses for their relations to monthly 
precipitation. The variables retained for the 
final analyses were: elevation (E), latitude 
(L), relief (R), barrier (B), and subregion. 
E expresses orographic effects and I^ expresses 
position relative to normal monthly storm tracks. 
R is the superiority of elevations within 3 miles 
of the weather station to the elevation of the 
station, expressing approach and canyon effects 
and to some extent topographic boosts to con- 
vection. B is the superiority of elevations in 
each of six compass sectors al distances of 
10 to 100 miles tending to intercept moist air, 
and expresses the rain shadow effects of 
mountain ranges in or near the region. Sub- 
region expresses effects of barriers or their 
absence at a distance from the region. The 
variables are described more completely in the 
appendix. Precipitation subregions are shown 
in figure 4 and described in the appendix. 



- 5 




FxguAe 4.-- 
SubKcgiom {jOfi pn-tclpUiatlon ^quatloM . 
Stippled- -zcatt^ iubficgion. 
Ctzan.- -WQ.fi ttun iubfttgicni. 

Trial graphs and calculations sviggested that 
precipitation varied more or less linearly with 
elevation and relief, but exponentially (n<l) 
with barrier. Had more stations been available 
above 9,000 feet the relationship with elevation 
probably would have been nonlinear!* Theoretical 
monthly exponents for barrier were determined 
from published data (U. S. Weather Bureau 1951) 
on changes in amounts of precipitable water 
with elevation. The exponents f?ll into three 
groups, centered around 0.3 for the winter 
months (December, January, and February), 
0.5 for summer and early autumn (June, July, 
August, September, and October), and 0.4 for 
the intervening months (March, April, May, 
and November). Trial regressions indicated 

Letter from Arthur Judson, Associate 
Meteorologist , Rocky Mountain Forest and Range 
Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, 
August 15, 1969. 



that these theoretical exponents are appropriate 
to the study data, and they were used with B 
in the final regressions (table 1). 



Water-Holding Capacity of the Soil 

WHC is largely a function of soil depth, 
stoniness, bulk density, and texture. 

Soil depth was defined as the vertical depth 
in inches to bedrock, to a strongly massive 
layer within the mantle (Lutz 1952), or to a 
water table restricting root growth, but in 
no case deeper than 72 inches. Layers that 
were massive but not strongly massive were 
considered part of the soil. 

A few vertical aspen roots will penetrate 
even very strongly massive soil horizons as 
well as fractures in bedrock, and some penetrate 
deeper than 72 inches. Gifford (1964) traced 
an aspen sinker root to 114 inches where it 
broke! I found very few lateral roots below 
50 inches, however, even in easily penetrable 
material. 

Sixty inches was considered as a possible 
maximum soil depth in defining WHC, but 
Brown and Thompson's (1965) data on aspen 
and spruce water uptake from below 4 feet 
suggested that 72 inches is more appropriate. 

Stone in the soil was regarded as waste 
space in figvning WHC. For each pit the 
volume of stone larger than gravel was cal- 
culated from weight and specific gravity. The 
percentage of gravel in the soil was usually 
simply estimated, but sometimes the gravel 
was screened. 

Bulk density is difficult to measure in soil 
that is stony or has abundant tree roots. It 
was not treated as a variable in this study. 

The soil texture of each horizon was deter- 
mined by the hydrometer method. 

WHC of each horizon was estimated as 
follows: WHC per inch of soil was read for 
the appropriate textural class from a table 
adapted from Broadfoot and Burke (1958). That 
value was multiplied by horizon thickness cor- 
rected for stone. H was then corrected for 
massive layers. 

In the soil profiles observed, lateral roots 
often were at least somewhat numerous in 
nonmassive horizons to about 40 inches and 
sometimes deeper. At boundaries with shallow 
massive layers they commonly decreased 
abruptly. Sites with massive layers at shallow 
depths typically bore stands of poor or mediocre 
height growth rates. It was inferred from this 
that moisture in massive layers is less avail- 
able than moisture in more penetrable layers 
because of restricted root distribution. For 



- 6 



Table 1. — Constants, standard errors of estimates (S ) and coefficients' of determination (R^) for 
monthly precipitation-estimating equations, western and eastern subregions 



[ndependent 
























variables, ^ 

3 and R^ 
y.x 


Jan . 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept . 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 












T.Tf. ■-< t- .-1 ir-n CiiK-^Aro-rr-kvi 












'-intercept 


-5.91 


-6.07 


-8.06 


2.60 


_ _ _ _ weSLern our 
-3.85 -6.45 


-3.47 


6.60 


1.96 


2.07 


-6.22 


-6.35 


elevation 


.0161 


.0227 


.0269 


V0017 


.0095 .0057 


.0230 


.0182 






.0160 


.0099 


Latitude 


.2036 


.1887 


.2265 




.1423 .1881 


\0992 


-.1543 






.1755 


.2195 


Relief 


.0381 


.0393 


.0425 


.0305 


.0192 .0156 


.0234 


.0301 


.0337 


.0337 


.0233 


.0335 


B"n 








-.3071 
















B"ene 








-.2526 


-.2349 














B ese 










-.0808 














b"s 


'*-.2805 










-.1541 




-.0881 


-.0686 




-.2273 


„n c 
3 wsw' 


-.6345 


-.8488 


-.5231 




-.0972 




-.1225 


-.1249 


-.1665 


-.3089 


-.6149 


S 
y.x 

r2 


.56 


.61 


.69 


.54 


.29 .19 


.34 


.38 


.36 


.40 


.39 


.43 


.66 


.66 


.65 


.68 


.74 .74 


.80 


.74 


.63 


.60 


.66 


.69 












- - - - hastern buuLc^-Luit - 












P-intercept 


0.82 


1.11 


-2.24 


-5.23 


-0.61 -2.10 


5.72 


10.41 


1.86 


1.58 


.18 


.97 


Elevation 


.0135 


.0150 


.0110 


.0098 




.0170 


.0155 






.0105 


.0101 


Latitude 






.0907 


.1725 


.0841 .1022 


-.1182 


-.2445 










Xelief 






.0283 


.0458 


.0307 .0201 


.0197 


.0216 


.0082 


.0143 


.0103 




B^wnw^ 


-.3769 


-.3993 


-.1854 
















-.3696 


B wnw X B n 








-.0261 












-.0234 




In 
3 n 






-.1420 


















In 
3 ene 




-.1553 




-.2236 


-.3710 -.0701 








-.0372 






Ln „n 
8 ene x B ese 










-.0204 












In 
3 ese 










-.0693 














In „n 
il ese X B s 














-.0217 


-.0139 








1% 










-.0728 


-.0909 












n 
wsw 
















-.0842 


-.0837 






fy-x 


.31 


.37 


.37 


.42 


.38 .25 


.38 


.40 


.23 


.22 


.25 


.27 


|2 


.70 


.66 


.68 


.74 


.71 .69 


.67 


.71 


.57 


.49 


.59 


.70 


Coefficients statistical 


ly significant at 


5 percent level except those 


indicated by footnote ** . 







Equations have general form: P 
levation; and so forth. For example, for January- 
Western subregion: P = -5.91 + 0.0161E + 0.2036L + 0.0381R 

Eastern subregion: P = 0.82 + 0.0135E - 0.37690-3 . 

wnw 

Includes precipitation intercept . 

Probability about 6 percent (t > 1.9 for 64 observations). 

Barrier value for west-southwest sector, raised to a power n. 

j Barrier value for west-northwest sector, raised to a power n. 



. . . , where a = P-intercept ; b = a coefficient ; E 

0.2805 B o-' - 0.6345 B*"' 
s wsw 



this reason, WHC in massive layers was dis- 
counted by two-tliirds. Tlie total WHC of a 
soil was taken as: WHC of nonmassive layers 
plus 1/3 WHC of massive layers. 



Air Temperature 

To use Thornthwaite and Mather's (1957) 
water balance tables to express the moisture 
I'elations of a site, it is necessary to know the 
monthly mean air temperatures of the site. 
Because monthly isothermal maps are not avail- 
able for the region, regression was used to 
estimate monthly means. 

Published means would provide substan- 
tially biased regressions, however, because most 
weather stations in the region are in nocturnal 
cold air sinks. The abnormal average daily 
minimums of those stations lower the monthly 
means so they are not analogous to the con- 
ditions represented by Thornthwaite and 
Mather's tables. 

Published monthly mean temperatures aver- 
age the daily maximums and minimums. Put 
differently, the published monthly mean equals 



the average daily maximum minus half of the 
average daily range. 

Average daily ranges were tabulated from 
six mountain weather stations with free noc- 
turnal air drainage. For a given month these 
were fairly similar, and the average daily range 
of the six stations for any month was used 
as the "standard daily temperature range" for 
that month. Then for each temperature station 
in the region, a synthetic mean temperature 
was calculated for each month by subtracting 
half of the standard daily temperature range 
for the month from the average daily maximum. 

Such synthetic means are not strictly ana- 
logous to the conditions represented by Thorn- 
thwaite and Mather's (1957) tables, either, but 
probably come closer to them than do the pub- 
lished means. They should better represent 
the conditions on mountain slopes and table- 
lands and in most canyon bottoms, although 
they are no doubt inferior for representing 
valley bottoms. 

For each of three subregions (fig. 2), syn- 
thetic monthly mean temperatures were used 
to develop the multiple regressions of monthly 
mean temperatures on elevation and latitude 
(table 2). 



Table 2. — Multiple regressions'^ (T = a + bi L -I- b2E) of monthly mean temperature (°F) on 

latitude (0.1°) and elevation (hundreds of feet) 







Western 


sub re 


gion 






Eastern 


subre 


gion 






Southern subregion 




Month 
































a 


bi 


b2 


S 
yx 


R2 


a 


b, 


b2 


S R2 

y-x 


a 


bi 


b2 


s r2 

y.x 


Jan . 


123.8 


-2 . 12 


-0.26 


2.26 


0.73 


191.2 


-3.59 


-0.30 


2.34 


88 


88.5 


-1.11 


-0.26 


2.79 


4] 


Feb. 


128.1 


-2.00 


-.32 


2.17 


.81 


185.7 


-3.33 


-.33 


1.91 


92 


100.8 


-1.12 


-.37 


2.28 


6i 


Mar. 


149.6 


-2.19 


-.43 


1.88 


.91 


183.6 


-3.08 


-.38 


1.84 


93 


71.6 




-.45 


1.97 


1'. 


Apr. 


147.9 


-1.77 


-.47 


1.50 


.95 


154.5 


-2.05 


-.42 


1.89 


93 


113.2 


-.85 


-.47 


1.40 


9{ 


May 


136.6 


-1.25 


-.47 


1.55 


.94 


153.6 


-1.83 


-.41 


2.38 


88 


128.3 


-1.06 


-.46 


1.62 


8f 


June 


145.8 


-1.28 


-.47 


1.46 


.95 


151.3 


-1.61 


-.38 


2.04 


89 


128.6 


-.88 


-.43 


1.64 


8^ 


July 


129.6 


-.65 


-.49 


1.27 


.97 


120.7 


-.65 


-.38 


1.85 


90 


102.6 




-.46 


1.97 


8( 


Aug. 


124.0 


-.59 


-.47 


1.21 


.97 


114.7 


-.52 


-.39 


1.99 


89 


99.2 




, -.43 


1.68 


8; 


Sept. 


122.4 


-.79 


-.42 


1.51 


.94 


138.7 


-1.36 


-.35 


1.94 


88 


92.2 




-.41 


1.56 


8: 


Oct. 


117.7 


-1.03 


-.38 


1.63 


.91 


157.3 


-2.11 


-.33 


1.98 


89 


80.4 




-.38 


1.54 


s: 


Nov. 


128.7 


-1.84 


-.31 


1.45 


.90 


178.5 


-2.99 


-.33 


2.04 


90 


86.9 


2-. 70 


-.30 


2.10 


6: 


Dec. 


111.4 


-1.72 


-.25 


2.08 


.74 


183.7 


-3.31 


-.31 


2.34 


87 


100.9 


-1.38 


-.25 


2.80 


A( 



standard error of the estii.iate (S ) in °F; coefficient of determination (R^) — the decimal por- 

yx 

tion of the total variance in monthly mean temperature, which is accounted for by the significant 

independent variables. 

0.05 < P < 0.10. All other coefficients given have probabilities of 0.05 or less. 



Direct Beam Insolation 

Direct beam insolation seems clearly to be 
the principal radiation variant, and one that 
could rather readily be integrated into a moisture 
regime ordinate. 

The direct beam insolation received by a 
plane above and parallel to the forest canopy 
varies with the angle of incidence (a function 
of latitude, date, slope, and aspect), attenuation 
of the solar beam, and topographic obstructions 
(Reifsnyder and Lull 1965, p. 14). Attenuation 
varies with the optical airmass, the amount and 
composition of turbidity, and cloudiness (Reif- 
snyder and Lull 1965, p. 21-23), which differ 
from time to time at any place as well as from 
place to place at any time. It also varies statis- 
tically from place to place with cloudiness, 
but that statistical variationprobably is not great 
within the region for places of similar monthly 
precipitation. 

On some sites topographic shading reduces 
insolation substantially. Topographic sunrise 
and sunset could not be determined with in- 
struments because the horizon could not be 
seen in the forest. Nor, in some areas, could 
they be determined from topographic maps of 
the quality and scale available. Therefore, 
topographic shading was reluctantly ignored. 

In this study a single vaiiable, "potential 
direct beam insolation," was used to represent 
the radiation environment. Potential direct 
beam insolation is the daily direct beam solar 
radiation in langleys (ly) that would be re- 
ceived by a plane above the crown canopy 
and parallel with plot surface if the 
atmosphere were perfectly transparent. Daily 
values in ly for 16 compass points and a wide 
range of slopes, aspects, and latitudes can be 
read from tables by Frank and Lee (1966). 

Adjusted Monthly Temperature 

Adjusted monthly temperature integrates 
air temperature with potential direct beam 
insolation. 

The effect of aspect on the elevational 
zonation of vegetation is the basis for inte- 
grating air temperature and insolation in this 
study. The initial working assumption, only 
partly true, is that elevational displacement on 
a south slope is the elevational rise necessary 
for decreasing air temperature to compensate 
for the increased evapotranspirational stress 
resulting from more intense insolation. Actual- 
ly, increase in precipitation with elevation re- 
duces that displacement. 



Whittaker and Niering (1965) indicated that 
on Mount Graham in Arizona the lower 
"boundary" of spruce-fir forest averages about 
900 feet higher on south slopes than on similar 
north slopes. Assuming a temperature lapse 
rate for the warm half of the year similar to 
that of western Colorado (table 2)— 4.5° F. 
per 1,000 feet— the temperature difference is 
4° F. for the 900-foot difference in elevation. 

Assume an average gradient of 40 percent 
(Mount Graham is steep). For the period 
from mid-April to the end of October— from 
about the breakup of the snowpack to the 
beginning of cold weather— the difference in 
the potential direct beam insolation between 
north and south slopes would average 205 ly 
per day. If 900 feet of elevation difference or 
4° F. is necessary to compensate for 205 ly, 
than a difference of 1 ly per day is equivalent 
to about 0.02° F. of air temperature in its 
apparent effect on transpiration stress. 

Aridity timberline was studied on a large- 
scale topographic map with a green forest 
overprint for a foothills area in northern Colo- 
rado. Timberlines were examined on the map 
for regularity and for response to draws and 
to changes in aspect, in an effort to determine 
where timberline was primarily a response to 
climate. 

Using the lapse rate for the warm half of 
the year (table 2, eastern subregion), a differ- 
ence of 1 ly per day seems equivalent to 
0.015° F. In the foothills, however, north-slope 
forests at their lower limits usually are well 
stocked, often with considerable Douglas-fir, 
while south-slope forests usually are open stands 
of ponderosa pine near their lower limits. If 
the lower limits of well-stocked forests were 
compared, a difference of 1 ly per day probably 
would be equivalent to about 0.02° or 0.025° F. 

But precipitation also increases with ele- 
vation. If it did not, the timberline contrast 
between north and south slopes would be 
greater. Therefore, for integrating air tem- 
perature with potential direct beam insolation, 
it is assumed that a difference of 1 ly per day 
is equivalent to 0.03° F. 

For any month the potential direct beam 
insolation on a horizontal surface at 38° north 
latitude was taken as a regional reference as- 
sumed to represent conditions for which Thorn- 
thwaite and Mather's (1967) water balance tables 
are valid. Any difference between that regional 
reference and the monthly insolation value of a 
specific habitat was used here to adjust the 
monthly temperature of the habitat. For ex- 
ample, consider a site whose normal July air 
temperature is 60° F. and whose daily potential 



- 9 - 



direct beam insolation for July averages 1,089 ly. 
That is 100 ly higher than the regional refer- 
ence value for July. Because 100 ly x 0.03° F. 
per ly = 3° F., the adjusted July temperature 
is 63° F. 



Climate-Soil Moisture Index 

The climate-soil moisture index was adapted 
from Thornthwaite and Mather's (1957) soil 
moisture deficit, and makes use of their tables. 
Their moisture deficit was expressed in inches 
of water. Because it has been necessary here 
to deviate somewhat from their procedures, 
however (steps 1, 3, and 4 below), the resulting 
value does not define a quantity of water. 
For this reason and because soil moisture in 
the mountains is also influenced by net runoff, 
the term soil moisture deficit has been replaced 
here by an abstract climate-soil moisture index. 

The climate-soil moisture index was deter- 
mined through the 10 steps described below, 
with an example shown in table 3. The tables 
referred to in the following instructions are in 
Thornthwaite and Mather (1957), unless other- 
wise indicated. 



1. Monthly HEAT INDEXES were read from 
their table 1, using the adjusted monthly 
temperature. 

2. The monthly heat indexes were summed to 
get the annual heat index. 

3. UNADJUSTED DAILY POTENTIAL EVAP- 
OTRANSPIRATION was read for each 
month from their table 3, entering the table 
according to annual heat index and adjusted 
monthly temperature. Their table 3 can 
be used only for heat indexes of 25 or 
higher. When the annual heat index was 
less than 25, extrapolated values were used 
(mv table 4). 

4. ADJUSTED POTENTIAL EVAPOTRAN- 
SPIRATION (PE) was calculated for each 
month. Thornthwaite and Mather (1957) 
do this by multiplying the unadjusted daily 
values by the possible monthly duration 
of sunlight in 12-hour units for each degree 
of latitude. This adjusts for length of day 
and of month. Because day length had 
already been allowed for when adjusting 
monthly temperature for potential direct- 
beam insolation, however, adjusted PE for 
the month was calculated in this study 
by multiplying unadjusted daily potential 



Ta 


ible 3.- 


-Calculation o 


f the c 


limate- 


■soil moisture 


index f 


or plot 


32 












(water-ho 


ilding c 


;apacity , 


, 12 inches) 










Item 


Jan . 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov . 


Dec. 


Adjusted 


























temperature, °F 


19.2 


22.7 


27.0 


37.8 


46.3 


54.4 


60.5 


59.0 


54.3 


44.1 


30.3 


23.0 


Heat index 











.51 


2.02 


3.97 


5.73 


5.28 


3.95 


1.56 








Unadj usted 


























potential evapo- 


























transpiration 











.03 


.06 


.09 


.11 


.11 


.09 


.06 








Adjusted 


























potential evapo- 


























transpiration (PE) 











.90 


1.86 


2.70 


3.41 


3.41 


2.70 


1.86 








Precipitation (P) 


2.53 


2.92 


3.20 


1.91 


1.30 


1.21 


2.05 


2.81 


2.01 


2.16 


2.00 


2.21 


P-PE 


2.53 


2 . 92 


3.20 


1.01 


-.56 


-1.49 


-1.36 


-.60 


-.69 


.30 


2.00 


2.21 


Accumulated 


























potential water 


























loss 










.56 


2.05 


3.41 


4.01 


4.70 








Soil moisture 


























storage 


12.00 


12.00 


12.00 


12.00 


11.45 


10.11 


9.03 


8.58 


8.10 


8.40 


10.40 


12.00 


Change in soil 


























moisture 










-.55 


-1.34 


-1.08 


-.45 


-.48 








Actual evapotrans- 


























piration (AE) 











.90 


1.85 


2.55 


3.13 


3.26 


2.49 


1.86 








Climate-soil mois- 


























ture index (AE-PE) 










-.01 


-.15 


-.28 


-.15 


-.21 









- 10 



Table 4. — Unadjusted daily potential evapotranspiratlon extrapolated from 

Thornthwaite and Mather (1957) 



Mean 














Mean 














month- 




Annual heat ind 


ex 




month- 




An 


nual heat ind 


ex 




ly 














ly 






































temp. 
°F 


10.0 


12.5 


15.0 


17.5 


20.0 


22.5 


temp. 
°F 


10.0 


12.5 


15.0 


17.5 


20.0 


22.5 


32.0 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


49.0 


0.09 


0.08 


0.08 


0.08 


0.07 


0.07 


32.5 


.01 


.01 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


49.5 


.09 


.09 


.08 


.08 


.07 


.07 


33.0 


.01 


.01 


.01 


.01 


.01 


.00 


50.0 


.09 


.09 


.08 


.08 


.08 


.07 


33.5 


.02 


.02 


.01 


.01 


.01 


.01 


50.5 


.09 


.09 


.08 


.08 


.08 


.08 


34.0 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.01 


.01 


51.0 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.08 


.08 


34.5 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


51.5 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.08 


35.0 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


52.0 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.08 


35.5 


.03 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


52.5 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


36.0 


.03 


.03 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


53.0 


.10 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


36.5 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.02 


.02 


53.5 


.10 


.10 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.09 


37.0 


.04 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.02 


54.0 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.09 


.09 


.09 


37.5 


.04 


.04 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.03 


54.5 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.09 


.09 


.09 


38.0 


.04 


.04 


.04 


.03 


.03 


.03 


55.0 


.11 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.09 


.09 


38.5 


.05 


.04 


.04 


.04 


.03 


.03 


55.5 


.11 


.11 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.09 


39.0 


.05 


.05 


.04 


.04 


.04 


.03 


56.0 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.10 


.10 


.10 


39.5 


.05 


.05 


.04 


.04 


.04 


.04 


56.5 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.10 


.10 


.10 


40.0 


.06 


.05 


.05 


.04 


.04 


.04 


57.0 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.10 


.10 


40.5 


.06 


.06 


.05 


.05 


.04 


.04 


57.5 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.10 


41.0 


.06 


.06 


.05 


.05 


.05 


.04 


58.0 


.12 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.11 


41.5 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.05 


.05 


.04 


58.5 


.12 


.12 


.11 


.11 


.11 


.11 


42.0 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.05 


.05 


59.0 


.12 


.12 


.12 


.11 


.11 


.11 


42.5 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.05 


.05 


59.5 


.12 


.12 


.12 


.12 


.11 


.11 


43.0 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.05 


60.0 


.12 


.12 


.12 


.12 


.11 


.11 


43.5 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


60.5 




.12 


.12 


.12 


.12 


.11 


44.0 


.07 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


61.0 




.12 


.12 


.12 


.12 


.12 


44.5 


.07 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


61.5 






.12 


.12 


.12 


.12 


45.0 


.07 


.07 


.06 


.06 


.06 


.06 


62.0 






.12 


.12 


.12 


.12 


45,5 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.06 


.06 


.06 


62.5 






.13 


.12 


.12 


.12 


46.0 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.06 


.06 


63.0 








.13 


.12 


.12 


46.5 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.06 


63.5 










.13 


.12 


47.0 


.08 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.06 


64.0 












.13 


47.5 


.08 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.07 
















48.0 


.08 


.08 


.07 


.07 


.07 


.07 
















48.5 


.08 


.08 


.08 


.07 


.07 


.07 

















evapotranspiratlon from step 3 by the num- 
ber of days in the month. 
For each month, PRECIPITATION MINUS 
PE (P-PE) was calculated and the negative 
values indicated. 

ACCUMULATED POTENTIAL WATER 
LOSS was calculated by accumulating the 
negative monthly values of P-PE. 
Monthly MOISTURE STORAGE was read 
from their appropriate table (tables 11-22). 
The table to use is determined by the WHC 
of the soil. Monthly moisture storage esti- 
mates the moisture retained in the soil, 
or in snow potentially available to the 
soil, after the potential water loss accumu- 
lated through that month has been allowed 
for. It accounts for WHC and for the 



decreasing rate at which a drying soil gives 
up water. 

8. CHANGE IN SOIL MOISTURE was cal- 
culated for each month in which P-PE is 
negative, by subtracting the moisture stor- 
age of each month from the moisture stor- 
age of the previous month. 

9. ACTUAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (AE) 
was calculated. For months in which P-PE 
is positive or zero, AE = PE. For the 
other months, AE equals precipitation plus 
change in soil moisture, and is smaller 
than PE. 

10. CLIMATE-SOIL MOISTURE INDEX equals 
the sum of monthly AE - PE for all months 
prior to October, and is negative. For 
most plots, AE - PE = from October 



11 - 



until spring. For some plots, however, 
AE in October still is less than PE; on a 
few plots it is appreciably less. Most aspen 
leaves in the region have fallen or at least 
turned by early October, however, so it 
is assumed that an October soil moisture 
deficit is of little direct significance to aspen. 



Runoff 

Efforts described in the literature to account 
for the effect of runoff on height growth have 
included defining topographic position in terms 
of ridge top, upper slope, etc., in conjunction 
with steepness (Weitzman and Trimble 1955, 
Trimble and Weitzman 1956, Loucks 1962, Take- 
shita et al. 1966). Myers and Van Deusen 
(1960) found that site index in the Black Hills 
decreased with increasing steepness in areas 
of crystalline rocks, though not in limestone 
areas. On the other hand, in fine-textured 
soils in the hill covuitry of southern Ohio, 
Carmean (1965) found higher site indexes on 
steeper slopes. He ascribed this to improved 
drainage and aeration. 

In the Black Hills, Myers and Van Deusen 
(1960) also found a significant relationship be- 
tween ponderosa pine siteindexand the distance 
of the plot down the slope as a percentage of 
total slope length. In the present study, how- 
ever, slopes of substantial length commonly 
were complex. Much of the total slope length 
above a plot often does not drain through the 
plot because of topographic irregularities. 




F^guAe 5. — 
Topogfiapkla p^io- 
tld cI.a.i6l{)iccition. 




STRAIGHT^ 



Fcg[(A& 6 .--TopoQn.aphic contoLtA clcu^lfyiccitlon. 



Moisture from some distance upslope tends to 
become concentrated and sidetracked in surface 
and subsurface streams. Also, data graphed 
by Hewlett (1961a) suggest that the effect of 
increased downslope distance on capillary soil 
moisture content begins to decrease after as 
little as 20 feet. 

Ideally it is desirable to express runoff at a 
site as a positive or negative element of the 
monthly moisture income. It is a complex 
function of many variables. Water moves 
through the mantle tributary to the site at 
different rates. Water in the system of con- 
nected large pores moves downslope fairly 
rapidly. Water held in the mantle by forces 
greater than about 1/3 atmosphere also moves 
downslope in quantities quite important to 
growing conditions, but much more slowly 
(Hewlett 1961a, 1961b; Hewlett and Hibbert 1963). 
Various factors influence net monthly runoff 
at a site, among them the size and vertical 
distribution of the area tributary to the site; 
the hydrological characteristics of the mantle 
on the tributary area, including its WHC, its 
porosity and its gradients; the permeability of 
the consolidated substrate; the normal size 
and time of moisture surpluses and deficits 
on the tributary area and on the site; and the 
WHC of the site. 

The complexity of the processes and the 
lack of data and techniques for dealing with 
them prohibited treating net runoff as part of 
the monthly moisture income of a site. 
Instead, runoff was expressed in this study as 
a simple abstract runoff index incorporating a 
topographic index and an index of moisture 
surplus. The topographic index is an effort to 
express the ability of the terrain to permit 
runoff to or from a site. The moisture surplus 
index is an effort to express the ability of the 
climate to provide water for runoff. 

Topographic Index 

It was assumed that, with a given moisture 
surplus available, the amount of capillary runoff 
water in the soil was the result of the differ- 
ence of inflow from outflow, and was largely 
controlled by slope shape. A corollary assump- 
tion was that gravity water is too transient 
in the soil to be important to aspen growth 
except where it results in an accessible water 
table. 

Topography may be convex, straight, or 
concave in profile (fig. 5) and also in contour 
(fig. 6). As defined by Choate (1961), con- 
vexity tends to disperse water, concavity to 
concentrate it, and straightness tends to be 



12 



neutral. Flats on tablelands he classes as 
convex. Generally, however, tableland habitats 
have sufficient topographic irregularity to be 
classed on the basis of the immediate terrain 
irrespective of their tableland location. Choate 
classed level areas in bottoms and on benches 
as concave in profile rather than straight, and 
the same policy was followed here. 

Whether curvature and scale were sufficient 
to class a slope as convex or concave rather 
than straight was decided subjectively. 

Convexity was given a value of 0, straight- 
ness 1, and concavity 2. The sum of the profile 
value and the contour value equals the topo- 
graphic index of a site. The highest possible 
topographic index was 4 and the lowest 0. 



Moisture Surplus Index 

In developing the climate-soil moisture 
index earlier, monthly values of moisture stor- 
age were calculated. When moisture storage 
equals WHC, any subsequent positive values 
of P-PE might be considered surplus and 
eventually available for runoff. Over the area 
tributary to the site, however, water-holding 
capacities may differ considerably from those 
on the site. Therefore, when calculating mois- 
ture surplus index, a standard WIIC of 5 inches 
was used. The moisture surplus index is the 
largest monthly moisture surplus (occurring 
about at winter's end), computed from the 
accumulated potential water loss for the site 
but a WHC of 5 inches, as shown in table 5. 



The moisture surplus index assumes a cor- 
relation between the climate of the site and 
that of the tributary area. It is an abstract 
index and not inches of water. 

Runoff Index 

It was assumed that the influence of runoff 
on soil moisture is less than linear. Some 
runoff reaches streams or ground water too 
quickly to be significant to plants; the proportion 
was assumed to increase with increasing mois- 
ture surplus. In combining topographic index 
and moisture surplus index, therefore, the runoff 
index was assumed to increase as the square 
root of the moisture surplus index. 

Each successive increase in topographic 
index was assumed to double the runoff index. 

Table 6 gives the runoff index for topo- 
graphic values of 1-4; a topographic value of 
was assigned a runoff index value ofO 
regardless of the moisture surplus. 

Plots with soil depth defined by a water 
table were given a runoff index of 8, regardless 
of topographic situation. That is equal to the 
highest value on any plot without accessible 
ground water, and is equivalent to a very 
favorable topographic situation (topographic 
index 3) combined with abundant water avail- 
able for runoff (moisture surplus index 16). 
Higher values could have been chosen. The 
reasoning behind the selection of 8 was as 
follows: 

1. Aspen occurs along streams below the forest 
zone. 



Table 5. — Calculation of the moisture surplus index for plot 32, using the 

standard 5-inch water-holding capacity 



Item 



Jan . 



Feb, 



Mar . 



Apr. May 



June 



July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. 



Dec. 



P-PE^ 

Accumulated 
potential 
water loss^ 



Soil and snow 

moisture 

storage^ 

Moisture 

surplus 

index-" 



2.53 2.92 



3.20 



1.01 -0.56 -1.49 -1.36 



.56 



2.05 



-0.60 



3.41 4.01 



-0.69 0.30 2.00 2.21 



4.70 



.96 11.85 15.08 16.09 4.46 3.29 2.49 2.20 1.92 2.22 4.22 6.43 



11.09 



^Taken from table 3. 

^From table 16 in Thornthwaite and Mather a957). 
Maximum storage value (16.09) minus standard 5-inch water-holding capacity. 



13 



Table 6. — Runoff index 



Moisture 


Top 


ographic index 


Moisture 
surplus 


Top 


ographic index 


Moisture 
surplus 


Top 


ograph 


ic in 


dex 


surplus 


























index 


1 


2 


3 


4 


index 


1 


2 


3 


4 


index 


1 


2 


3 


4 

















9.0 


1.5 


3.0 


6.0 


12.0 


18.0 


2.1 


4.2 


8.5 


17.0 


.5 


.4 


.7 


1.4 


2.8 


9.5 


1.5 


3.1 


6.2 


12.3 


18.5 


2.2 


4.3 


8.6 


17.2 


1.0 


.5 


1.0 


2.0 


4.0 


10.0 


1.6 


3.2 


6.3 


12.6 


19.0 


2.2 


4.4 


8.7 


17.4 


1.5 


.6 


1.2 


2.4 


4.9 


10.5 


1.6 


3.2 


6.5 


13.0 


19.5 


2.2 


4.4 


8.8 


17.7 


2.0 


.7 


1.4 


2.8 


5.7 


11.0 


1.7 


3.3 


6.6 


13.3 


20.0 


2.2 


4.5 


8.9 


17.9 


2.5 


.8 


1.6 


3.2 


6.3 


11.5 


1.7 


3.4 


6.8 


13.6 


20.5 


2.3 


4.5 


9.1 


18.1 


3.0 


.9 


1.7 


3.5 


6.9 


12.0 


1.7 


3.5 


6.9 


13.9 


21.0 


2.3 


4.6 


9.2 


18.3 


3.5 


.9 


1.9 


3.7 


7.5 


12.5 


1.8 


3.5 


7.1 


14.1 


21.5 


2.3 


4.6 


9.3 


18.5 


4.0 


1.0 


2.0 


4.0 


8.0 


13.0 


1.8 


3.6 


7.2 


14.4 


22.0 


2.3 


4.7 


9.4 


18.7 


4.5 


1.1 


2.1 


4.2 


8.5 


13.5 


1.8 


3.7 


7.3 


14.7 


22.5 


2.4 


4.7 


9.5 


19.0 


5.0 


1.1 


2.2 


4.5 


8.9 


14.0 


1.9 


3.7 


7.5 


15.0 


23.0 


2.4 


4.8 


9.6 


19.2 


5.5 


1.2 


2.3 


4.7 


9.4 


14.5 


1.9 


3.8 


7.6 


15.2 


23.5 


2.4 


4.8 


9.7 


19.4 


6.0 


1.2 


2.4 


4.9 


9.8 


15.0 


1.9 


3.9 


7.7 


15.4 


24.0 


2.4 


4.9 


9.8 


19.6 


6.5 


1.3 


2.5 


5.1 


10.2 


15.5 


2.0 


3.9 


7.9 


15.7 


24.5 


2.5 


4.9 


9.9 


19.8 


7.0 


1.3 


2.6 


5.3 


10.6 


16.0 


2.0 


4.0 


8.0 


16.0 


25.0 


2.5 


5.0 


10.0 


20.0 


7.5 


1.4 


2.7 


5.5 


11.0 


16.5 


2.0 


4.1 


8.1 


16.2 












8.0 


1.4 


2.8 


5.7 


11.3 


17.0 


2.1 


4.1 


8.2 


16.5 












8.5 


1.5 


2.9 


5.8 


11.7 


17.5 


2.1 


4.2 


8.4 


16.7 













2. Aspen along streams presumably draws upon 
ground water. 

3. Aspen below the forest zone is subject to 
relatively high transpiration stress. 

4. Such aspen is small. 

5. Its restricted height growth is probably due 
largely to moisture stress. 

6. The moisture regime ordinates for such 
habitats should approximate those of plots 
with poor height growth in the lower part 
of the aspen zone and without accessible 
ground water— about 3 to 6. 

7. Water table plots should be given a runoff 
index which, when combined with the climate- 
soil moisture indexes of low-elevation aspen 
outliers, gives a moisture regime ordinate 
of 3 to 6. 

The climate of Gunnison, Colorado, was 
used to represent one of the driest climates 
in which aspen is found along streams in the 
region. Although often very cold in winter, 
Gunnison has relatively warm summer days and 
is dry at all seasons. The characteristic upland 
vegetation is sagebrush and grass. Its climate- 
soil moisture index is -8.07. The WHO used 
for calculation was 4 inches, representative of 
soils whose depth is restricted by ground water. 

A runoff index of 8, combined with a 
climate-soil moisture index of -8.07, gives a 
moisture regime ordinate of 5.2, as explained 
in the next section. That fits the hmits decided 
on in item 7 above. 



Moisture Regime Ordinate Chart 

The moisture regime ordinate of a plot can 

be read from a chart (fig. 7) at the intersection 

of the climate-soil moisture index and the 

runoff index. The rationale of the chart is this: 

1. If the climate is so moist that actual evapo- 

transpiration always equals potential evapo- 

transpiration, the moisture regime ordinate 

should be at the maximum regardless of 

the runoff index. Therefore that maximum 

moisture regime ordinate would be a vertical 

line at the right of the chart. 



2 



\ '^ 


■ \ 


\' 


V 


v 


v 


\' 


\ '\ 


10 




\ 




\ 


, \ 


A 


\ 


V 


\' 


\. \ 


\ 


\ 
\ 


\ 
\ 


V 


Y 


\ 






"\\ 


^^ 


\ 


X 


V 


\^ 


^X"^ 




\ 


^\\ 


v^^ 


~X4 




X 


\" 


\\ 




\\ 


^^^^-^...^ 


\3 






\- 


\c 


>^ 


\\ 


\^ 


^"~~~~~-~?^ 

-__[__^ 


^ 






^ 




<:< 




1 



-8 -6 

CLIMATE -SOIL 



-4 

MOISTURE 



-2 
INDEX 



FiguAd 7 .--Viagficm lot do^tinmlnlnQ tho. moli- 
tuJm ntQimQ. oxdinatz. 



14 



2. Runoff index remains a factor inaspengrovvth 
in all areas studied, however. 

3. Runoff index is most important where the 
climate-soil moisture index is driest. The 
importance of runoff index can be increased 
on the chart by letting the lines defining 
the moisture regime ordinate approach 
horizontal. 

4. If a defining line was fully horizontal, how- 
ever, no importance at all would be given 
the climate-soil moisture index. A plot 
with a shallow soil and a dry climate would 
be assigned the same moistvu-e regime 
ordinate as a plot with a deep soil and a wet 
climate if both had a topographic index 
(and consequently a runoff index) of 0. 

5. Because of considerations 1 through 4, the 
lines defining the moisture regime ordinate 
were permitted to approach but not attain 
both the vertical and the horizontal, by 
radiating them from a hypothetical off-chart 
coordinate (1.95, -1). Thus the lowest mois- 
ture regime value, 1, falls along a line ap- 
proaching horizontal (8°). The line of highest 
value, 10, touching the chart at the upper 
right hand corner, approaches vertical (80°). 
A convenient 8° of arc separate integral 
defining lines. This permits runoff index 
some influence on the moisture regime 
ordinates of relatively moist climates and 
deep soils. That influence increases at an 
increasing rate with decreasing climate-soil 
moisture indexes. 



ASPEN SITE INDEXES 

Fifty-seven plots sampled a wide diversity 
of aspen habitats in the region. There were 
two more plots outside the region in the White 
Mountains of Arizona. In this study, plots do 
not refer to areas of ground; each was simply a 
location with the necessary sample trees stand- 
ing very near one another. 

A height growth curve was drawn for each 
plot, from stem analysis of three dominant 
aspens. Site index was the height 80 years 
after reaching breast height, as read from the 
curve. A few plots were in stands younger 
i than 80 years. Their site indexes were deter- 
mined from breast-height age by means of a 
standard site index table (Jones 1966). 

The linear multiple regression of aspen 
site index (S) on the temperature regime ordinate 
(T) and the moisture regime ordinate (M) is: 
S = 2.41 +0.2185 T + 4.333 M. 

The partial regression of site index on the 
temperature regime ordinate was statistically 



significant at about the 2 percent level. The 
partial regression on the moisture regime 
ordinate was significant at below the 0.1 per- 
cent level. Combined, the two ordinates ac- 
counted for 30 percent of the site index 
variance, and the equation predicted site index 
with a standard error of 11.5 feet. Those statis- 
tics do not actually evaluate the model, how- 
ever, because the interplot habitat differences 
are very largely confounded by interclonal 
genetic differences. 



DISCUSSION OF THE MODEL 

Plots with the same temperature-moisture 
coordinate are implied to be effectively similar 
habitats so far as aspen height growth is con- 
cerned. If true, genetically identical aspen 
growing on them would give closely similar 
site indexes. According to the weaknesses of 
the numerous assumptions and approximations 
incorporated in the model, they would fall 
more or less short of that ideal. 

In constructing the model, various assump- 
tions were made. Some were selected over 
feasible alternatives; others were accepted only 
because no real alternatives were recognized. 
A few of them will be discussed in the re- 
maining sections. The central assumptions 
in empirical soil-site equations were largely 
avoided. 

Some plots had measured site indexes that 
were much different than the model indicated. 
Data from those plots were examined for evi- 
dence of specific weaknesses in the model, 
but clonal differences made the examination 
unproductive. 



Temperature Regime Ordinate 

The temperature regime ordinate is much 
the simpler of the two. The assumptions 
incorporated in it include three that seem im- 
portant and uncertain: 

1. Aspen trees begin the physiological processes 
resulting in growth when the annual course 
of daily maximum temperatures passes a 
certain "threshold" temperature. 

2. Within the range of temperature climates 
sampled, the complex of physiological events 
eventually expressed as height growth in- 
tensifies linearly with the amount by which 
the daily maximum temperature exceeds the 
the threshold temperature. 

This assumption cannot be evaluated, 
but at best it would only be approximately 



- 15 - 



true, even for the cool summers of aspen 
forests in the region. Many indivickial physio- 
logical processes approximate cubic functions 
of temperature. 
3. The important temperature responses that 
are expressed as height growth stop at the 
same temperature as they (presumably) start, 
unless some other factor becomes limiting. 



Moisture Regime Ordinate 

Construction of the moisture regime 
ordinate was much more complex than con- 
struction of the temperature regime ordinate, 
and involved more assumptions and approxi- 
mations. 

The moisture regime ordinate integrates 
runoff index and the climate-soil moisture index 
(fig. 7). Different combinations of those indexes 
can provide the same ordinate, reflecting the 
assumption that different combinations of 
climate, soil, and topography can provide the 
same effective moisture conditions. 

Consider two hypothetical plots within the 
range of conditions sampled in this study, one 
plot with a runoff index of 3.2 and a climate- 
soil moisture index of 0.4; and the other with 
8.0 and 3.1. With these very different indexes, 
both plots are assigned the moisture regime 
ordinate 7.6. There is no evidence demonstrating 
that the two plots actually have closely similar 
moisture conditions. It is only a working 
assumption based on general information about 
the factors involved. 

Furthermore, the climate-soil moisture 
index of the first hypothetical plot, 0.4, could 
result from various combinations including a 
wet summer climate on a deep nearly level 
soil, or a merely moist summer climate on a 
steep north slope with shallow soil. There 
are no data showing that these combinations 
result in closely similar moisture conditions. 
Their common index results from several work- 
ing assumptions integrating general information 
about climate and soil. 

The climate-soil moisture index reflects 
factors controlling soil-moisture deficits. In 
part of the region that deficit develops early, 
during a spring and early summer that normally 
are very dry but are followed by rather wet 
weather. In the northeastern part of the 
region, however, spring normal'y is the wettest 
season, and moisture deficits usually peak in 
late summer. The time when maximum deficits 
develop is also influenced by slope and aspect. 
The same maximum deficit occurring in different 



parts of the vegetative season may have appreci- 
ably different effects on height growth. 

The standard errors of the estimates of 
average monthly precipitation and average 
monthly temperature indicate two other sources 
of error in the ordinate. 

Water-holding capacity of the soil is an 
important variable in the moisture regime 
ordinates of plots with topographic indexes of 
two or less and without accessible grovuid water, 
especially for those with relatively warm sum- 
mers or with high summer values of direct 
beam insolation. Using published averages 
of available water capacity for soil textural 
classes introduced significant inaccuracies, as 
indicated by their standard deviations 
(Broadfoot and Burke 1958). Leaving out organic 
matter content and bulk density added to those 
inaccuracies. 

As far as the tree is concerned, any defini- 
tion of soil depth is rough and arbitrary except 
where some physical limit to root depth can 
be recognized, such as bedrock or water table. 
Even bedrock contains roots in fractures, and 
water table fluctuates. 

The topographic index greatly simplified the 
obscure complexity of runoff hydrology; it also 
was treated as adiscontinuous variable (table 6), 
although it is not. A few plots were marginal, 
and it was difficult to assign topographic indexes 
to them. Their moisture regime ordinates could 
differ substantially depending on which index 
was assigned. 

Steepness was disregarded in accounting for 
runoff, but this does not seem to have hurt the 
model. Although the site index ecjuation gave 
gross overestimates on 3 steep plots, 7 of the 
15 steepest plots are underestimated. The steep- 
est of all plots is on a straight slope of 70 
percent, but is overestimated only moderately. 
Nearby is a companion plot with a straight 
slope of 31 percent but with a very similar soil, 
aspect, and elevation. They appreared to be 
occupied by the same clone. Their actual 
site indexes differ by only 4 feet. 

Site indexes of all four water table plots 
were overestimated. 

Finally, internal drainage of the soil on 
nearly level plots was not incorporated in the 
moisture regime ordinate. Because most of the 
plots had either significant slopes or permeable 
substrates it was felt that this omission was 
not serious, but it may have contributed to 
site index anomalies on a few plots. 



- 16 - 



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APPENDIX 

Temperature Subregions 

The eastern subregion includes the more 
easterly parts of the mountains of Colorado 
and southern Wyoming. The larger western 
subregion comprises the mountains and table- 
lands farther west in Colorado. The high- 
lands of northern New Mexico make up the 
southern subregion. These subregions differ 
in only one way from. Baker's (1944) mountain 
climate regions 24, 23, and 25, respectively. 
The northern boundary of his region 25 is 
north of the Colorado-New Mexico border. He 
did not define it firmly because in nature it 
is a gradient and not a real discontinuity. In 
this study, however, the State line was used 
as the boundary to facilitate assigning weather 
stations and plots to subregions. 

The boundai-y between the eastern and 
western subregions follows the Continental 
Divide southward from the northern end of 
the region to Marshall Pass; then eastward across 
Poncha Pass to the crest of the Sangre de 
Cristo Mountains; then southward along the 
crest of the Sangre de Cristos to the New 
Mexico line. 



Independent Variables in the 
Final Precipitation Equations 

Elevation.— The station elevation to the 
nearest 100 feet. The elevation of Santa Maria 
Reservoir, 9,706 feet, was recorded 97. 

Latitude.— The station latitude to the near- 
est 0.1°. The latitude of Red Feather Lakes, 
40° 47' N, was recorded 40.8. 

Relief.— From each station 12 equally spaced 
3-mile radii were examined on a map overlay. 
On each radius the highest elevation was re- 
corded. The four highest elevations were aver- 



aged. The station elevation was subtracted 
from the average elevation. The remainder, 
expressed in hundreds of feet, was the relief 
value. 

Barriers.— Two circles were described 
around each station, with radii of 10 and 100 
miles. The circles were divided into six sectors 
of 60°, based on east-west diameter and desig- 
nated the N, ENE, ESE, S, WSW, and WNW 
sectoi'S. Through each sector were four equally 
spaced sample lines which were radii of the 
large circle. On each sample line the highest 
elevation between the two circles was recorded. 
The two lowest of those four elevations were 
averaged. The station elevation was subtracted 
from that average elevation. The remainder, 
expressed in hundreds of feet was the barrier 
value for the sector. Barrier values of or 
less were called 1 (that is, 100 feet) to avoid 
or negative interaction values. 



The Precipitation Subregions 

The temperature subregions were not used 
in the precipitation analysis. There were too 
few high-elevation stations in northern New 
Mexico with long enough records to treat that 
area separately. Instead, an eastern and a 
western subregion were defined, separated as 
follows: 

The Continental Divide from the northern 
end of the region south to Marshall Pass; then 
eastward across Poncha Pass to the crest of 
the Sangre de Cristo Mountains; then south- 
ward along the crest of the Sangre de Cristo 
Mountains to the New Mexico line; then west 
along the New Mexico line to the divide be- 
tween the Conejos and Los Pinos Rivers; then 
along that divide westward to the Continental 
Divide; then southward along the Continental 
Divide to the southwestern boundary of the 
region. 



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DA Forest Service 
earch Paper RM-76 
itember 1971 

cky Mountain Forest and 
ige Experiment Station 

est Service 

S. Department of Agriculture 

t Collins, Colorado 



INITIAL PARTIAL 
CUTTING IN 
OLD-GROWTH 
SPRUCE-FIR 



# 



\}y^\ibl5i' iB^Jte<t R. Alexander 




'i^'"A'M 'Jj 




♦, 



CH. 




Abstract 

Interim guidelines are provided to aid the forest manager in 
developing alternatives to clearcutting in old-growth spruce-fir 
forests in Colorado and southern Wyoming. Included are partial 
cutting practices for different stand conditions and windfall and 
insect susceptibility that should maintain continuous high forest 
cover needed to preserve the forest landscape in recreation areas, 
travel influence zones, and scenic view areas. These partial cut- 
ting practices may also be used in combination with small cleared 
openings to create the form, structure, and arrangement of stands 
that appear desirable for increased water yields and improvement 
of wildlife habitat, and to integrate timber production with other 
key uses. 

Key words: Forest cutting systems, Fioea engelmannii , Abies 
lasiooarpa, windfall risk, multiple-use. 



For convenient field use, the stand descriptions 
and cutting guides in this Research Paper have 
been published separately in a smaller format 
{Sk by 8k inches) as USDA Forest Service Research 
Paper RM-76A, "Initial Partial Cutting in Old- 
Growth Spruce-Fir--Field Guide to Stand Descrip- 
tions and Cutting Practices." Copies of RM-76A 
are available from the Rocky Mountain Forest and 
Range Experiment Station, 240 West Prospect 
Street, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521. 



About the cover : 

Group seleation cutting in spruce- fir on 
the Eraser Experimental Eorest. About half 
the volume was removed from a third of the area 
in group cuttings about one tree height in 
diameter. Subsequent blowdawn losses were light. 



USDA Forest Service SeotembPr 1971 

Research Paper RM-76 September 1971 



Initial Partial Cutting in Old-Growth Spruce-Fir 



by 

Robert R. Alexander 
Principal Sil viculturist 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station^ 



^Central headquarters maintained in cooperation with Colorado State 
University at Fort Collins. 




Individual tree selection cutting in spruce- 
fir on the Eraser Experimental Forest. About 60 
percent of the volume was removed. Bloudcwn losses 
in the residual stand were heavy because the origi- 
nally dense stand was opened too drastically . 




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Initial Partial Cutting in Old-Growth Spruce-Fir 



Robert R. Alexander 



Harvesting and regeneration practices devel- 
oped in the central Rocky Mountains have been 
directed toward converting virgin Engelmann 
spruce (Picea en g elmannii Parry )-subalpine fir 
( Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) forests to 
managed even-aged stands.-^ This is sound 
procedure where timber production is the key 
use, because (1) many of these natural stands 
developed after fires or other disturbances and 
do not have an all-aged structure, and (2) a 
large proportion of these forests are in over- 
mature stands that have limited potential for 
future gi'owth. 

In addition to being the most productive 
timber type in the central Rocky Mountains, 
these forests are also the highest water yield- 
ing, and valuable wildlife, recreation, and scenic 
areas. Because of increasing demands on forest 
lands from a rapidly expanding population and 
the limited resource available, management must 
consider all key land uses. Changes in natural 
forest conditions associated with clearcutting 
for timber production— particularly where large 
openings are cut— may not be compatible with 
other objectives such as increased water yields, 
preservation of the forest landscape, mainte- 
nance of scenic values, and improvement of wild- 
life habitat. Silvicultural practices are needed 
that will establish and maintain healthy, vigor- 
ous, high forests with differing age-class struc- 
tures. 

The form, structure, and arrangement of 
stands that appear desirable for water pro- 
duction, wildlife habitat, and recreation and 
esthetics have been suggested in a general 
way from observations and research. 

Water production studies have indicated 
that the increase in snow depth in openings 



Considerable literature is available on 
the silvical characteristics of spruce, and 
spruce regeneration requirements and practices 
for timber production, but that work will not 
be reviewed here. Good discussions are pre- 
sented by Alexander (1958) and Roe et al . 
(1970) . 



cut in spruce-fir forests is not additional snow 
but a change in deposition pattern (Hoover and 
Leaf 1967). Snow blows off adjacent standing 
trees and settles in the openings. The increase 
in water in the openings is, however, available 
for streamflow. Research and experience suggest 
that a round or patch-shaped opening, about 
five to eight times (in diameter) the height 
of surrounding trees, is the most effective 
^or trapping snow. In larger openings, wind 
lips to the ground and scours and blows snow 
out of the opening. About one-third of the 
forest area should be in openings, which would 
be periodically recut when tree height reaches 
one-half the height of surrounding trees. The 
remaining two-thirds of the area would be 
retained as continuous high forest; trees would 
be periodically harvested on an individual tree 
or selection basis. Ultimately the reserve stand 
would approach an all-aged structure with the 
overstory canopy remaining at about the same 
height, although the original overstory could 
not be maintained indefinitely. 

An alternative that would integrate water 
and timber production would harvest all of the 
old growth in a cutting block in a series of 
cuts spread over a period of 120 to 160 years. 
Each cutting block would contain at least 300 
acres, subdivided into round or patch-shaped 
units approximately 2 acres in size or four to 
five times (in diameter) the height of a general 
canopy level. At periodic intervals, some of 
these units, distributed over the cutting block, 
would be harvested and the openings regener- 
ated. The interval between cuttings could vary 
from as often as every 10 years to as infre- 
quently as every 30 to 40 years. The per- 
centage of units cut at each interval would 
be determined by Cutting cycle/Rotation age x 
100. At the end of one rotation, each cutting 
block would be composed of groups of trees 
in several age classes ranging from reproduc- 
tion to trees ready for harvest. The height 
of the tallest trees would be somewhat shorter 
than the original overstory, but any adverse 
effect on snow deposition should be minimized 
by keeping the openings small and widely spaced. 



Big game use of spruce-fir forest lands can 
be improved by certain timber cutting prac- 
tices, as sliown in two recently completed 
studies. Openings of less than 20 acres cut 
in the canopy of spruce-fir forests in Arizona 
were heavily used by desert mule deer ( Odo - 
coileus hemionus crooki Mearns) and American 
elk ( Cervus canadensis canadensis (Erxleben) 
Reynolds), but use decreased considerably in 
larger openings (Reynolds 1966). Openings 
created by harvesting were preferred to natural 
openings because the vegetation that initially 
comes in on cutovers is more palatable to deer 
and elk. Reynolds suggested that openings 
be maintained by cleaning up the logging slash 
and debris, removing new tree reproduction, and 
seeding the area to forage species palatable to 
big game. However, since natural succession 
on the cutover areas is likely to eventually 
replace the more palatable species, a more 
desirable alternative would be to cut new open- 
ings periodically while allowing the older cut- 
tings to regenerate. That would provide a 
constant source of palatable forage and the edge 
effect desired, while creating an all-aged forest 
by even-aged groups. The openings created 
should be widely spaced, with the stand between 
openings maintained as high forest. 

On the Eraser Experimental Eorest in Colo- 
rado, Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus 
hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) use in spruce- 
fir forests was greater on 3-chain-wide clearcut 
strips than on wider or narrower strips (Wallmo 
1969). While no recommendations were made 
as to optimvim size or arrangement of openings, 
the Eraser study suggests that they be kept 
small and interspersed with standing trees that 
could be periodically harvested on an individual 
tree basis. 

Wildlife other than big game is also in- 
fluenced by the way forests are handled. Eor 
example, with the curtailment of wildfires, some 
reduction in stand density by logging is proba- 
bly necessary to create or maintain drumming 
grounds for male blue grouse ( Dendra gapus 
obscurus Say). Partial cutting that opens up 
the canopy enough to allow tree regeneration 
to establish in scattered thickets appears to 
provide the most desirable habitat. Cutting 
small, irregularly shaped openings (up to 10 
acres) in the canopy may also be beneficial 
to blue grouse, if thickets of new reproduction 
become established in the cleared openings 
(Martinka 1970). 

In recreation areas, travel influence zones, 
and scenic view areas, permanent forest cover 
is preferred. Since old-growth spruce-fir stands 
may not maintain themselves in an esthetically 
pleasing or sound condition forever, some par- 
tial cutting system offers the best solution 
to the problem of maintaining permanent forest 



cover. Erom the recreational users' point of 
view, openings cut in stands for timber and 
water production, and wildlife habitat improve- 
ment—especially those that can be seen from 
distant views— should be kept small, resemble 
natural openings, and be interspersed with 
forest cover that shows little or no vegetative 
manipulation. Natural-looking shapes that blend 
into the landscape should be used instead of 
fixed geometric patterns (Barnes 1971). 

Partial Cutting History 

Erom about 1910 to the early 1950's, cutting 
in spruce-fir on the National Eorests was al- 
most exclusively some type of partial cutting. 
Observations on those cuttings suggest some 
of the capabilities and limitations of existing 
stands to maintain permanent forest cover. 

In general, heavy partial cutting— usually 
considered necessary to make logging profit- 
able—was not successful as a means of arrest- 
ing stand deterioration. Eor example, residual 
stands of spruce-fir in Colorado suffered heavy 
mortality when 60 percent or more of the origi- 
nal volume was removed by individual tree 
selection (Alexander 1963, U. S. Eorest Service 
1933). Similar results followed heavy partial 
cutting in the Northern Rockies (RoeandDeJar- 
nette 1965). Even when mortality was not a 
problem, heavy partial cutting left the older, 
decadent stands in a shabby condition, with 
little appearance of permanent forest cover. 

Windfall, the principal cause of mortality, 
increased as the intensity of cutting increased. 
Low stumpage values and the generally scat- 
tered pattern of windfall usually prevented sal- 
vage of blowdown after partial cutting. Not 
only was the volume of windthrown trees lost, 
but the combination of down spruce and over- 
story shade provided breeding grounds for 
spruce beetles ( Dendroctonusrufipennis Kirbv). 

Partial cutting has been successful— in the 
sense that the residual stand did not suffei 
heavy mortality — in some spruce-fir standf 
where large reserve volumes were left in pro i 
tected locations. In one study in northerr i 
Idaho, windfall losses were light after a partia { 
cutting that left 6,000 board feet per acre ii 
spruce-fir stands in a sheltered location O) 
deep, well-drained soil (Roe and DeJarnett 
1965). On the Grand Mesa National Eorest ij I 
Colorado, where spruce trees are relatively shorj 
and there are no serious wind problems associ- 
ated with topography, few trees blew dow].| 
when about 40 percent of the original volum !J 
was removed from two-storied stands. Insinglf- 
storied stands, however, only about 30 percer I 
of the original volume could be safely removei ■ 



On the other hand, heavier partial cutting that 
removed 50 percent or more of the original 
volumes per acre from spruce-fir forests in the 
dry "rain shadow" of the Continental Divide 
on the Rio Grande National Forest did not 
result in blowdown to the residual stand. How- 
ever, these two-storied stands were growing on 
sites where pi'oductivity was very low. Indi- 
vidual trees were short, widely spaced, and 
therefore relatively windfirm before cutting. 

There are also numerous examples of early 
cuttings— between 1910 and 1930— on many 
National Forests in Colorado where very light 
partial cutting— removal of 10 to 15 percent 
of the stand— did not result in substantial wind- 
throw of residual trees. 

Although an overstory tends to favor fir 
reproduction over spruce, regeneration success 
of spruce has been acceptable under a wide 
variety of partial cutting treatments (Alexander 
1963, Roe and DeJarnette 1965). 



Susceptibility to Windfall and Insects 

Windfall is a common cause of mortality 
after any kind of initial cutting in old-growth 
spruce forests, but partial cutting increases the 
risk because the entire stand is opened up and 
therefore vulnerable. The tendency of spruce 
to windthrow is usually attributed to a shallow 
root system. However, since trees that have 
developed in stands over long periods of time 
mutually protect each other, they do not have 
the root systems, boles, and crowns necessary 
to withstand sudden exposure to wind, and if 
the roots and boles are defective, the risk 
of windthrow is increased. Furthermore, regard- 
less of kind or intensity of cutting, the risk of 
windthrow is greater in some instances than 
others (Alexander 1964, 1967). Situations and 
conditions where windfall hazard is above and 
below average have been identified as follows: 



Above Average 

1. Upper slopes 

2. Slopes facing the 
wind 

3. Moderate to steep 
slopes 

4. Shallow soils 

5. Slowly drained soils 

6. Stands of old trees, 
especially if defective 

7. Trees grown in dense 
forest stands 

8. Stands where there is 
evidence of old blow- 
down 



Below Average 

1. Middle and lower 
slopes, and stream 
bottoms 

2. Slopes facing away 
from the wind 

3. Flats and gentle 
slopes 

4. Medium to deep soils 

5. Moderate to rapidly 
drained soils 

6. Young stands of 
sound trees 

7. Open-grown trees 



The risk of windfall in stands of below 
average hazard increases if those stands are 
exposed to special topographic situations such 
as gaps or saddles in ridges at a higher ele- 
vation to the windward that can funnel winds 
into the area. In stands where the windfall 
hazard is above average, the risk of windthrow 
becomes very high if the area is exposed to 
special topographic situations. The risk of 
windthrow is also very high in stands located 
on ridgetops or in saddles on ridges. 

Engelmann spruce is vulnerable to spruce 
beetle attack, and epidemics have occurred 
throughout recorded history (Hopkins 1909, 
Massey and Wygant 1954). Those attacks have 
been largely associated with extensive wind- 
throw where down trees have provided an 
ample food supply needed for a rapid buildup 
of beetle populations (Massey and Wygant 1954, 
Wygant 1958). Cull material left after logging 
has also started outbreaks, and there are numer- 
ous examples of heavy spruce beetle populations 
developing in scattered trees windthrown after 
heavy partial cutting. The beetle progeny then 
emerged to attack living trees, seriously damag- 
ing the residual stand. 

Occasionally heavy spruce beetle outbreaks 
have developed in overmature stands with no 
recent history of cutting or windfall. Losses 
in uncut stands that have not been subjected 
to catastrophic windstoi'ms, however, have usu- 
ally been no greater than normal mortality 
in old growth. 



Stand Conditions 

The great diversity in stand conditions 
within the spruce-fir type complicates the modi- 
fication of silvicultural systems for multiple 
use. For example, spruce-fir forests are the 
dominant elements in a number of near climax 
vegetation associations throughout much of 
the area they occupy, but they do not have 
the all-aged structure of true climax forests. 
Some stands are clearly single-storied, others 
are two- or three-storied, and multi-storied 
stands are not uncommon (LeBarron and 
Jemison 1953, Miller 1970). This structure 
is largely the result of cither past disturbances 
such as fire, insect epidemics, or cutting, or 
the gradual deterioration of old-growth stands 
associated with normal mortality from insects, 
diseases, and wind. The latter circumstance 
is especially evident in the formation of multi- 
storied stands. 

The composition of old-growth forests is 
frequently nearly pure spruce in the overstory 
with fir "predominating in the understory and 
advanced reproduction. In Colorado and Wyo- 
ming, for example, spruce commonly makes up 



3 - 



from 70 to more than 90 percent of the over- 
story, and fu- from two-thirds to four-fifths 
of the understory and advanced reproduction 
(Alexander 1957, 1963; Costing and Reed 1952). 
This composition in relation to structure has 
developed under natural conditions because 
spruce becomes readily established only on 
mineral soil and i-otten-wood seedbeds, whereas 
fir is not as exacting in its seedbed require- 
ments. Furthermore, although spruce seedling 
survival is better in the shade than in the 
open, spruce cannot compete with fir under 
the low light intensities commonly associated 
with dense spruce-fir forests. Once established, 
on the other hand, spruce lives longer than 
fir (Alexander 1958). 

Advanced reproduction is likely to be older 
than it appears because the early growth of 
both spruce and fir is very slow. Spruce com- 
monly takes from 20 to 40 years to reach a 
height of 4 to 5 feet, even under favorable con- 
ditions, whereas under a dense canopy spruces 
4 to 6 feet tall are frequently 75 or more years 
old (Costing and Reed 1952). Spruce and fir 
reproduction suppressed for long periods will 
respond to release, however, and make accept- 
able growth. 

Although spruce commonly grows with fir, 
other species including lodgepole pine ( Pinus 
contorta Dougl.), aspen (Po pvilus tremuloides 
Michx.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga men- 
ziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) grow with 
spruce in the middle to low elevational ranges. 
Local variations are often caused by aspect. 
In Colorado, south and west slopes up to 10,500 
feet elevation especially favor the development 
of mixed spruce, fir, and lodgepole pine stands. 



Stand Descriptions 

A classification based on stand character- 
istics is needed to (1) identify the kinds of 
stands that can be partially cut, those that 
must be clearcut and started new, and those 
that should be left uncut; and (2) develop 
partial cutting practices in spruce-fir forest for 
different management objectives. Until such 
a classification is available, the following broad 
stand descriptions, based largely on experience 
and observation, are suggested: 

A. Single-storied stands ^ 

1. May appear to be even-aged, but usually 
contain more than one age class. In 
some instances, the canopy may not 
appear to be of a uniform height be- 
cause of changes in topography, stand 
density, or stocking. 

2. Codominant trees form the general level 
of the the overstory canopy. Dominants 
may be 5 to 10 feet taller, and occasion- 
al superdominants may reach 15 to 20 
feet above the general canopy level. 
Taller intermediates extend into the 
general canopy; shorter intermediates 
are below the general canopy level but 
do not form a second story. 

3. Small range in diameters and crown 
length of dominants and codominants. 

4. Few coarse limbed trees in the stand; 
if two-aged or more, younger trees usual- 
ly have finer branches and may not 
have diameters equal to the older trees. 

Reproduction le^s than 4.5 feet tall is 
not considered a stand story in these descrip- 
tions . 




SINGLE -STORY 



- A 



5. Trees more often uniformly spaced than 
clumpy. 

6. Usually does not have a manageable 
stand of advanced reproduction. ^ 

B. Two-storied stands 

1. May appear to be two-aged, bvit usually 
contains more than two age classes. 

2. Top story (dominants, codominants, and 
intermediates) is usually spruce; re- 
sembles a single-storied stand. 

3. Second story is usually fir, younger 
trees of smaller diameter than the over- 
story. May consist of small saw logs, 
poles, or large saplings, but is always 
below the top story and clearly dis- 

Since any kind of cutting in spruce-fir 
forests may destroy as much as one-half of the 
advanced reproduction even with careful log- 
ging, at least 600 seedlings and saplings per 
acre of good form and vigor, and free of de- 
fect must be present to be considered a man- 
ageable stand (Roe et al . 1970). Needless 
destruction of a manageable stand of advanced 
reproduction because the composition is large- 
ly fir is not justified when one of the man- 
agement objectives is to establish and main- 
tain forest cover. 



5. 



tinguishable from the overstory. Trees 

in the second story are overtopped, but 

not suppressed. 

May contain a manageable stand of 

advanced reproduction. 

Arrangement of individual trees varies 

from uniform to clumpy. 



Three-storied stands 

1. May appear to be three-aged, but usual- 
ly contains more than three age classes. 
Occasionally two-aged, but is never 
all-aged. 

2. If three-aged or more, top story usual- 
ly predominantly spruce and resembles 
a single-storied stand except that there 
are fewer trees. Second and third stories 
consist of younger, smaller diameter 
trees (that is, small saw logs, poles, 
and large saplings) that are usually fir. 
In a typical stand, the second story 
will be 10 to 30 feet below the top 
story and consist of small saw logs 
or large poles. Third story will be 
10 to 30 feet below the second story 
and consist of small poles or large 
saplings. Although the second and 
third stoiies are overtopped, the trees 
are not suppiessed. 




TWO- STORY 




THREE- STORY 



5 - 




MULTI - STORY 



If two-aged, first two stories are old- 
growth with spruce in the top story 
and fir in the second story. The third 
story will be younger trees, largely fir, 
of smaller diameter. 

Frequently contains a manageable stand 
of advanced reproduction. 
More often clumpy than single- or two- 
storied stands. 



D. 



Multi-storied stands 

1. Generally broad-aged with a wide range 
in diameters. 

2. If the stand developed from a relatively 
few individuals, overstory trees are 
coarse limbed, fill-in trees are finer 
limbed. Overstory trees may be relative- 
ly vigorous. 

3. If the stand developed from the deteri- 
oration of a single- or two-storied stand, 
overstory may be no limbier than fill-in 
trees. Much of the vigorous growing 
stock is below saw log size. 

4. Almost always contains a manageable 
stand of reproduction as a ground story. 

5. Fill-in trees may be clumpy, but usually 
not the overstory. 



Cutting Practices 

The form, structure, and arrangement of 
stands desirable to meet different management 
obj ectives suggest certain cutting practices ; how- 
ever, stand conditions, and windfall and insect 
susceptibility that may vary from place to place 
on any area, impose limitations on how stands 
can be handled. Cutting to bring old-growth 
under management is likely to be a compromise, 
therefore, between what is desirable and what 
is possible. Management may involve a com- 
bination of several partial cutting treatments, 
continuous sanitation salvage cutting, clearcut- 
ting, and no cutting on many areas. Further- 



more, inital cutting will be largely conditioning 
rather than regeneration cuts. 

The following recommendations for the 

stands described above are suggested as interim 

guides to initial cutting in old growth, with 

the objective of maintaining permanent high 

forest cover to meet the needs of different 

land uses. ^ Careful marking of individual 

tiees or groups of trees to be removed, and 

close supervision of the logging are required: 

A. Single-storied stands — These stands are 

usually the least windfirm because the trees 

have developed together over a long period 

of time and mutually protect each other 

from the wind. 

1. If the windfall risk is below average, 
and the trees are uniformly spaced, the 
first cut should be light, removing about 
30 percent of the basal area of the stand 
on an individual tree basis. ^ Since 
all overstory trees are about equally 
susceptible to windthrow, the general 
level of the canopy should be main- 
tained by removing some trees from 
each overstory crown class. Avoid 
creating openings in the canopy with 
a diameter larger than one tree height 
by distributing the cut over the entire 
area. 

2. If the windfall risk is below average, 
and the trees are clumpy, the first 
cut should be a modified group selection 
that removes about 30 percent of the 
basal area. Harvesting timber in groups 
will take advantage of the natural ar- 
rangement of trees in clumps. Group 

^Where mixed stands of spruce, fir, and 
lodgepole pine occur, pine relative to its po- 
sition in the canopy, should be handled the 
same as spruce . 

^As a practical matter, small saplings 
that do not represent significant competition 
to the remainder of the stand may be excluded 
from the computation of basal area. 



- 6 



B. 



openings should be kept small— not 
more than one to two tree heights in 
diameter— and not more than one-third 
. of the area should becutover. However, 
all trees in a clump should be either cut 
or left since they mutually support each 
other, and removing onlypart of aclump 
is likely to result in the loss of the 
remaining trees to windthrow. 

3. If the windfall risk is above average, the 

first cut should be restricted to a very 
light inteimediate cutting that removes 
about 10 percent of the basal area on an 
individual tree basis, regardless of the 
spacing between trees. The objective 
is to open up the stand just enough 
to allow the remaining trees to begin 
to develop windfirmness. This type 
of cutting resembles a sanitation cut 
in that the poorest risk trees (and super- 
dominants) should be removed, but it 
is important that the general level of 
the overstory canopy be maintained 
intact. If the stand is clumpy, try to 
leave the clumps intact. Provision 
should be made to salvage windfalls. 

4. If the windfall hazard is very high, or 
the stand is breaking up, the choice 
is usually limited to removing all the 
trees or leaving the area uncut. 

Two- and three-storied stands— Trees in the 
overstory are usually more windfirm than 
those in single-storied stands dependent 
on each other for protection. The second 
and third stories are likely to be less wind- 
firm than the top story. 

1. If the windfall risk is below average, 
and the trees are uniformly spaced, the 
■first cut can remove up to 40 peicent 
of the basal area. This type of cutting 
is heavy enough to resemble the first 
step of a two-cut shelterwood, but the 
marking follows the rules for individual 
tree selection— mature trees are removed 
from each story. Heavier cuts (60 
percent or more of the basal area) 
may be possible in some instances, 
but the appearance of a continuous 
overstory canopy may not be retained. 
Since the overstory is likely to be more 
windfirm, selected dominants and co- 
dominants should be left. Avoid cutting 
holes larger in diameter than one tree 
height in the canopy by distributing 
the cut over the entire area. 

2. If the windfall risk is below average, 
and the trees are clumpy, the first 
cut should remove about 40 percent 
of the basal area in a modified group 
selection cutting. The group openings 



can be larger (two to three times tree 
height) than for single-storied stands, 
but the area cutover should be not 
more than one-third of the total. Fur- 
thermore, the group openings should be 
irregular in shape but without danger- 
ous wind-catching indentations in the 
edges. All trees in a clump should 
either be cut or left. 

3. If the windfall risk is above average, 
the first cut should be a light inter- 
mediate cutting that removes not more 
than 20 percent of the basal area, on 
an individual tree basis, regardless of 
the spacing of trees. Superdominants 
and codominants and intermediates with 
long, dense crowns should be removed 
first. Maintain the general level of 
the canopy, but all trees in a clump 
should be either cut or left. Provision 
should be made to salvage windfalls. 

4. If the windfall hazard is very high, or 
the overstory is breaking up, any partial 
cutting is a calculated risk. 

C. Multi-storied stands— These are usually the 
most windfirm, even where they have devel- 
oped from the deterioration of single- and 
two-storied stands, because by the time 
they have reached their present condition, 
the remaining overstory trees are usually 
windfirm. 

1. If the windfall risk is below average, 
there is considerable flexibility in har- 
vesting these stands. All size classes 
can be cut with emphasis on either 
the largest or smallest trees in the stand. 
For example, the first cut can range 
from removal of all large trees in the 
overstory to release the younger grow- 
ing stock, to a thinning from below 
to improve the spacing of the larger 
trees. Thereafter, cutting can be direct- 
ed toward uneven-aged management. 

2. If the windfall risk is above average 
or very high, the safest first cut 
is an overwood removal with a thinning 
from below to obtain a wide-spaced, 
open-grown stand that will develop 
windfirmness. Thereafter, cutting 
should be directed toward even-aged 
management. 

Although regenerating a new stand is not 
the primary objective of the harvesting prac- 
tices recommended, and conventional ap- 
proaches can seldom be used in spruce stands 
because of limitations imposed by stand con- 
ditions and windfall and insect susceptibility, 
openings made in the canopy by the modified 
group selection and shelterwood cuttings sug- 



7 - 



gested are large enough to permit new spruce 
reproduction to become established in significant 
numbers. Furthermore, a partial overstory 
canopy or trees standing around the perimeter 
of small openings provide two of the basic 
elements needed for regeneration success— a 
continuing source of seed within effective seed- 
ing distance, and an environment compatible 
with germination and early seedling survival 
(Roe et al. 1970). To provide the third needed 
element— a suitable seedbed— it may be neces- 
sary to remove heavy accumulations of duff 
and litter to expose mineral soil, and reduce 
competition from understory vegetaion. 



Literature Cited 

Alexander, Robert R. 

1957. Damage to advanced reproduction 
in clearcutting spruce-fir. U. S. Forest 
Serv., Rocky Mt. Forest and Range 
Exp. Sta. Res. Note 27, 3 p. Ft. CoUins, 
Colo. 



1958. Silvical characteristics of Engelmann 
spruce. U. S. Forest Serv., Rocky Mt. 
Forest and Range Exp. Sta. Sta. Pap. 
31,20 p. Ft. CoUins, Colo. 



1963. Harvest cutting old-growth moun- 
tain spruce-fir forests in Colorado. J. 
Forest. 61: 115-119. 



1964. Minimizing windfall around clear- 
cuttings in spruce-fir forests. Forest 
Sci. 10: 130-142. 



1967. Windfall after clearcutting on Fool 
Creek, Eraser Experimental Forest. 
U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Note RM-92, 
11 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and Range 
Exp. Sta., Ft. CoUins, Colo. 

Barnes, R. Lawrence. 

1971. Patterned tree harvest proposed. West. 
Conserv. J. 28: 44-47. 

Hoover, Marvin D., and Charles F. Leaf. 

1967. Process and significance of inter- 
ception in Colorado subalpine forest. 
Int. Symp. Forest Hydrol. [Pa. State 
Univ., Aug. - Sept. 1965] Proc. 1965: 
213-224. N. Y.: Pergamon Press. 

Hopkins, A. D. 

1909. Practical information on the scolytid 
beetles of North American Forests. L 
Barkbeetles of the genus Dendroctonus . 
U. S. Dep. Agr. Bur. Entomol. BuU. 
83, pt. 1, 169 p. 



LeBarron, Russell K., and George M. Jemison. 

1953. Ecology and silviculture of the Engel- 
mann spruce-subalpine fir type. J. 
Forest. 51: 349-355. 

Martinka, Robert R. 

1970. Structural characteristics and eco- 
logical relationships of male blue grouse 
territories in southwestern Montana. 
Mont. Fed. Aid Job CompU. Rep. Proj. 
W-91-R-10-12, Job No. 3.1 (II-D) 73 p. 
Mont. Fish and Game Dep., Helena. 

Massey, C. L., and N. D. Wygant. 

1954. Biology and control of the Engel- 
mann spruce beetle in Colorado. U. S. 
Dep. Agr. Circ. 944, 35 p. 

Miner, Philip C. 

1970. Age distributions of spruce and fir 
in beetle-killed forests on the White 
River Plateau, Colorado. Amer. Midi. 
Natur. 83: 206-212. 
Costing, Henry J., and John F. Reed. 

1952. Virgin spruce-fir of the Medicine 
Bow Mountains. Ecol. Monogr. 22: 
69-91. 

Reynolds, Hudson G. 

1966. Use of openings in spruce-fir forests 
of Arizona by elk, deer, and cattle. 
U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Note RM-66, 
4 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Exp. 
Sta., Ft. CoUins, Colo. 
Roe, Arthur L., Robert R.Alexander, and Milton 
D. Andrews. 

1970. Engelmann spruce regeneration prac- 
tices in the Rocky Mountains. U. S. 
Dep. Agr. Forest Serv., Prod. Res. Rep. 
115, 32 p. 

, and G. M. DeJarnette. 

1965. Results of regeneration cutting in 
a spruce-subalpine fir stand. U. S. 
Forest Serv. Res. Pap. INT-17, 14 p. 
Intermt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., 
Ogden, Utah. 

U. S. Forest Service. 

1933. Annual report (twenty-third year), 
Rocky Mountain Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion, Rocky Mountain Region [1932]. 
Mimeo., 71 p. 

Wallmo, O. C. 

1969. Response of deer to alternate-strip 
clearcutting of lodgepole pine and 
spruce-fir timber in Colorado. U.S.D.A. 
Forest Serv. Res. Note RM-141, 4 p. 
Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., 
Ft. Collins, Colo. 

Wygant, N. D. 

1958. Engelmann spruce beetle control 
in Colorado. 10th Int. Congr. Entomol. 
[Montreal, Aug. 1956] Proc. 4: 181-184. 



Agriculture-CSU, Ft. Collins 



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\ Forest Service 
arch Paper RM-76A 
ember1971 



be rt R. Alexander 



INITIAL PARTIAL 
CUTTING IN 
OLD-GROWTH 
SPRUCE-FIR: 

a field guide 



W ff:? ? f ?: :',^t**.^«,f -^f '^"VtWM '4 



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NOTES 



Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 
240 West Prospect Fort Collins, Colorado 80521 



INTRODUCTION 
This field guide was prepared to aid the 
forest manager in identifying different 
stand conditions in old-growth spruce-fir, 
and developing partial cutting practices 
needed to preserve the forest landscape. 
Detailed information on stand character- 
istics, windfall and insect susceptibility 
and cutting practices needed to integrate 
timber production with other uses is given 
in USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM- 
76, "Initial Partial Cutting in Old-Growth 
Spruce-Fir. " 



SINGLE -STORY 




STAND DESCRIPTION 

1. May appear to be even-aged, but usually contain 
more than one-age class. In some instances, the 
canopy may not appear to be of a uniform height 
because of changes in topography, stand density, 
or stocking. 

2. Codominant trees form the general level of the 
overstory canopy. Dominants may be 5 to 10 feet 
taller and occasional superdominants may reach 
15 to 20 feet above the general canopy level. 
Taller intermediates extend into the general 
canopy, shorter intermediates are below the 
general canopy level but do not form a second 
story. 

3. Small range in diameters and crown lengths of 
dominants and codominants. 

4. Few coarse limbed trees in the stand; if two- 
aged or more, younger trees usually have finer 
branches and may not have diameters equal to the 
older trees. 

5. Trees more often uniformly spaced than clumpy. 



6. Usually doesn't have a manageable stand of 
advanced reproduction. 



B. SUGGESTED CUTTING PRACTICES 

1. These stands are usually the least windflrm be- 
cause the trees have developed together over a 
long period of time and mutually protect each 
other from the wind. 

a. If the windfall risk is below average, and 
the trees are uniformly spaced , the first 

cut should be light, removing about 30 percent 
of the basal area of the stand on an individual 
tree basis. Since all overstory trees are 
about equally susceptible to blowdown, the 
general level of the canopy should be main- 
tained by removing some trees from each over- 
story crown class. Avoid creating openings 
in the canopy with a diameter larger than one 
tree height by distributing the cut over the 
entire area. 

b. If the windfall risk is below average, and the 
trees are clumpy , the first cut should be a 
modified group selection that removes about 30 
percent of the basal area. Harvesting timber 
in groups will take advantage of the natural 
arrangement of trees in clumps. Group openings 
should be kept small — not more than 1 to 2 
tree heights in diameter — and not more than 1/3 
of the area should be cutover. However, all 
trees in a clump should be either cut or left 
since they mutually support each other, and 
removing only part of a clump is likely to 
result in the loss of the remaining trees to 
blowdown. 

c. If the windfall risk is above average , the 
first cut should be restricted to a very light 
intermediate cutting that removes about 10 
percent of the basal area on an individual 
tree basis, regardless of the spacing between 
trees. The objective is to open up the stand 
enough to allow the remaining trees to develop 
windf irmness. This type of cutting resembles 
a sanitation cut in that the poorest risk 
trees (and superdominants) should be removed, 
but it is important that the general level of 
the overstory canopy be maintained intact. 

If the stand is clumpy try to leave the clumps 
intact. Provision should be made to salvage 
blowdowns . 

d. If the windfall hazard is very high , or the 
stand is breaking up, the choice is usually 
limited to removing all the trees or leaving 
the area uncut. 



TWO- STORY 




STAND DESCRIPTION 

1. May appear to be two-aged, but usually contains 
more than two-age classes. 

2. Top story (dominants, codominants, and inter- 
mediates) is usually spruce; resembles a 
single-storied stand. 

3. Second story is usually fir, younger trees of 
smaller diameter than the overstory. May consist 
of small sawlogs , poles, or large saplings, but 
is always below the top story and clearly dis- 
tinguishable from the overstory. Trees in the 
second story are overtopped but not suppressed. 

4. May contain a manageable stand of advanced 
reproduction. 

5. Arrangement of individual trees varies from 
uniform to clumpy. 



B. SUGGESTED CUTTING PRACTICES 

(Two and three-storied stands) 

1. Trees in the overstory are usually more wlndfirm 
than those in single-storied stands dependent on 
each other for protection. The second and third 
stories are likely to be less windfirm than the 
top story. 

a. If the windfall risk is below average, and the 
trees are uniformly spaced , the first cut can 
remove up to 40 percent of the basal area. 
This type of cutting is heavy enough to re- 
semble the first step of a two-cut shelter- 
wood, but the marking follows the rules for 
individual tree selection — mature trees are 
removed from each story. Heavier cuts (60 
percent or more of the basal area) may be 
possible in some instances, but the appearance 
of a continuous overstory canopy may not be 
retained. Since the overstory is likely to 

be more windfirm, selected dominants and co- 
dominants should be left. Avoid cutting holes 
larger in diameter than 1 tree height in the 
canopy by distributing the cut over the entire 
area. 

b. If the windfall risk is below average, and the 
trees are clumpy , the first cut should remove 
about 40 percent of the basal area in a modi- 
fied group selection cutting. The group open- 
ings can be larger (2 to 3 times tree height) 
than for single-storied stands, but the area 
cutover should be not more than 1/3 of the 
total. Furthermore, the group openings should 
be irregular in shape but without dangerous 
wind catching indentations in the edges. All 
trees In a clump should either be cut or left. 

c. If the windfall risk is above average, the 
first cut should be a light intermediate 
cutting that removes not more than 20 percent 
of the basal area, on an Individual tree basis, 
regardless of the spacing of trees. Super- 
dominants and codominants and intermediates 
with long dense crowns should be removed first. 
Maintain the general level of the canopy, but 
all trees in a clump should be either cut or 
left. Provision should be made to salvage 
blowdowns. 

d. If the windfall hazard is very high , or the 
overstory is breaking up, any partial cutting 
Is a calculated risk. 



THREE- STORY 




STAND DESCRIPTION 

1. May appear to be three aged, but usually contains 
more than three-age classes. Occasionally two- 
aged but is never all-aged. 

2. If three-aged or more, top story usually pre- 
dominantly spruce and resembles a single-storied 
stand except that there are fewer trees. Second 
and third stories consist of younger, smaller 
diameter trees (i.e. small sawlogs , poles and 
large saplings) that are usually fir. In a 
typical stand, the second story will be 10 to 

30 feet below the top story and consist of 
small sawlogs or large poles. Third story will 
be 10 to 30 feet below the second story and 
consist of small poles or large saplings. 
Although the second and third stories are over- 
topped, the trees are not suppressed. 

3. If two-aged, first two stories are old-growth 
with spruce in the top story and fir in the 
second story. The third story will be younger 
trees, largely fir, of smaller diameter. 

4. Frequently contains a manageable stand of 
advanced reproduction. 



5. More often clumpy than single- or two-storied 
stands. 



SUGGESTED CUTTING PRACTICES 
(Two and three-storied stands) 

1. Trees In the overstory are usually more windfirm 
than those in single-storied stands dependent on 
each other for protection. The second and third 
stories are likely to be less windfirm than the 
top story. 

a. If the windfall risk is below average, and the 
trees are uniformly spaced , the first cut can 
remove up to AO percent of the basal area. 
This type of cutting is heavy enough to re- 
semble the first step of a two-cut shelter- 
wood, but the marking follows the rules for 
Individual tree selection — mature trees are 
removed from each story. Heavier cuts (60 
percent or more of the basal area) may be 
possible in some instances, but the appearance 
of a continuous overstory canopy may not be 
retained. Since the overstory is likely to 

be more windfirm, selected dominants and co- 
dominants should be left. Avoid cutting holes 
larger in diameter than 1 tree height in the 
canopy by distributing the cut over the entire 
area. 

b. If the windfall risk is below average, and the 
trees are clumpy , the first cut should remove 
about AO percent of the basal area in a modi- 
fied group selection cutting. The group open- 
ings can be larger (2 to 3 times tree height) 
than for single-storied stands, but the area 
cutover should be not more than 1/3 of the 
total. Furthermore, the group openings should 
be irregular in shape but without dangerous 
wind catching Indentations in the edges. All 
trees in a clump should either be cut or left. 

c. If the windfall risk is above average, the 
first cut should be a light intermediate 
cutting that removes not more than 20 percent 
of the basal area, on an Individual tree basis, 
regardless of the spacing of trees. Super- 
dominants and codominants and intermediates 
with long dense crowns should be removed first. 
Maintain the general level of the canopy, but 
all trees In a clump should be either cut or 
left. Provision should be made to salvage 
blowdowns. 

d. If the windfall hazard is very high , or the 
overstory is breaking up, any partial cutting 
Is a calculated risk. 



MULTI - STORY 




1. Generally broad-aged with a wide range in 
diameters. 

2. If the stand developed from a relatively few 
individuals, overstory trees are coarse limbed, 
fill-in trees are finer limbed. Overstory trees 
may be relatively vigorous. 

3. If the stand developed from the deterioration 
of a single- or two-storied stand, overstory 
may be no limbier than fill-in trees. Much 
of the vigorous growing stock is below sawiog 
size. 

4. Almost always contains a manageable stand of 
reproduction as a ground story. 



5. Fill-in trees may be clumpy, but usually not 
the overstory. 



B. SUGGESTED CUTTING PRACTICES 

1. These are usually the most windfirm, even where 
they have developed from the deterioration of 
single- and two-storied stands, because by the 
time they have reached their present condition, 
the remaining overstory trees are usually windfirm. 

a. If the windfall risk is below average , there is 
considerable flexibility in harvesting these 
stands. All size classes can be cut with em- 
phasis on either the largest or smallest trees 
in the stand. For example, the first cut can 
range from removal of all large trees in the 
overstory to release the younger growing stock, 
to a thinning from below t£ improve the spacing 
of the larger trees. Thereafter, cutting can 
be directed toward uneven-aged management. 

b. If the windfall risk is above average or very 
high, the safest first cut is an overwood re- 
moval with a thinning from below to obtain a 
wide-spaced, open-grown stand that will develop 
windf irmness. Thereafter, cutting should be 
directed toward even-aged management. 




I 



USDA Forest Service 
Research Paper RM-77 
September 1971 

JRocky Mountain Forest and 
Range Experiment Station 

Forest Service 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

'Fort Collins, Colorado 



MIXED CONIFER 
SEEDLING GROWTH 
in Eastern Arizona 



by John R. Jones 











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Abstract 



Seedling height growth of several species was reconstructed 
on five case-study areas. Root development of natural seedlings 
is also shown at different ages. In a small opening receiving 
no direct sunlight, height growth was very slow. Engelmann 
spruce and corkbark fir seemed healthy after six growing seasons; 
white fir and Douglas-fir did not. In an abandoned roadway 
receiving direct sunlight briefly at midday, growth was moderately 
faster and all four species seemed healthy. Seedlings grew much 
faster in a clearcutting, where ponderosa and southwestern white 
pine also were measured. Growth of Engelmann spruce and 
corkbark fir understory seedlings released by partial cutting in- 
creased markedly. Douglas-fir growth did not. On a burn, growth 
of Engelmann spruce seemed reduced by intense overstocking. 
Implications for forest management are discussed. 

KEY WORDS: Pseudotsuga menziesii ^ Pioea engelmannii ■, Abies lasio- 
oarpUi Abies aonooloVi Pinus ponderosa ■> Pinus stvobi- 
formis i seedlings, roots, overstocking effect. 



USDA Forest Service <- . , ,„.,, 

Research Paper RM-77 September 1971 



Mixed Conifer Seedling Growth in Eastern Arizona 

by 

John R. Jones 
Plant Ecologist 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station^ 



^Central headquarters maintained in cooperation with Colorado State 
University at Fort Collins; author is located at Flagstaff, in cooperation 
with Northern Arizona University. 



Contents 

Page 

The Study Sites 1 

Material 4 

Methods 4 

Top Growth 4 

The Small Opening 4 

The Clearcutting '> 

Old Roadway 5 

Escudilla Mountain 6 

Roots 8 

Discussion 16 

Comparison of Growth in the 

Three Degrees of Opening 16 

Implications for Managers 1 7 

Literature Cited 1 8 

Common and Scientific Names of 

Plants Mentioned 19 



Mixed Conifer Seedling Growth in Eastern Arizona 



John R. Jones 



In the Southwest, mixed conifer forests 
occupy many sites that are too moist for a 
ponderosa pine ^ climax. They usually include 
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, which normally 
shares the crown canopy with one or more of 
the following: ponderosa pine, white fir, south- 
western white pine, Engelmann spruce, blue 
spruce, corkbark fir, and quaking aspen. Any 
of the conifers may predominate, but areas 
dominated by blue spruce or white pine nor- 
mally amount to little more than groves within 
the forest. 

We have had few data until now on seed- 
ling growth rates in the southwestern mixed 
conifers. This study consists of case histories 
of seedling growth rates on five areas with 
different sets of conditions, including several 
levels of stand opening, in mixed conifer forests 
in Arizona's White Mountains. It also provides 
a first look at seedling root systems. 



The Study Sites 

The main study area is in east-central 
Arizona at approximately 33° 37' north latitude, 
109° 19' west longitude, about 9,100 feet above 
sea level. 

On the sites studied, snow usually covers 
forested ground from sometime in November 
or December until April or May. On steep 
southerly slopes, however, patches of ground 
are likely to be bare at times during the winter, 
particularly in the open. In many years rem- 
nant snowbanks can be found in June. 

May and June constitute the "dry season." 
Little rain falls during those months, but initial- 
ly wet soils combined with cool temperatures 
moderate the lack of rain. July and August 
have considerable cloudiness, frequent showers, 
and in most years abundant rain. 

Air temperatures seldom reach 80° F. in 
the study areas. Frosts are common on June 
nights where cold air collects, but limited data 
suggest that frost is uncommon in June where 
there is free air drainage at night, as on the 
study sites. 

2 

Common and scientific names of plants' 

mentioned are listed on page 19. 



While rugged tei-rain is common in the 
White Mountains, there is considerable upland 
with gentle or moderate slopes. The study 
sites are on gentle slopes on a broad divide 
between the Blue and Black River drainages. 
The soils are of basalt origin. 

Height growth was studied on four primary 
sites very near one another. One was a clear- 
cut area (fig. 1) with a very gravelly loam 
soil. In its center was a shallow gravel pit. 
It had numerous postlogging seedlings of several 
species. A second site was a small opening in 
the forest (fig. 2), typical in most respects of 
those formed by the death or removal of a 
single large tree. The soil was a gravelly loam. 
A small pile of logging debris was burned 
there, and seedlings were unusually abundant, 
presumably because dragging and burning dis- 
turbed or destroyed the duff layer. The seed- 
lings received abundant skylight, but no direct 
sunlight even at the summer solstice except 
in the form of transient sun flecks. The third 
site was intermediate in the amount of light it 
received. It was an abandoned north-south 



Ftg[t'*Le 1 .--Cle,aAaut oAza ivZth gfiave.t pit In 







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s-^^^. 










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F-cguAe 2.--Sma/£ opening in loKUt; tho. 
photogfiaph ihom -iti {,ull. Midtk. 



roadway with about a 20° opening overhead 
(fig. 3). Seedlings received about 1.5 hours 
of direct sunlight at midday. The light condi- 
tions seemed roughly comparable to those of 
seedlings in forest stands that have received 
moderate partial cutting. 

On the third site, the seedlings were taken 
from the roadside where the ground had not 
been compacted by traffic. There were also 
many seedlings on the road itself; frost action 
probably had loosened its compacted surface 
in the 12 years since abandonment. The road- 
side, too, had been graveled, so the ground 
from which the sample came was not natural. 
Seedlings were very abundant on the graveled 
roadbed, and very scarce off the gravel. 

The fourth principal study site (fig. 4) 
had been virgin forest until it was cut selective- 
ly in 1957. Cutting was moderate, but sub- 
sequent blowdown reduced stocking irregularly 
to a level characteristic of stands that have 
had a heavy partial cutting. Most such post- 
logging blowdown ordinarily follows within 
a few years after harvest— especially the year 
immediately following— and that probably is 







F-cguAe 3. --Abandoned no-fvLh-ioath xoadway. 



- 2 - 



flguAe, 4. -- 
Kfiza in wkick i> (i2.dtinQi, 
had bztn n.di(icjU)td by 
pcULtlaZ CLutting -in 
1957, and (^uAtk^n. K.Q.- 
IzoMid by iiub^dqixdnt. 
blowdoim . 




what happened here. On this fourth site there 
had been numerous irregularly distributed seed- 
lings before harvest. Their growth in the 13 
seasons since then provides a case history of 
seedling response to overstory removals, and 
the area will be referred to as the release area. 

Other data were collected in the Engelmann 
spruce-corkbark fir type 25 miles north-northeast 
of the sites described above, at 10,600 feet 
elevation, on a part of the Escudilla Mountain 
Burn where an extremely dense seedling stand 
became established near unburned timber 
(fig. 5). 

These sites were chosen because they had 
sufficient suitable material growing in rather 
uniform conditions. Also, except for the 
Escudilla Mountain site, they were very near 
one another, and appeared similar except for 
the amount of gravel in the topsoil and the 
effects of different degrees of stand opening. 

Around all but the release site and the 
Escudilla Mountain site, Douglas-fir is the pre- 
dominant canopy species, but corkbark fir and 
Engelmann spruce are also abundant in the 
;anopy, and white fir, white pine, and ponderosa 
)ine are present.' There are no blue spruce 
)n or near any of the sites. On the release 
ite, Engelmann spruce and corkbark fir both 
jre more abundant than Douglas-fir in the 
verstory; around the Escudilla Mountain site 
ley were the only species, Engelmann spruce 
redominating. 



F-tguAe 5.--PaAt o^ th& EicudilZa fountain 
BuAn, at 10,600 i^-dt, with abundant 
Engnlinann ^p^ucd and 6ome co^kbaxk {^iK. 



4i. 














3 - 



The seedling root systems studied were dug 
up on nearby areas that were less gravelly 
than the clearcutting and the old roadway. 
These sites had few seedlings below age 5. 
Except for first-year seedlings, the exhumed 
seedlings of each species were dug up in a 
single small site. For the most part the differ- 
ent species were not found in suitable abundance 
in the same place, so that, for example, Engel- 
mann spruce were dug up in a different place 
from white fir. White fir and white pine were 
dug up together in a rather open virgin stand. 
The corkbark fir seedlings were growing together 
with Douglas-fir seedlings in a partially cut 
stand. The Engelmann spruce seedlings were 
dug up at the forest's edge along a shady 
roadside with a ditch separating them from 
the pavement. 

Only in the case of Engelmann spruce 
were first-year seedlings found where the older 
seedlings were dug up. The first-year cork- 
bark fir seedlings were growing with the Engel- 
mann spruce. First-year seedlings of the other 
species were dug up along the timber margin 
in a fresh clearcutting. 

Material 

Not all species were available on each study 
area. For example, ponderosa pine was found 
only in the clearcutting. 

Only healthy looking trees were used. The 
basic criterion was that the seedling or sapling 
looked as if it had a good chance of someday 
being part of the crown canopy. In addition, 
a tree was rejected if its height growth had 
been set back— for example, if the terminal 
had been bitten off at some time. 

Root development was studied only on 
seedlings that could be removed from the wet 
loams with trowel, shovel, digging bar, and 
screwdriver without losing any rootlets. These 
relatively small seedlings are most susceptible 
to drought, frost heaving, and competition from 
grass and other herbs. 

Methods 

To reconstruct past height growth, nodes 
were counted back to the ground and total age 
checked by a basal ring count. In questionable 
cases, stems were dissected and rings counted. 
Where a question persisted, total age was based 
on a basal ring count, and the obscured height 
of the lowest node or nodes was left out of 
the tabulations. For those trees, height-age 
coordinates began with the second- or third- 
year heights. 



Measurements were from the existing 
surface level. The height given for the end 
of the first growing season is not necessarily 
the sum of the hypocotyl and plumule lengths. 
It also reflects the depth of the seed within 
the forest floor at the time of germination, 
subsequent partial frost heaving, erosion, and 
the deposition of sediment and litter. 

Top Growth 

The Small Opening 

No ponderosa pine seedlings were found 
in the small opening, although there were 
mature ponderosa pine nearby. None of the 
few white pine seedlings looked like candidates 
for the crown canopy, and consequently none 
were measured. 

There were about two dozen Douglas-fir 
seedlings present (Douglas-fir predominated in 
the canopy) but only five were measured. The 
others seemed to be declining; growth was 
diminishing or leaders were dead, and usually 
the foliage looked unhealthy. 

Only eight white firs were measured. A 
number of others were found but seemed to be 
declining. 

Corkbark fir seedlings were no more 
numerous than Douglas-fir, but few were re- 
jected. Eighteen were measured. 

Although corkbark fir was somewhat more 
abundant in the canopy, and Douglas-fir much 
more abundant, Engelmann spruce seedlings 
were much more numerous. None of the 
spruce looked at were declining, and 24 were 
sampled along a transect. 

The species samples are therefore not strictly 
comparable. The sample of Engelmann spruce 
represents all of the Engelmann spruce seed- 
lings on the study site. The Douglas-fir seed- 
lings, however, and those of white fir, were the 
most vigorous seedlings of those species. 

Almost all seedlings were five, six, or seven 
growing seasons old; a large majority were six. 

At the end of the first growing season, 
the germination year, Engelmann spruce seed- 
lings averaged smallest, about 0.75 inch tall, 
and white fir were the largest, over 1.25 inches 
tall. After six growing seasons, however, the 
sample seedlings of all species averaged about 
the same height— approximately 5 inches. 

The height growth curves of Engelmann 
spruce and corkbark fir are shown in figure 6. 
Variations of growth rates within the two species 
were not large. The standard deviations of 
their heights at age 6 were almost identical: 
1.32 inches for Engelmann spruce and 1.31 
inches for corkbark fir. 



- 4 



The Clearcutting 



Corkbark fir 
Engelmann spruce 




Only trees growing outside the gravel pit 
were measured, although many growing in the 
pit were large and healthy. Figure 7 shows 
the average height growth c-urves for all species. 
Table 1 gives additional statistics. 

Although ponderosa pine averaged tallest, 
the tallest individuals were Douglas-fir. One 
sixth-year Douglas-fir was 42 inches tall, with 
1970 leader growth of 23.5 inches. During the 
sixth growing season it more than doubled its 
previous height. The tallest tree measured 
was a seventh-year Douglas-fir (fig. 8) more 
than 4 feet tall. 

Old Roadway 

Almost all the seedlings growing beside 
the old road were Douglas-fir, Engelmann 
spruce, and corkbark fir, in that order, and 
they were the only species measured. 

As shown in figure 9, the average height 
after six growing seasons was about 7.5 inches 
for each species, with standard deviations be- 
tween 1.5 and 2 inches. They had grown 
about 50 percent taller than in the small forest 
opening in the same amount of time, and 
unlike those in the small opening, the growth 
rates in the old roadway were clearly accelera- 
ting. The several white fir present also seemed 
healthy. 



figiJULe 7 .--GfLOi^tli AcuteA in 
tho. cleoAcuttlng . 



3 4 5 

Growing seasons 



- 5 



Table 1. --Average heights and standard deviations of seedlings 
measured in the clearcutting 



Species 



No. of 
seed! i ngs 



Age by 
g rowi ng 
seasons 



Average 
he i ght 



Standard 
devi at ion 









- - - 


Inc 


hes 


- - - 


Ponderosa pine 


2k 


6 


26.7 






8.2 


Douglas-f i r 


25 


6 


21.3 






9.7 


Engelmann spruce 


23 


7 


20.5 






h.S 


White pine 


9 


6 


13.3 






5.k 







., ».|- '. -, *i , 






VlQuAd &.--Tcitt(iit tiee in tho, cZtafiavittinQ- 
a iiZVdntk-LjtaA Vouglcii-^^-ifi. 



Escudilla Mountain 

The Engelmann spruce on Escudilla Moun- 
tain, like those in the cleaixauting, came up in 
the open, but they were older— mostly 16 and 
17. Crown classes had become differentiated 
and only dominants were measured. 



Figure 10 shows a very different growth 
pattern than might have been expected after 
examining growth on the clearcutting. After 
16 growing seasons the average height of the 
12 measured dominants was only 54 inches, 
with a standard deviation of 18 inches. The 
growth rate of the average tree has remained 
essentially uniform since the fourth year, at 
about 4 inches a year. In the clearcutting, 
and even in the roadway, height growth had 
been increasing instead of uniform. 

The only apparent explanation for that 
slow growth is competition— the stand is in- 
tensely overstocked (fig. 11). Foiles (1961) 
found that the number of Engelmann spruce 
seedlings in a seed spot did not influence 
the height growth of the dominant one among 
them; 17-year-old saplings alone in a spot were 
not taller than the dominants in spots with 
as many as 16 saplings. But Foile's seedspots 
were 6 feet apart, while on the Escudilla Moun- 
tain site heavy stocking is almost continuous, 
a considerably different competitive situation. 
The stocking in figure 11 looks extremely heavy, 
and it actually is even heavier than it looks. 
Many seedlings, alive and dead, are not visible 
in the picture because they have been over- 
topped. 

Also, on this site the dominants that are 
less crowded than most are notably taller than 
the average (fig. 10). Those most severely 
crowded, as around the spade in figure 11, 
are notably shorter. Since the dominants re- 
ceive abundant sunlight, the effective com- 
petition is presumably for moisture, nutrients, 
or both. 

The internodes for certain years were rather 
consistently longer or shorter than average. 
(This is not reflected in the graph because 
different trees reached a given age in different 
years.) Because the vegetative season is very 
cool and moist at 10,600 feet, it seemed reason- 



6 - 



GfiOMtii in tim abandomd toadvatj. 



II 
10 
9 
8 
-UJ 7 
I 6 

^ 4 
3 
2 
I 




Corkbark fir 



Douglas-fir 

Engelmann spruce 




3 4 5 

Growing seasons 



90 r 

80 - 
70 - 



Fastest 

Average 

Slowest 




7 9 11 

Age (years) 



13 



15 



TIquaq, 1 . - -Gnoiotii 0^ Engelmann ip'Xuct on ticuditta Mountain. 



m 



^^. -.v^ -.-^f^^t-^,-. '"i-i-^-JIt^ ^\^'^^^'' ^-/-^^fi 




FcguAe Tl .--OveA^tocking on 
Eicudltta Mountain. 



able to expect that the positive gi^owth anomalies 
resulted from warmer-than-average tempera- 
tures during some critical period, and negative 
growth anomalies from cooler-than-average 
temperatures. 

The 3 years with largest height growth 
anomalies were not related to temperatures 
for the period of shoot elongation, nor for the 
period of bud formation in the preceding 
summer, nor for any other period of the pre- 
ceding vegetative season. Data on precipitation 
or on duration of snow cover in spring were 
not available, and the growth anomalies remain 
unexplained. Temperatures may be a con- 
tributing factor, but if they are, it is not a 
simple relationship. 

In the release area, only trees were meas- 
ured whose nodes could be identified satis- 
factorily for all years back to 1957, the last 
growing season before release. Virtually all 
the regeneration was Engelmann spruce and 
corkbark fir. Leaders of almost all of the 
young corkbark fir had been browsed off at 
least once, and no white fir and only one 
acceptable Douglas-fir were found. Therefore, 
only Engelmann spruce were studied. Two 
unbrowsed corkbark fir were measured; their 
growth had been about like that of the spruce. 

The trees measvu-ed all were equivalent, 
within the regeneration layer, to dominants. 
Only trees that had still been seedlings in 
1956 were wanted in the sample. This caused 
no problems; trees that had been as much as 



2 feet tall in 1957 were too tall to measure 
in 1970 with the equipment used. The average 
sample tree of the 14 measured had been 7 
inches tall at the end of 1957 and grew to 
91.6 inches by the end of 1970 (fig. 12). Growth 
rates have been increasing ever since release, 
and in 1970 the leaders averaged about 14.5 
inches. That 1970 average conceals consider- 
able variation, however; the standard deviation 
was 5.8 inches and the longest leader measured 
was 27 inches. Although all trees measured 
were free overhead, there was considerable 
variation among them in light received, and 
trees receiving more light cleai-ly tended to 
be taller. 

The growth data given above are probably 
conservative, because the sample is probably 
biased. There almost certainly are other 
sapling-dominants on the site that had been no 
taller in 1957 than the sample trees, but which 
subsequently had grown too tall to be measured 
with the equipment used. 

Roots 

Little is known about the form, behavior, 
or ecology of seedling root systems in south- 
western mixed conifers. Those described here 
are a limited sample, and only the first-year 
seedlings came from a clearcutting. Many 
seedlings were dug previously at other White 
Mountain locations, mostly for transplanting, 




flguxt 12 .--Growth o{) EngaZmann bpKuco. 
on the fLzlectiz ojkicl. (Re£ea6ed beJivten 
thz g^LOioing 6tciioni oi^ 1957 and 19 58.) 



and the impressions gained from them tend 
to support, rather than qualify, findings in the 
study sample. 

Different species germinate at different 
seasons, and their root penetration varies con- 
siderably at the end of their first growing 
season (table 2). Those that germinate in the 
spring— white fir, corkbark fir, and some white 
pine— face a spring dry season very soon after 
germinating. Those that germinate in summer, 



after the rains begin, do not face a spring 
drought until the following year. 

Figures 13-24, amply illustrate the findings 
of the root study. In figures showing an age 
sequence, the seedlings were chosen to represent 
median size and form within the sample. Other 
figures illustrate extremes. There were far fewer 
white pine and ponderosa pine seedlings than 
for other species. 



Table 2 . --Germi nat i on , and vertical root penetration during the 

first growing season 



Species 



Germination season 



White fir 
Wh i te p i ne 

Ponderosa pine 
Corkbark fir 
Doug 1 as-f i r 
Engelmann spruce 



Spring, on melt moisture 

Spring, and again in summer 
af te r ra i ns begi n 

Summer, after rains begin 

Spring, on melt moisture 

Summer, after rains begin 

Summer, after rains begin 



Only two in sample, 



Average 
penetration 



nches 
7.3 

7.3 

3.^ 
3.1 
2.7 




IN. 



SEPT. 10 



CM 




FtguAe 15.--Unl(^onjmi.ty o^ conk- 
baxk ^In. a^ttn om g flowing 
fstcUiOn, and compaxlion of, 
i^tdtingi dag up on too datu . 
TfLom a hhcidtd Koadhldo, hltz. 



oa. 15 



CM 



5|- 




figoKt ]4.--RtpKUzntati\JZ cohkbank iiu aittfi om to 
i>lx gKouimg hiiaJiOn^ [no itcond-ytoA i,Q.tdLing] . ktl 
bat no. 1 {,xom a iingla (^ofie^itdd hit?-. 



10 




IN. CM 



T'lguAz 15.~-VaJUcLUon in coAkbcoik iU iz^dtuw 
KootLng hab^ on a UngU iofizUfLd itte. 




5 - 



-I- IS 
PN.CM 



F-cguAe 16.-- 

Engelmann ipn.uce 
inom a ihady fioad- 

A. Uojilatlon ai^t&^ 
om growing 
iecuson and com- 
pcuuAon Ojj 
i^edtingi dug 
u.p on two 
daXdi . 
8. LoAgzit and 
^moLteAt {^oufith- 
ijtoA 6e.e.dting6. 
C. Seventh.- ytoA 
iezdUng voltli an 
unusual fioot 
iyitem. 



11 




TIquaz 1 7 .- -Repiejs mutative EnqeAmann ipnaco. ittdtlngi a^tan. one to 
6zvtn growing i,ecUiOni on a ihady fioadilda i-6te. 



2 yr. 




F.tguAe 1 S.--liJk<J:e pinoji a^te/i ont g'tow-ing reason in a cZeaACLLttlng 
and a{^t<ifi two g>toiMing ie.<uonA in the ^ofid^t. 



12 - 



i 




Fig iLfid J 9 . - - 
W/tcte pinei aito^fi tiifizt (A) aHc/ 
douA (B and C) growing i^aiom, 
in the {\0^2Jit. 



FiguAt 20.-- 

VondzAoia pinu a{)tzfL 
one. gnoMing izcUiOn on 
a. cltoAcatting. 



5 - 




13 




20 



5-- 



-1 figut^ 21 .--Vouglcib-{,lfi. 

A. VaAiatlon alttn. om gfiaolng 
iea6 0M ujitkin a cltaAcattlm 

B. LoAgeAt and imalleAt -th.lK.d- 
ijnoA 6&e.dHyigi . 

C. LoAgeJit and 6malle.it (^.t^th-- 
ije,aA ie^dtlngi . 

--10 



- 20 



10- 



IN. CM 




¥.iguAz 22.--Rzpnzi,(in-ta,tivt V ouglai, - {^i^i a^toJi 
one. to iix gionJlng 6e,a60ni,. All but no. 1 
{^hjom a .single (^omiAtdd dlte. 



14 



VIquAz 23.--{)Jiu.t(i (jCA.. 

A. Uyii^oKmltij cL^ttn. one g'Uwing 
6 tea on In a deoAcuXting. 

B. LaAQii.it and imaltOyit iiZcond- 
ijdoA i,ztdtingi> . 

C. LcuigeAt and 6maIZQj>t 
iijyth-yeaA idtdtingi. 




.X- 


^ 




- 10 


- i 


t-s 


5 - 


- 


J 


&> 




- 15 


^ 


yW^^ 




- 


s 


x 




- 


f 




- 20 


\ 


) 


10- 


7 25 


y 






7 30 








r 35 






15 - 


- 40 



5r- 



— 




figu/Ld 24.-- 
R(ip>iue.ntati\jt whi.tt 
dAjU) a.{ittn. one. to 
iix gKouJing ^eoioai 
[no tltifid-gzoM. 
medllng) . Ml bat 
no. 1 {^Kom a. itinglz 



- 15 - 



Seedling root growth continued well into 
autumn, but by mid-October white tips were 
few and short; root growth seemed about over. 
By then the ground had been snow covered 
twice, and on most mornings the surface was 
frozen. Development on September 10 and 
October 15 are compared for corkbark fir (fig. 
13) and Engelmann spruce (fig. 16A). During 
the intervening 5 weeks the roots of Engelmann 
spruce more than doubled their depth and began 
to branch. The corkbark firs had germinated 
perhaps 2 months earlier; their depth did not 
increase so strikingly during the final 5 weeks, 
but branching became much better developed. 

Within the samples, corkbark fir and Engel- 
mann spruce had the most variable rooting 
habits. Figure 15 shows corkbark firs from a 
single site. The seedling on the left had a 
taproot that appears to be a continuation of 
the primary root. The one in the center has 
a taproot developed from a lateral. Although 
larger than the other two, the seedling on the 
right, with no taproot, rooted somewhat less 
deeply. 

The most conspicuous variability in Engel- 
mann spruce rooting is in the amount of 
branching. One seventh-year spruce had 
branched so profusely that interwoven roots 
of bedstraw and strawberry could not be 
separated from spruce roots. Figure 16C shows 
the most unusual rooting habit found, suggest- 
ing a response to highly contrasting root environ- 
ments or possibly to some root parasite. 

The small sample of southwestern white 
pine is somewhat ambiguous. The first-year 
seedlings differed considerably in size (fig. 18). 
The smallest may have germinated late or it 
may represent inherent seedling variability. 
From greenhouse observations, white pine seed- 
lings are easily the most variable of the Arizona 
mixed conifers during their first year, at least 
in cotyledon length and hypocotyl thickness. 
Also, the first-year white pines had penetrated 
about as deeply as the second-year seedlings. 
That may be a chance result of small sample 
size, or of different environments. The second- 
year white pines grew in a rather open virgin 
stand, and the first-year seedlings in the ad- 
jacent clearcutting. 

The second-year white pine on the far 
right of figure 18 appears to have been partly 
frost-heaved after its first growing season. 

Typical fourth-year white pine may well 
be deeper rooted than those in figure 19; 
several others about as tall were unusable 
because their taproots were lost in digging. 
Even so, those shown were deeper rooted, 
at their age, than any exhumed seedling of 



any other species. They also branched more 
sparsely than any other species examined. 

Very few small ponderosa pine seedlings 
were found in the open, and those in mixed 
conifer understories are of questionable sig- 
nificance. The largest of the two first-year pon- 
derosa pines (fig. 20) indicates that some root 
rather deeply and branch abundantly their first 
growing season. The smaller was probably a 
late germinant (Larson 1963). 



Discussion 

Because this was a case history study, 
it is especially important to consider how rep- 
resentative these growth rates may have been. 
The clearcutting is extremely gravelly— gravelly 
enough that part of it has been quarried. And 
the old roadway has a surface layer to which 
crushed rock was added. But these soil condi- 
tions are not as unusual as they might sound. 
Gravelly loams are very common throughout 
the White Mountains, and in the watershed 
where the principal study sites are found, 56 
percent of the area is Sponseller gravelly silt 
loam. 

Perhaps more important in interpreting 
growth data, the clearcutting studied had con- 
siderably less grass than usual. That may 
account for the unusually large number of 
tree seedlings, and their good growth. 

The abundance of seedlings in the small 
forest opening probably resulted from disturb- 
ance of the forest floor by dragging and burn- 
ing debris, but in partial cuttings disturbed 
seedbeds are common. 



Comparison of Growth in the 
Three Degrees of Opening 

The small opening, the old roadway, and 
the clearcutting differed in more than just 
exposure to sunlight and its effects. Also, 
degrees of opening were not replicated. But 
the three sites were similar in important 
respects, and very near one another on the 
ground. Thus while no precise or statistical 
comparisons can be made, a rough comparison 
is appropriate. 

Only Engelmann spruce provided a good 
sample on all three sites. Even this shade- 
tolerant species grew much better in full sun- 
light than in the intermediate illumination of i 
the roadway, and appreciably better in the i 
roadway than in the small opening where seed- i 
lings received only skylight and occasional 
sun flecks (fig. 25). 



- 16 



25 



20 



<o 






15 


o 




_c 




.^ 




^ 






10 


X 





Douglas-fir, Clearcutting 
Spruce, Clearcutting 
Spruce, Old Roadway 
Spruce , Small Opening 




;urli- 



3 4 5 

Growing seasons 



FigufLt 25.--Gfiou)th in tiiH-tt tlgkt -Yegtme^i, 



\.V 
ipotti« 
on* 
atistif 
ipa#' 






Douglas-fir growth benefited even more 
from location in the open (fig. 25). Its growth 
in the old roadway, essentially the same as 
shown for Engelmann spruce, was much slower 
than in the clearcutting, while in the small 
opening Douglas-fir was barely surviving. 

A countering consideration to better growth 
in the open is the seriously greater early mor- 
tality of Engelmann spruce seedlings without 
shade (Ronco 1961, 1967). Some other species 
may have the same kind of difficulty. The 
super-abundance of spruce seedlings on the 
Escudilla Mountain site became established in 
the protection of a criss-cross of fallen small 
snags. 



Implications for Managers 

These findings have implications for forest 
managers in the White Mountains and else- 
where in the Southwest. The very small first- 
year root systems of Engelmann spruce and 
the not much deeper roots of corkbark fir and 
Douglas-fir make them poor candidates for 
regeneration from seed where considerable soil 
drying or frost-heaving are expected. The 
spring germination habit of corkbark fir and 
white fir also makes them very susceptible 
to drying. 

The deep first-year rooting of southwestern 
white pine, as deep as sixth- and seventh-year 
Engelmann spruce, make it a promising species 



17 - 



for artificial seeding. Its form is commonly 
inferior, however, which indicates a need for 
close spacing and unusual care in seed 
procurement. 

In the selection method, light removals 
may favor Engelmann spruce and corkbark fir 
because much of the ground may receive too 
little light for good survival of white fir and 
Douglas-fir. Providing a light regime com- 
parable to that in the old roadway should allow 
Douglas-fir and white fir to survive and develop. 

Rapid growth of seedlings in the clear- 
cutting after they reached a height of 4 to 5 
inches suggests that planting healthy nursery 
stock can result in a sapling stand in as few as 
five to eight growing seasons. Ernbry ^ 
found much less soil moisture, however, where 
grass occupied a mixed conifer clearcutting than 
where the grass had been removed, except on 
a north-facing slope. That suggests the seed- 
lings would not grow so fast in the face of 
vigorous herbaceous competition. 



Embry , Robert S. Soil water availability 
in an Arizona mixed conifer clearcutting. (In 
preparation for publication , Rocky Mt . Forest 
and Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo.) 



Literature Cited 

Critchfield, W. B., and E. L. Little, Jr. 

1966. Geographic distribution of the pines 
of the world. U. S. Dep. Agr. Misc. 
Pub. 991, 97 p. 
Foiles,M. W. 

1961. Effects of thinning seed spots on 
growth of three conifers in the Inland 
Empire. J. Forest. 59: 501-503. 
Harrington, H. D. 

1954. Manual of plants of Colorado. 666 p. 
Denver, Colo.: Sage Books. 
Larson, M. M. 

1963. Initial root development of ponderosa 
pine seedlings as related to germination 
date and size of seed. Forest Sci. 9: 
456-460. 
Little, E. L., Jr. 

1953. Check list of native and naturalized I 
trees of the United States (including 
Alaska). U. S. Dep. Agr., Agr. Handb. 41,, 
472 p. 
Ronco, Frank. 

1961. Planting in beetle-killed spruce stands. , 
U. S. Dep. Agr., Forest Serv., Rocky; 
Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta. Res. 
Note 60, 6 p.. Fort Colhns, Colo. 



1967. Lessons from artificial regeneration i 
studies in a cutover beetle-killed sprucee 
stand in western Colorado. U. S. Forest 
Serv. Res. Note RM-90, 8 p. Rocky 
Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Fort 
Collins, Colo. 



Common and Scientific Names of Plants Mentioned 



Beds t raw 

Blue spruce 

Corkbark f i r 

Engelmann spruce 

Ponderosa pine 

Quaking aspen 

Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir 

Southwestern white pine 

Strawberry 

White fir 



Galium sp. L.^ 

Pioea pungens Engelm. 

Abies lasioaarpa var. artsoniaa (Merriam) Lemm. 

Pioea engelmannii Parry 

Pinus ponderosa Laws. 

Populus tremuloides Michx. 

Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco 

Pinus strobiformis Engelm. 

Fragai'ia sp . L . ^ 

Abies aonaolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. 



Nomenclature follows Little (1953) unless otherwise Indicated . 
Nomenclature follows Harrington (1954) . 
^Nomenclature follows Critchfield and Little (1966) . 



i^Sriculture-CSU. Ft. Collins 



19 



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DA Forest Service 
search Paper RM-78 
cember 1971 

cky Mountain Forest and 
nge Experiment Station 

est Service 

S. Department of Agriculture 

t Collins, Colorado 



SCOTS PINE IN 
EASTERN NEBRASKA: 
A PROVENANCE STUDY 



by Ralph A. Read 



, *•« I ^ 



.>^[:'',j^- 




1.. *-/ , ,-%.-i» 




-- r 




m 





ABSTRACT 

Seedling progenies of 36 rangewide provenances of Scots pine 
(Pinus s ylvestris ) were established in a field test in eastern Ne- 
braska. Results in growth and other characteristics after 8 years 
reveal that (1) southern origins bordering the Mediterranean grow 
slowly to moderately fast and remain dark green in winter, (2) 
central European origins grow very fast and turn yellowish green 
in winter, (3) northern origins grow slowly and turn very yellow 
in winter. Southern origins are therefore recommended for Christ- 
mas trees; fast growing central European origins are recommended 
for windbreaks; and the northern origins recommended as special- 
purpose ornamentals. 

Key words: Pinus sylvestris, provenances, growth, Christmas 
trees, windbreaks, ornamentals. 



USDA Forest Service r. u to-^t 

Research Paper RM-78 ^^^^'"^^^ ^^71 



Scots Pine in Eastern Nebraska: 
A Provenance Study 



by 



Ralph A. Read, Principal Sil vicul turist 
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station^ 



^Central headquarters maintained at Fort Collins, in cooperation 
with Colorado State University; research reported here was conducted at 
Lincoln, in cooperation with the University of Nebraska. 



PREFACE 

The provenance study described in this Paper is one of a 
dozen experimental plantations of various tree species established 
on the Horning State Farm near Plattsmouth, Nebraska, which is 
administered by the Department of Horticulture and Forestry 
of the University of Nebraska. The USDA Forest Service, through 
its Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station work 
unit at Lincoln, cooperates with the Nebraska Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station on this research. 

The purpose of this work is to find and develop better adapted 
genetic tree materials for use in all kinds of plantings, environ- 
mental and commercial, throughout Nebraska and the Central 
Plains. These provenance studies of different species provide 
basic materials of known origin for evaluation of adaptability, 
for study of genetic variation, and for selection, propagation, and 
breeding for resistance to disease and insect pests. 

The diversity of tree planting materials under study at this 
and many other locations in the Plains was made possible through 
cooperation in a Regional Tree Improvement Project (NC-99, for- 
merly NC-51) of the North Central State Agricultural Experiment 
Stations. 

Credits are due Jonathan W. Wright, Professor of Forestry, 
Michigan State University, for initiating the Regional study and 
providing the planting stock, and to Walter T. Bagley, Associate 
Professor of Horticulture and Forestry, University of Nebraska, 
for cooperation in planting and maintenance of the plantation. 



Contents 

Page 

Past Work 1 

Materials and Methods 4 

Results 4 

Height Growth 4 

Spring Growth 8 

Needle Color and Length 9 

Flowering Patterns 9 

Application of Results 9 

Literature Cited 13 



Scots Pine in Eastern Nebraska: 
A Provenance Study 

Ralph A. Read 



Scots pine ( Pinus s ylvestris L.) has become 
an important exotic in the United States in the 
last 20 years because of its greatly increased 
use for Christmas trees. It has been planted in 
this country since colonial times, but until 
recently has seen limited use in the Eastern 
Great Plains. More people are growing Christ- 
mas trees on a commercial basis in the Plains 
States now, and conifers are being used more 
generally for landscaping along highways, 
around rural and urban homes, and for 
windbreaks. 

This increase in demand has brought up 
questions concerning the origin of seed sources, 
especially of planting stock to be used for 
Christmas trees. Experiences with planting 
stock purchased from commercial producers 
have resulted in plantations containing a large 
percentage of off-color yellow trees. Such 
trees are not readily marketable as Christmas 
trees. Although many Christmas tree growers 
now spray their trees with plastic paint to give 
them a uniform green color, this operation is 
an added expense passed on to the consumer. 
Planting stock of selections which stay fairly 
green have become available recently in limited 
amounts from some nurserymen. 

The performance of early plantings of Scots 
pine in the Eastern Plains was not recorded 
in detail, although many old trees 40 to 60 
feet tall and 24 to 30 inches d.b.h. are still 
to be seen on farmsteads. Several plantations, 
labeled variety riga, were established in the 
1920's on sandhills in the Nebraska National 
Forest. These grew well for 40 years before 
succumbing to an infestation of turpentine 



beetles. Generally, however, the full value 
of Scots pine as a tree for the Plains has been 
overlooked, because performance has been 
judged on relatively few and mostly unknown 
seed origins. 

A cooperative Regional Tree Improvement 
Project (NC-51) of the North Central State 
Agricultural Experiment Stations made it pos- 
sible to test, for the first time, a wide range 
of Scots pine origins for adaptability and growth 
in Nebraska. This Paper reports the results 
of that field study 8 years after it was estab- 
lished in 1:§§9 in eastern Nebraska. 



Past Work 

Scots pine is the most widely distributed 
species of pine in the World (Critchfield and 
Little 1966). It grows in natural stands 
throughout Europe and northern Asia from 
southern Spain to Greece and Turkey, north 
to Finland, and east to Manchuria (fig. 1). 
It occurs on a great variety of soils and in 
regions of diverse climates, from 38° to 70° 
north latitude, and from 5° west to 135° east 
longitude. 

Reports concerning the nature of genetic 
variation in this species are not entirely in 
agreement. Langlet (1959) contended that vari- 
ation is clinal, based upon seedling characters 
of Swedish provenances and 17-year height 
data in European plantations. Khalil (1969), 
King (1965), Ruby (19(57), Wright and Bull 
(1963) and Wright "et al. (1966b) considered the 



1 - 



t 



\StV 



nW-ESI 



fcNO' 



C E A 


1 ' 


/ ; 




^ 




rtn 


'^ 



'>^' 



l^ 



I .1 



.^ 




tkNOSX 



[NM>l«)i 



522 



<?• 



31" 



\*' 1^, 



/^s. ,_ 



V^ 



/ \ " s 



' ». 



ibi 




N , . /.^ 



^43 



220 



U N 



264?^ 



^A^<V. 



■^V(5 



/EGYPT 



S Y 



I A 



'fl 



PiriNs sylvestris 

Isolated occurrence 




200 400 600 800 



1500 KILOMETcPS 



AFGHANIS 



variation as ecotypic or discontinuous. Wriglit's 
analysis was based upon 3-year seedling growth 
of 122 range wide origins in Michigan and upon 
5- to 7-year field performance of these origins 
in various plantations in the North Central 
States. Garrett (1969), on the other hand, 
concluded that 5-year field results of 83 origins 
in northern Michigan seem to agree more closely 
with the clinal variation concept, with no well- 
defined breaks among origins in height and 
foliage characteristics. Ruby's (1967) detailed 
study of cone and seed characters of the paren- 
tal populations and needle data of Wright's 
progenies grown in Michigan, indicated the 
existence of distinct regional groups or identi- 
fiable entities. 

In their analysis of 17 field plantations in 
the North Central States at 5 to 7 years age, 
Wright et al. (1966b) grouped the origins by 
varieties as determined by multivariate analy- 
ses (Wright and Bull 1963). The choice of 
variety names was suggested by Ruby (1967). 
Several variety x plantation interactions were 
significant, but these were small compared with 
main effects. They found that Central European 
origins grew fastest, and Scandinavian and 
Siberian origins slowest. Origins from the 
most southerly latitudes remained darkest green, 
while origins from far north turned yellow. 
Winter foliage color differences by variety were 
essentially the same in the 10 widely scattered 
plantations from which data were available. 
The southern varieties, however, suffered winter 
injuiy in plantations in Minnesota and Michigan. 
Susceptibility to European sawfly was greatest 
on the tallest or fastest growing origins from 
central Europe (Wright et al. 1967). 

Although performance in the Nebraska plan- 
tation has been similar in some respects to 
other north-central plantations, there are dif- 
ferences in growth, hardiness, and flowering 
by certain origins which are of importance in 
choosing the best seed sources for the Plains. 



Materials and Methods 

Seedlings of 36 origins (table 1, fig. 1) 
from a larger number under study by Michigan 
State University, Department of Forestry, were 
field planted in eastern Nebraska in 1962. Two- 
year-old seedlings from the Michigan nursery 
were shipped to Nebraska by air freight in 1961, 
and were grown for one additional year as 
transplants in a USDA Forest Service nursery 
in central Nebraska before being field planted. 



The provenance plantation is 20 miles south 
of Omaha, near Plattsmouth, Nebraska, on the 
Horning State Farm experimental area operated 
by the Department of Horticulture and Forestry, 
University of Nebraska. This location, at 96° 
west longitude and 41° north latitude, is about 
the same latitude as many of the southern 
origins tested. The site is near the top of a 
gentle east-facing slope of silt loam soil derived 
from loess, which had been cultivated for a 
number of years in row crops. The layout 
consists of 14 tree rows, 500 feet long, on the 
contour. There are seven replications of two 
rows, and 36 randomly located four-tree plots 
in each replication. Trees are 7 feet apart, in 
rows 14 feet apart. 

The 2-1-1 transplant stock was planted by 
machine during April 1962 on previously disked 
land. A 20-inch-wide band on both sides of 
each tree row was sprayed soon after planting 
with simazine at a rate of 4 pounds per acre 
for weed control (fig. 2). Plantation failvu-es 
were replanted from extra lineout stock during 
the first two seasons. Maintenance through 
the first 6 years consisted of weed control with 
simazine in the tree rows and mowing between 
rows. Thereafter, only mowing was necessary. 

Tree heights were measured at the end of 
each growing season, 1963 through 1969. Winter 
color of foliage was rated in December 1964, 
and checked in several subsequent years. Needle 
samples (two fascicles per tree from midpoint 
of current year's terminal) were collected in 
December 1964. Terminal growth development 
and amount of flowering were measured in 
spring 1967. 



Results 



Height Growth 



The fastest growing trees, of origins from 
central Europe, were twice the height of the 
slowest growing origins at 8 years (table 2). 
Trees of the ha g uencnsis variety from the Vosges 
Mountain region (237, 241, and 250) and from 
Belgium (318 and 530) were the fastest growers 
of the central European origins. 

Trees of Scandinavian and Siberian origins 
grew slowest, followed by the southern origins. 
There was considerable variation in growth 
of southern origins. Greek sources 272 and 243, 
for example, differed by over 3 feet in total 
height. The relative height differences, as per- 
cent of the plantation mean at 8 years, ranged 
from 63 to 130 percent. These differences 
were of essentially the same magnitude as they 
were at 4 years of age. 



Table l.--Data on seed origin locations and geographic varieties 
of Scots pine tested in eastern Nebrasl<a 



Mi ch i gan 
State Un i vers i ty 
origin number 



Count ry 



Lat i - 
tude 



Long i 
tude 



E 1 evat i on 



Geograph i c 
var iet i es -^ 



Degrees N. Degrees E . ^ 
NORTHERN 



Feet 



256 


S iber ia 






56.7 


96.3 


230 


Fin! and 






60.5 


22.4 


522 


Sweden 






60.9 


16.5 


265 


Scot! and 






57.1 


4.9W 


257 


U.S.S.R. 


Ura 


Is 


56.8 


65.0 


260 


U.S.S.R. 


Ura 


Is 


57.0 


61 .4 


223 


U.S.S.R. 


Lat' 


>/i a 


57.5 


25.8 



100 


altaiaa 


150 


septentrionalis 


700 


septentrionalis 


GkO 


sootiaa 


500 


uralensis 


600 


uralensis 


- 


rtgensts 



CENTRAL EUROPEAN 



317 


Northern Poland 


53.7 


20.5 


650 


polonica 


527 


East Germany 


50.9 


13.7 


1700 


heroynioa 


204 


West Germany 


50.8 


9.7 


1300 


herayniaa 


307 


Czechos lovaki a 


49.9 


17.9 


800 


herayniaa 


305 


Czechos lovaki a 


49.0 


14.7 


1300 


heroynica 


306 


Czechos lovakia 


49.2 


14.0 


1500 


herayniaa 


553 


West Hungary 


47.7 


16.6 


1000 


pannoniaa 


270 


Eng 1 and 


51.2 


0.8W 


200 


scotiaa X? 


318 


Belgi urn 


51.2 


5.0 


- 


haguenensis 


530 


Be 1 g i um 


50.0 


5.0 


1000 


haguenensis 


250 


West Germany 


49.4 


7.6 


1300 


haguenensis 


241 


Northeast France 


49. 1 


7.4 


800 


haguenensis 


237 


Northeast France 


48.8 


7.8 


500 


haguenensis 


235 


Northeast France 


48.2 


7.2 


2300 


haguenensis 


203 


South Germany 


48.2 


8.3 


- 


herayniaa 


554 


North Italy 


46.0 


1 1 .2 


2400 


"Italy" 


556 


North Italy 


46.3 


n .3 


3200 


"Italy" 


557 


North Italy 


46.3 

SOUTHERN 


1 1 .0 


2600 


"Italy" 


261 


U.S.S.R. Georgia 


41.7 


42.7 


3600 


armena 


264 


U.S.S.R. Georgia 


41 .8 


43.5 


5200 


armena 


220 


West Turkey 


40.0 


31.3 


4700 


armena 


243 


North Greece 


41.5 


24.3 


5800 


rhodopaea 


551 


North Greece 


41.3 


23.4 


4900 


rhodopaea 


272 


Central Greece 


39.9 


21 .2 


4500 


rhodopaea 


242 


Yugos lavia 


43.9 


19.4 


4000 


illyriaa 


239 


South France 


45.3 


3.7 


3300 


aquitana 


240 


South France 


42.6 


2.1 


5000 


aquitana 


245 


Central Spain 


40.7 


4.2W 


4800 


iheriaa 


218 


Central Spain 


40.3 


5.2W 


3700 


iberiaa 



^Wright et a) . 1966b. 
^All east except as noted. 





•. ^*'*^iJ^^*5«'i:v ---«*^ ^^- fc-"-'^^ * 











5^«%5^>^k '-.-f^I*^ . X'' 



FiguJit 2.--Tkz Scoti, pirn p\ovenanc^ plantcvtlon 1 y^an. af^ttt 
utabtliikmtnt in tai>t(ifux hiabitaika (weecii coyitAotttd by rmam 
o{i a 40-ind/i-band didmicaJi ip^ay oveA the tn.zz ^0W4 ) . 



Table 2. --Growth and needle characteristics of Scots pine origins in eastern Nebraska 



Mi chigan 

State University 

origin number 



o-year 
total 



Height 



Percent of 

pi an tat ion 

mean 



Spring growth 

i n i t i at ion 

{k to 0)1 



Wi nter 
fol i age 
col or 
(0 to 9)2 



Needle 
length 



Feet 



SIB 256 
FIN 230 
SWE 522 
SCO 265 
URA 257 
URA 260 
LAT 223 



7. 'J 
7.6 
8.2 
10.7 
10.1 
10.4 
11.1 



NORTHERN 




63 


4.0 


Gk 


3.0 


69 


3.6 


91 


1.7 


86 


3.9 


88 


3.8 


94 


2.4 



0.3 


59 


1 .6 


'iS 


1.4 


53 


5.6 


64 


1 .4 


64 


1.3 


64 


1.6 


60 



CENTRAL EUROPEAN 



POL 317 


13.5 


114 


2.2 


GER 527 


14.3 


121 


2.6 


GER 204 


13.0 


110 


1.9 


CZE 307 


14.1 


119 


2.2 


CZE 305 


13.4 


114 


1.9 


CZE 306 


13.0 


no 


2.1 


HUN 553 


13.2 


112 


2.0 


ENG 270 


13.4 


114 


2.3 


BEL 318 


14.7 


125 


2.1 


BEL 530 


14.5 


123 


2.1 


GER 250 


14.4 


122 


2.0 


FRA 241 


14.2 


120 


1.8 


FRA 237 


15.3 


130 


2.0 


FRA 235 


13.3 


113 


2.2 


GER 203 


12.3 


104 


2.1 


ITA 554 


12.2 


103 


2.2 


ITA 556 


11.9 


101 


2. 1 


ITA 557 


11.3 


96 

SOUTHERN 


1.9 


GEO 261 


10.6 


90 


2.1 


GEO 264 


11.3 


96 


2.1 


TUR 220 


11.6 


98 


2.3 


GRE 243 


12.0 


102 


2.2 


GRE 551 


11 .0 


93 


1.9 


GRE 272 


8.6 


73 


2.3 


YUG 242 


11.9 


101 


2.0 


FRA 239 


11.5 


97 


1.6 


FRA 240 


8.6 


73 


1.0 


SPA 245 


9.7 


82 


1 .1 


SPA 218 


9.2 


78 


1 .1 


H = earl iest ; 


= latest. 






= yel lowest 


, 9 = darkest green. 







3.0 


79 


3.7 


71 


4.4 


76 


4.0 


84 


3.9 


87 


4.0 


70 


4.4 


87 


5.4 


74 


4.6 


85 


4.6 


85 


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- 7 - 



Total height curves for groups of origins 
of similar growth (fig. 3) show that southern 
and northern origins grew slowest and generally 
at about the same rate. The far north origins 
of Finland and central Siberia were the slowest. 
A few southern origins, particularly from Greece, 
Turkey, and Georgia S.S.R., grew moderately 
fast, about equal to the slowest central European 
sources. The curves also show that the fastest 
growing origins in the nursery continued to grow 
fastest, and the smallest transplants continued 
to be the slowest growers after 8 years. 

Analyses of variance of height data by 
years showed increasing significance among 
origins throughout all replications. Relative 
height growth of the various origins was es- 
sentially the same in this Nebraska plantation 
as in Michigan (Wright et al. 1966b). 

Spring Growth 

Northern varieties started growth earliest 
in the spring; southern varieties were last (table 



2). Height growth in spring 1967 was well 
advanced by May 8-9 on all origins from 
Sweden, Finland, Latvia, and Siberia. All bud 
scales had sloughed and the new needles, mostly 
longer than 1 centimeter, were distinct from 
the base to tip of shoot. The Scottish origin 
was the exception. Height growth started later 
and in this respect was more like some of the 
southern origins. 



Height growth started much later on some, 
but not all, southern origins. Origins 218 and 
245 from Spain and 240 from southern France 
were especially late in starting growth. Buds 
had scarcely begun to swell and elongate on 
May 8-9, appearing still in winter condition. 
Some southern origins from Greece and Turkey, 
however, were moderately advanced in growth, 
but not so much as the far north origins. All 
origins of central Europe were intermediate, 
and there was no apparent pattern based on 
their geographic source. 





16 


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jjo/i gfLOupi, o{i Scots pint 
otLQlnfi a.{,tzfi S ytaJUi in an 
zo-itdKn Hzbmuka. plantation. 




237 

241.250,307 
318,527,530 
204,235,270,305 
306,317,553 
203,242,243, 
/ 554,556 

220,223,239, 
264,551 557 

257,260.261,265 

218,245 

240,272,522 

230.256 



1962 1963 1964 



1965 1966 
Year 



1967 1966 1969 



Needle Color and Length 

Foliage color during the growing seasons 
was not strikingly different among origins, 
although it ranged between medium and dark 
green. Among the more northerly origins, 
needle color changed annually from green to 
yellow, usually starting during October after 
several days of cold, sunny weather. The green 
generally returned during March and April. 

Winter foliage color ranged from yellow to 
dark, bluish green, rated on a scale from to 
9 (table 2). There was essentially no variation 
in winter color of individual trees from year to 
year. All trees of Scandinavian and Siberian 
origins turned various shades of yellow, and 
were consistent in color change each winter. 
Here again the Scottish trees were different 
among the northern origins. Although foliage 
color was not as dark green as most southern 
origins, they were not yellowish green. 

All trees of origins from Spain, southern 
France, and northwest Tui-key remained dark 
green or bluish green. Central European ori- 
gins were generally intermediate in color, with 
some sources remaining fairly green, while 
others turned yellowish green. None of the 
origins showed any effects of winter desiccation 
and foliage burn, a condition which is evidently 
quite common some years in the northern Plains. 

Needle length ranged from about 50 mm. 
on the origins from Scandinavia, southern 
France, Spain, and Greece to about 90 mm. 
on many of the central European origins. The 
slowest growing origins had the shortest needles, 
and the fastest growing origins of central Europe 
had the longest needles. This confirms Ruby's 
(1967) observation of seedling materials of these 
origins grown in Michigan. 



Flowering Patterns 

A few ovulate strobili were seen on less 
than 1 percent of all trees in 1966 (after the 
fifth field season). Abundant flowering began 
on many origins in the spring of 1967—66 per- 
cent of all trees produced ovulate and 17 per- 
cent staminate strobili. Staminate strobili were 
generally produced at a much lower level than 
ovulate on all sources (table 3). Flowering 
started in the Michigan nursery when nine 
2-year-old seedlings produced small amounts 
of pollen (Wright et al. 1966a). 

Ovulate flowering on the origins, except 
for the Scottish, was sparse. Although over 
half the trees of these origins had started 
to produce conelets, there were very few on 
each tree. Central European sources produced 



the most ovulate strobili on more trees. 
Southern origins were intermediate in ovulate 
cone production; cones were abundant only on 
source 239 of southern France. Cone production 
on origins from Turkey, central Greece, and 
central Spain was as sparse as on the far north 
origins. 

Fast-growing origins from Belgium and 
others of the haguenensis variety had the high- 
est percentage of pollen-producing trees. Just 
a few trees of other origins produced abundant 
pollen. The Scandinavian and Siberian origins 
had practically none. Others not producing 
much pollen were from Spain, Greece, Scotland, 
and England. Staminate strobili on the smaller 
trees were invariably on the terminal shoots, 
while on the largertrees they were predominant- 
ly in the lower ci'own. Ovulate strobili were 
usually at midcrown. 

Application of Results 

The 36 origins tested can be grouped by 
classes of height growth rate and winter foliage 
color (table 4). The extremes of growth are: 
Slow (less than 1 foot per year) and Very 
Fast (more than 1.75 feet per year). From this 
table, the most desirable origins can be selected 
for specific purposes. 

None of the origins with the dark green 
color desired for Christmas trees fell into the 
fast growth class. The origins of best color 
grew medium slow to medium fast— from 1.0 
to 1.5 feet per year. This is probably for- 
tunate because trees which grow too fast must 
be sheared heavily to shape them for Christmas 
trees. The slower growing trees need less 
shearing, and have less tendency to produce 
multiple leaders and extreme numbers of lateral 
branches. 

The best origins for Christmas tree color 
in Nebraska are from southern France, Spain, 
and Turkey (239, 240, 218, 245, and 220). Of 
these, 239 and 220 grow slightly faster than 
the others. In addition, the Scottish origin 
(265) is recommended because of its overall 
desirable characteristics of growth, color, and 
later growth initiation. 

Results to date indicate that fast-growing 
origins may be well adapted for general use 
in windbreaks, where foliage color is not im- 
portant. Origins of the ha g uenensis variety 
of Belgium (318 and 530) and nearby Vosges 
Mountains in France and Germany (237, 241, 
and 250) appear ideal for this purpose. They 
grow nearly as fast as broadleaf species such 
as green ash and honeylocust, and should be 
used more often in windbreaks to provide 
yearlong effectiveness and beauty. 



Table 3 • ~~Occu rrence and abundance of flowering in Scots pine origins, 
6 years after planting in eastern Nebraska 



Mi ch igan 
State Un i vers i ty 

origin number 



Ovul ate strobi 1 i 



Staminate strobi 1 



Occurrence among 


Average per 


Occurrence among 


Abundant 


al 1 trees 


tree 


al 1 trees 


trees 


Percent 


Number 
NORTHERN 


Percent 


Number 


29 


2 








65 


9 








56 


5 


7 





79 


21 








50 


3 


h 





50 


5 


8 





61 


9 


11 






SIB 256 
FIN 230 
SWE 522 
SCO 265 
URA 257 
URA 260 
LAT 223 



CENTRAL EUROPEAN 



POL 317 
GER 527 
GER 204 
CZE 307 
CZE 305 
CZE 306 
HUN 553 

ENG 270 
BEL 318 
BEL 530 
GER 250 
FRA 2k\ 
FRA 237 
FRA 235 
GER 203 

ITA 55^4 
ITA 556 
ITA 557 



GEO 261 
GEO 264 
TUR 220 
GRE 243 
GRE 551 
GRE 272 
YUG 242 
FRA 239 
FRA 240 
SPA 245 
SPA 218 



74 


29 


89 


18 


82 


33 


78 


13 


73 


24 


57 


3A 


78 


22 


68 


17 


100 


91 


86 


23 


93 


48 


76 


28 


86 


28 


79 


12 


93 


26 


71 


^3 


67 


33 


77 


45 




SOUTHERN 


72 


18 


54 


13 


37 


6 


68 


20 


54 


15 


12 


3 


44 


25 


82 


52 


75 


14 


32 


12 


43 


4 



11 

36 
15 
18 

4 
24 

9 

4 

56 
36 
44 
24 
29 
14 
21 

21 
14 
27 



25 

21 

15 

32 

4 

4 

32 

32 

14 

11 





10 



Table 4. --Growth rate and winter foliage color groupings of Scots 
pine origins after 8 years in eastern Nebraska 



Height 

growth rate 

(8-year basis' 



Yellow 



Winter foliage color 



Ye 1 1 ow green 



Green 



Blue green 



^ery fast 

(more than 1.75 feet 

per year) 



Fast 

(1 .50 to 1 .75 feet 

per year) 



Medium fast 

(1 .25 to 1 .50 feet 

per year) 



Medi urn s low 

(1 .0 to 1 .25 feet 

per year) 



Slow 

(less than 1 .0 foot 

per year) 



223 Latvia 

260 West Siberia 
257 West Siberia 



522 Sweden 



230 Finland 

256 Central Siberia 



527 East Germany 

2^*1 France 

307 Czechoslovakia 



317 Poland 

305 Czechoslovakia 
553 Hungary 

306 Czechoslovakia 
20^4 Central Germany 
203 Southwest 

Germany 



237 France 
318 Belgium 
530 Belgium 
250 Southwest 
Germany 

270 England 
235 France 
SS't Italy 
556 Italy 
2^3 Greece 
242 Yugoslavia 



557 Italy 

264 Caucasus 
261 Caucasus 
551 Greece 

265 Scotland 

272 Greece 



220 Northwest 

Turkey 
239 France 



245 Spain 
21 8 Spai n 
240 France-- 
Py renees 



The northern varieties, which turn yellow 
in winter, may have special ornamental value 
in creating color contrast in landscaping. Other 
studies have shown that additional origins from 
northern Siberia change to golden yellow in 
midwinter. These golden types, when combined 
in planting with the dark green materials of 
southern Europe, can be used to create striking 
ornamental effects. 

The time of growth initiation in spring 
has a bearing on the time of shearing. Early 
shearing in relation to terminal growth develop- 
ment causes a profusion of lateral buds near 
top of the sheared terminal, resulting in an 
undesirable flush of growth, which must be 
thinned for proper shaping. Delayed shearing 



tends to reduce this, producing fewer laterals. 
Since southern origins are last to start spring 
growth, shearing of them should be delayed 
several weeks, in comparison to origins which 
begin and complete growth much earlier. 

The fact that northern origins begin height 
growth 2 to 3 weeks before the southern is 
important for planning controlled pollinations 
among the different origins, since development 
and receptivity of ovulate strobili depends on 
terminal shoot elongation. Development of 
staminate strobili is also closely related to initi- 
ation of terminal shoot growth in the spring. 
Controlled crosses of northern varieties with 
pollen of southern varieties will therefore re- 
quire collection and storage of pollen a year 
in advance. 



11 



Individual trees of superior crown form 
have been noted within almost all origins tested 
(fig. 4). These trees are now being used in an 
intensive selection and breeding program to 
provide superior genetic materials for seed 
production orchards by means of grafting and 
controlled pollination. Improved planting stock 



from these orchards will not be available for 
at least 10 years, however. In the meantime, 
Christmas tree growers, landscape nurserymen, 
and windbreak tree planters can help influence 
present programs and can obtain better per- 
formance in their plantings by specifying the 
seed origins desired for certain purposes. 




FiguAe. 4.--lndL\iidaaZ t^ee o^ o^gin 305, {^nom Tfizbon, Czdckoilovakia, ihom 
^xceZicnt cAown {^onm and hoA-ght [13 \<iqX] aitifi S ytoAA in ihz (floJid. 



- 12 



I 



Literature Cited 

Critchfield, William B., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 
1966. Geographic distribution of the pines 
of the world. U.S. Dep. Agr. Forest 
Serv., Misc. Pub. 991, 97 p. 
Garrett, Peter W. 

1969. Height growth and foliage color in 
Scotch pine provenance study in north- 
ern Michigan. USDA Forest Serv. Res. 
Note NE-96, 7 p. Northeastern Forest 
Exp. Sta., Upper Darby, Pa. 
Khalil, Muhammad A. K. 

1969. Growth patterns of Pinus s ylvestris L. 
provenances in Minnesota. Silvae Genet. 
18(5/6):176-182. 
King, James P. 

1965. Seed source x environment inter- 
actions in Scotch pine, I and II. Silvae 
Genet. 14(4): 105-115; 14(5): 141-148. 
Langlet, O. 

1959. A cline or not a cline— a question 
of Scots pine. Silvae Genet. 8: 13-22. 



Ruby, John L. 

1967. The correspondence between genetic, 
morphological, and climatic variation 
patterns in Scotch pine. Silvae Genet. 
16(2): 50-56. 
Wright, Jonathan W., and W. Ira Bull. 

1963. Geographic variation in Scotch pine. 
Silvae Genet. 12(1): 1-25. 

, Walter A. Lemmien, and John Bright. 

1966a. Early flowering patterns in Scotch 
pine. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. Quart. Bull. 
49(2): 189-199. 

, Scott S. Pauley, R. Brooks Polk, 

Jalmer J. Jokela, and Ralph A. Read. 

1966b. Performance of Scotch pine varieties 
in the North Central region. Silvae 
Genet. 15(4): 101-110. 

, Louis F. Wilson, and William K. 

Randall. 

1967. Differences among Scotch pine varie- 
ties in susceptibility to European pine 
sawfly. Forest Sci. 13: 175-181. 



Agriculture-CSU, Ft. Collins 



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USDA Forest Service 

Research Paper RM-79 

December 1971 



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field and computer procedures 

for managed-stand 

uield tables 

V 



by Clifford A. Myers 



Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Forest Service 



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SIANOABD fOP« 5081 



PRINTED IN U S A 



Abstract 

Sets of yield tables that show probable results of various manage- 
ment alternatives can be valuable tools for decisionmaking, es- 
pecially when they can be made available quickly and at relatively 
low cost. Such tables can be obtained with data from temporary 
plots and the computer programs presented. 



Key words: Stand yield tables, timber management, simulation, 
managed stands, Pinus ponderosa . 



USDA Forest Service December 1971 

Research Paper RM-79 



FIELD AND COMPUTER PROCEDURES FOR 
MANAGED-STAND YIELD TABLES 



Clifford A. Myers, Principal Mensurationist 
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 



' Central headquarters maintained in cooperation with Colorado State 
University at Fort Collins. 



Contents 

Page 

Introduction 1 

Uses of Yield Tables 1 

General Description of Methods 2 

Information Needed 3 

1. Stocking After Cutting 3 

2. Description of Unthinned, Young Stands 5 

3. Diameter Increase from Growth 5 

4. Diameter Increase from Thinning 6 

5. Height of Dominants and Codominants 6 

6. Height Increase from Thinning 6 

7. Noncatastrophic Mortality 7 

8. Stand Volume Equation 7 

9. Volume Conversion Factors 7 

Description of Program PONYLD 8 

An Application of PONYLD H 

Modification of PONYLD 12 

Description of Program PONCHK 1^ 

Literature Cited 15 

Appendices: 

1. Listing of Program PONYLD 16 

2. Output of PONYLD 19 

3. Listing and Output of Program PONCHK 22 



Field and Computer Procedures for 
Managed-Stand Yield Tables 



Clifford A. Myers 



Introduction 

Three publications have presented proce- 
dures for computation of yield tables for man- 
aged, even-aged stands. Two of these described 
field procedures to be used on temporary plots 
and analysis of the data obtained (Myers 1966, 
1967); the third presented a computer program 
that calculated and printed yield tables, using 
functions described in the other papers (Myers 
and Godsey 1968). 

Field procedures and computer programs 
described in this Paper are revisions and im- 
provements of material in the publications cited 
above. Some modifications are in response 
to requests by users for applications other than 
those intended originally. Other changes are 
the result of increases in available data and 
greater insight obtained by applying the pro- 
cedures to several tree species. They produce 
more realistic simulations of (1) stand growth, 

(2) response to intermediate cuttings, and (3) 
reproduction cutting by any of the even-aged 
systems. Improved procedures are used for 
computations such as periodic mortality and 
changes in average height and diameter with 
thinning. 

The material presented includes descriptions 
of: (1) field measurements needed to produce 
yield tables for managed stands, (2) relation- 
ships to be obtained from the measurements, 

(3) a computer program written in FORTRAN 
IV that computes and prints yield tables, (4) 
an example of what the program can produce, 
and (5) a computer program useful in generating 
certain types of data. Tabular and functional 
relationships included apply to ponderosa pine 
( Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in the Black IliUs of 
South Dakota and Wyoming. Instructions for 
adapting the procedures and programs to other 
species or forest regions are given. 



Uses of Yield Tables 

Yield tables for managed stands are essential 
guides for forest managers. They report probable 
wood yields that result from specified com- 
binations of such factors as site quality, utili- 
zation standards, and frequency and intensity 
of thinning. They are, therefore, the basis for 
timber management planning. They also pro- 
vide an important part of the information needed 
for determining the influence of timber treat- 
ments on all forest resources. 

Yield tables for a species are useful re- 
gardless of the current level of management 
reached in forests of that species. Well-managed 
forests can benefit from refinements in opera- 
tions that are guided by comparisons of actual 
conditions with a good standard. Where con- 
version to managed stands is underway, yield 
tables provide goals toward which conversion 
can be directed. Managers can better examine 
alternatives and reach decisions concerning 
goals through computerized simulation of 
forestry activities, a procedure that uses yield 
table computation in the set of mathematical 
operations (Myers 1968). Several factors influ- 
ence the ways that yield tables should be 
produced and the types of data used to com- 
pute them. These factors include: 

1. Yield tables for managed stands are needed 
even for regions and species where managed 
stands do not yet exist. The term "man- 
aged," as used here, means control of stand 
density throughout the life of the stand. 

2. No single yield table can be adopted as 
standard for a species or region. Applied 
forest management requires the use of vai ious 
practices that can and will differ from one 
forest to another, and must appear as vari- 
ables in yield table computation. 



- 1 



3. A manager should not be restricted to only 
one yield table per working group, or series 
of stands managed under the same silvi- 
cultural system. He must have the oppor- 
tunity to examine the probable results of 
his operations, to make necessary changes 
in the management of any of his resources, 
and to study the effects of these changes 
before money is spent on them. 

The first item listed above appears to call 
for the use of temporary plots to obtain needed 
relationships. The next two sections of this 
Paper describe how data from temporary plots, 
permanent plots, or combinations of both can 
produce the relationships needed for yield table 
construction. 

The second and third items above relate to 
a disadvantage of normal and empirical yield 
tables. One table can report probable yields 
for only one combination of stand characteristics 
and management objectives. This is not an 
effective basis for comparing alternatives and 
making decisions. Since a group of yield tables 
can show various combinations of characteristics 
and objectives, a means of producing many 
yield tables at low cost can be useful to a 
forest manager. Computer programs for doing 
this are described below and listed in the 
appendices. Once the needed relationships 
between stand variables have been established, 
a manager can examine the probable outcomes 
of many possible variations in management. 
There is no need to delay decisions or to specu- 
late on what may happen if a condition or 
procedure changes. Large numbers of tables, 
each based on a specified set of alternatives, 
can be computed and printed at a cost of a 
few cents each. 



General Description of Methods 

Nine items of information, described in the 
next section, are needed to compute yield tables 
for even-aged, managed stands. The first item, 
the residual stand desired after each cutting, is 
based on all pertinent information available 
and may apply to several species and regions. 
Data for the second item, appearance of un- 
thinned young stands, are obtained from a few 
measurements made on temporary plots. The 
other seven items are based on data from 
temporary and/or permanent "growth-predic- 
tion plots" that are measured in detail. Analy- 
ses of plot data described below depend on the 
availability of tree volume equations and site 
index curves applicable to the species and 



locality (Bruce and Schumacher 1950, Chapman 
and Meyer 1949). Procedures for estimation of 
site index from soil and topography may be 
used where stand density indicates that the 
conventional height-age relationship will give 
inaccurate results (Alyers and Van Deusen 1960). 
Growth-prediction plots are temporary or 
permanent plots placed in carefully selected, 
even-aged stands. They should sample numer- 
ous combinations of site index and stand density, 
including extreme values of possible interest. 
The sample should contain a full representation 
of ages or average diameters, at least to the 
longest rotations for which yield tables may be 
prepared. Plots must also conform to the usual 
requirements as to uniformity of site quality, 
range of tree sizes, and stand density across 
a plot. They must be large enough to provide 
an adequate representation of the distribution 
of trees by diameter classes. The stands must 
not have been partially cut or otherwise dis- 
turbed during the period for which growth is 
measured. They must not be diseased or 
infested by insects to the extent that growth 
is affected, unless this is to be a variable 
in yield table construction. 

It may sometimes be desirable or necessary 
to combine data from temporary and permanent 
plots. Or, functions can be derived from tem- 
porary plot data with permanent plots used as 
benchmarks to verify accuracy of the predictions. 
The discussion that follows assumes that tem- 
porary plots will provide most or all the data 
needed. 

Most forest regions contain stands of various 
ages and with densities in the range of possible 
interest. Such stands provide a readily available 
store of growth information. Data from tem- 
porary plots in these stands are entirely adequate 
for yield table construction and, except for 
measures of periodic mortality, do not differ 
in plot values or variability from data from 
equivalent permanent plots (Decourt 1965, Myers 
1966, Vuokila 1965). 

Measurements made on each growth-predic- 
tion plot must include the following: 



Plot area. 

Heights and ages of trees suitable for site 
index determination. Alternatively, soil and 
topographic measurements useful in esti- 
mating site index are obtained. 
D.b.h. of each tree, to 0.1 inch. 
Total height of each tree to 1.0 foot, or of 
each of a sample if there are many trees on 
the plot. If height is sampled, sufficient 
measurements must be taken to construct 



2 - 



a height-diameter curve for the plot. A good 
sample of the heights of dominant and co- 
dominant trees is also needed so the average 
height of such trees can be computed. 

5. Crown class of each tree. 

6. Total ages of a sample of dominant and co- 
dominant trees. This measurement may be 
omitted if even-aged status is not in doubt 
or if equivalent ages are obtained for site 
index determination. 

7. Radial wood growth during the period of 
interest, to 0.05 inch, from increment borings 
at breast height along the best estimates of 
average radius. The period selected will be 
the unit prediction period of the computer 
program that computes and prints the yield 
tables. 

8. D.b.h. outside bark of each tree that died 
during the period selected for item 7. If 
necessary, diameter inside bark is measured 
and then converted to diameter outside bark. 

9. Several cut or leave codes for each tree, 
based on trial markings of each plot to 
simulate several intensities of thinning. This 
information is used to determine increases 
in diameter and height due to thinning, as 
described in items 4 and 6 of the section 
headed Information Needed. 

Other field measurements will be needed 
if local experience indicates that additional 
independent variables are significant in the 
regression equations described below. 

Plot and tree data computed initially from 
the field measurements are as follows: 

1. Site index. 

2. Past d.b.h. of each tree from present d.b.h., 
radial wood growth, and periodic bark growth 
(Myers and Van Deusen 1958). 

3. Height of each tree for which the actual 
height was not measured. A height-diameter 
curve or function for each plot provides 
any missing heights. 



Measured and computed items that describe 
the present stand are used to compute the 
following values for each plot. Amounts per 
acre are computed, where applicable. 

1. Number of live trees. 

2. Basal area. 

3. Average d.b.h., computed as the tree of 
average basal area. 

4. Average height of dominant and codominant 
trees. 

5. Average age of main-stand trees. 

6. Cubic feet, from ground to tip, of all trees. 



This and the following item are obtained from 
tree volume equations. 
7. Volumes in any other units of interest. 

Past diameters of live trees, diameters of 
the tallied dead trees, and present stand age 
provide the following items that describe the 
stand at the beginning of the prediction period. 

1. Number of trees. 

2. Basal area. 

3. Average d.b.h., computed as the tree of 
average basal area. 

4. Average age of main-stand trees, from present 
age and the length of the prediction period. 

Once the plot measurements have been ob- 
tained and summarized, each item described 
in the next section is computed as one or more 
relationships to be placed in the computer 
program. These functions are the species- 
specific elements of the programs, and are 
replaced if the program is to apply to other 
species or utilization standards. 



Information Needed 

This section contains instructions for ob- 
taining the nine items that appear as one or 
more FORTRAN statements each in PONYLD, 
the computer program that produces yield tables 
(appendix 1). Most of the items are obtained 
by regression analysis of plot values described 
in the previous section. Data for the first two 
items described come from other sources, in- 
cluding appropriate references in the literature. 
Additional information of field and computation 
procedures can be found in standard mensura- 
tion texts (Bruce and Schumacher 1950, Chap- 
man and Meyer 1949). 

Tabulations include only enough entries 
to explain the nature of the information needed. 
They do not indicate sample sizes or desirable 
ranges of data. 

Program statements relating to one or more 
of the nine items must be changed to adapt 
PONYLD to other species or conditions. Sug- 
gested program modifications are given in the 
section headed Modification of PONYLD. 



1. Stocking After Cutting. 

Stand density to be left after each cutting 
is expressed as a relationship between basal 
area and average stand diameter (table 1). 
Basal area is an easily measured variable that 
is highly correlated with growth in size and 



Table 1. — Basal areas after intermediate cutting in relation to average stand diameter 

growing stock level 80 



Average 


Basal 


Average 


Basal 


Average 


Basal 


Average 


Basal 


stand d.b.h. 


area 


stand d.b.h. 


area 


stand d.b.h. 


area 


stand d.b.h. 


area 


after cutting 


per 


after cutting 


per 


after cutting 


per 


after cutting 


per 


(Inches) 


acre 


(Inches) 


acre 


(Inches) 


acre 


(Inches) 


acre 




Sq. ft. 




Sq. ft. 




Sq. ft. 




Sq. ft 


2.0 


12.1 


4.0 


35.2 


6.0 


56.6 


8.0 


72.5 


2.1 


13.2 


4.1 


36.4 


6.1 


57.6 


8.1 


73.1 


2.2 


14.4 


4.2 


37.6 


6.2 


58.5 


8.2 


73.7 


2.3 


15.5 


4.3 


38.7 


6.3 


59.4 


8.3 


74.3 


2. A 


16.7 


4.4 


39.9 


6.4 


60.3 


8.4 


74.8 


2.5 


17.9 


4.5 


41.0 


6.5 


61.2 


8.5 


75.3 


2.6 


19.0 


4.6 


42.2 


6.6 


62.1 


8.6 


75.8 


2.7 


20.2 


4.7 


43.4 


6.7 


62.9 


8.7 


76.3 


2.8 


21.3 


4.8 


44.5 


6.8 


63.8 


8.8 


76.7 


2.9 


22.5 


4.9 


45.7 


6.9 


64.6 


8.9 


77.1 


3.0 


23.7 


5.0 


46.8 


7.0 


65.4 


9.0 


77.5 


3.1 


24.8 


5.1 


47.8 


7.1 


66.2 


9.1 


77.9 


3.2 


26.0 


5.2 


48.8 


7.2 


67.0 


9.2 


78.2 


3.3 


27.1 


5.3 


49.8 


7.3 


67.7 


9.3 


78.5 


3.4 


28.3 


5.4 


50.8 


7.4 


68.5 


9.4 


78.8 


3.5 


29.5 


5.5 


51.8 


7.5 


69.2 


9.5 


79.1 


3.6 


30.6 


5.6 


52.8 


7.6 


69.9 


9.6 


79.3 


3.7 


31.8 


5.7 


53.8 


7.7 


70.6 


9.7 


79.5 


3.8 


32.9 


5.8 


54.7 


7.8 


71.2 


9.8 


79.7 


3.9 


34.1 


5.9 


55.7 


7.9 


71.9 


9.9 

10.0+ 


79.8 
80.0 



volume. The relationships fit well into com- 
puter algorithms and provide thinning guides 
for application of treatments to actual stands. 

Results of thinning studies and data from 
temporary plots are used to construct a graph 
of desired basal area over average stand diameter 
for local average site quality. "Best" stand 
density for each average diameter sampled can 
be based on such criteria as production in cubic 
feet and probable length of saw log rotations. 
Selected basal areas are plotted over corre- 
sponding stand diameters, and a curve is drawn 
through the points. If the relationship appears 
reasonable, it is then expressed as a mathe- 
matical function. 

In table 1, basal area increases with diameter 
until 10.0 inches diameter is reached, and re- 
mains constant thereafter. The designation 
"growing stock level 80" indicates that basal 
area is 80.0 square feet when diameter is 10.0 
inches or larger, regardless of what basal area 
m.ay be at lower average diameters. 



Desired stand density will vary with the 
objectives of management, and a family of 
basal area-diameter relationships is needed (fig. 
1.). The original single curve or function of 
basal area on diameter is treated as a guide 
curve from which other curves can be pro- 
duced. Basal areas for any growing stock 
level can be computed by multiplying the guid- 
ing values for level 80 in table 1 by the ratio 
level/80. For example, basal areas for level 
100 are each 100/80 times the corresponding 
basal areas of table 1. The level designations 
are the variables THIN, DLEV, and DSTY in 
PONYLD (appendix 1). 

The curves of figure 1 define growing stock 
goals for many possible management objectives, 
including the possibility of holding stand density 
above or below levels that give the best saw 
log or roundwood production. Any desired 
form of the guide curve may be used if the 
appropriate statements of PONCUT are modi- 
fied properly. 



4 - 



120 



O 100 



80 



60 



BoAoZ oAza aitin. tlilnnlng 
in fieXation tc aveAog^ itand 
diamiitdfi {^Qfi ■itandoA.d Itvzli 
o{i gn.owing itock. 




4 5 6 7 8 

AVERAGE STAND DIAMETER (INCHES) 



Relationships shown in table 1 appear as 
functions for level 80 in program PONYLD. 
Basal areas computed from these functions 
are multiplied by terms that include the desired 
growing stock level (THIN or DLEV) to obtain 
values for other growing stock levels. Variables 
for which FORTRAN statements are needed 
and their use, are: 

a. DBHP - to find a d.b.h. less than 10.0 inches 
when basal area is known. Three equations 
for DBHP are used to simplify representation 
of the nonlinear relationship between d.b.h. 
and basal area. 

b. BREAK and BUST - to compute values of 
basal area that are the upper limits of apph- 
cabihty of the first two equations for DBHP. 

c. SQFT - to find basal area when d.b.h. is 
known. Two equations represent the non- 
linear relationship for d.b.h. less than 10.0 
inches. 



2. Description of Unthinned, Young Stands. 

Values in the first line of each yield table 
describe stand conditions just prior to initial 
thinning. They are entered directly from data 
cards or are computed from the data. Users 
of PONYLD must, therefore, be able to describe 
the stands that do or should exist at time of 



initial thinning. In a yield table for managed 
stands, the stand density and related average 
diameter given in the first line result when 
stand regenei'ation and subsequent growth and 
mortality progress as planned. 

Numerous unthinned, young stands can be 
examined to determine: (1) site index, (2) 
average stand d.b.h., (3) number of trees per 
acre, and (4) stand age. In selecting plots, 
preference should be given to those stands 
that represent possible regeneration goals for 
various objectives of management. For each 
site index class, average d.b.h. is determined 
for various combinations of stand age and num- 
ber of trees per acre. Any influence of the 
overstoiy must be included where shelterwood 
or seed tree systems are used. 



3. Diameter Increase From Growth. 

Regression analysis of data obtained on the 
growth prediction plots described in the previous 
section provides an equation for prediction of 
future average stand d.b.h. In terms of the 
plot data described above, present average d.b.h. 
of ponderosa pine is estimated from past d.b.h., 
site index, and past basal area per acre. Addi- 
tional independent variables may be useful for 
other species or localities. The prediction 
period is determined by the number of rings 



measured on increment cores. The equation 
for ponderosa pine and for a 10-year prediction 
period appears in PONYLD as the FORTRAN 
statement for DBHO. 

4. Diameter Increase From Thinning. 

Change in average stand diameter caused 
by intermediate cuttings can be estimated from 
data obtained during repeated trial marking of 
the plots described previously. Numerous inten- 
sities of cutting are simulated on each plot, 
and each tree is coded as cut or leave at each 
trial. Since the dimensions of each plot tree 
are known, volumes and other values can be 
determined for each potential residual stand. 
Values useful in computation of prediction 
equations for diameter change and other items 
include: average d.b.h., basal area per acre, 
percentage of trees retained, average height, 
volumes per acre of entire stems in cubic feet 
(total cubic feet), and volumes in other units 
of interest. 

In PONYLD, diameter after thinning is 
estimated from diameter before thinning and the 
percentage of trees to be retained. Regression 
analysis of data from the simulated thinnings 
provide functions for DBHE andPDBHE. These 
two variables represent the same item, diameter 
after thinning. DBHE is computed directly 
if the estimated percentage of trees to be re- 
tained is at least 50 percent. With fewer trees 
retained, the relationship is highly nonlinear, 
so PDBHE is computed and its antilogarithm 
becomes DBHE. 

Because of the numerous possible com- 
binations of initial stand density, stocking level, 
and initial stand diameter, trial marking of 
sample plots may not provide all the information 
needed. A supplementary procedure is described 
in the section headed Description of Program 
PONCHK and in appendix 3. 



5. Height of Dominants and Codominants. 

Average heights of dominant and codomi- 
nant trees are computed from data obtained on 
growth-prediction plots where height growth 
apparently has never been reduced by high stand 
density. Regression analysis of the data provides 
functions for estimating height for various 
combinations of site index and stand age (table 
2). These functions appear as statements for 
HTSO in PONYLD. Two functions are used 
to cover the range of possible ages. With the 
procedure used to account for changes in height 
from thinning, average d.b.h. cannot be used 
instead of site index and age to predict height. 



Table 2. — Average height (feet) of dominant 
and codominant trees at various 
ages, Black Hills ponderosa pine 
(as computed by statements for 
HTSO) 



Main 




Site index 


class 




stand age 


















(Years) 


40 


50 


60 


70 


20 


8 


10 


13 


16 


30 


12 


16 


21 


25 


40 


17 


22 


28 


34 


50 


21 


28 


36 


43 


60 


26 


33 


41 


49 


70 


30 


39 


47 


56 


80 


34 


43 


52 


62 


90 


37 


47 


57 


66 


100 


40 


50 


60 


71 


110 


43 


53 


64 


74 


120 


45 


56 


67 


77 


130 


47 


58 


69 


80 


140 


48 


60 


71 


82 


150 


50 


62 


73 


85 


160 


51 


63 


75 


87 



Table 2 is similar to table 1 of Technical 
Bulletin 630 (Meyer 1938). This suggests that 
heights from good site index curves or tables 
may supplement or substitute for local data, 
until adequate sampling can be completed. If 
site index data are used, they must be based 
on the same crown classes as the equations 
for stand volume in cubic feet, described below. 



6. Height Increase From Thinning. 

Changes in the average height of dominant 
and codominant trees due to partial cutting are 
estimated the same way as changes in average 
diameter. Results of repeated trial markings 
provide the data needed to compute the pre- 
diction function. In PONYLD, the variable 
ADDHT is the computed amount of change. 
The percentage of trees retained is the only 
independent variable used. At each cutting, 
the current value of ADDHT is added to height 
before thinning, HTSO, to obtain height after 
thinning, HTST. It is also added to a cumu- 
lative sum of changes, HTCUM, so computed 
heights before thinning will show the effects 
of past treatment as well as of age. Computed 
values of ADDHT are small because average 
heights and their changes refer to dominant 
and codominant trees, only. 



6 - 



As with diameter, it may be difficult to 
sample many combinations of stocking level, 
initial stand density, and initial average height. 
The supplementary procediue described in the 
section Description of Program PONCHK may 
be useful in such cases. 



7. Noncatastrophic Mortality. 

Reduction in numbers of trees may be 
important in unthinned stands, but minor and 
erratic in thinned stands. Such is the case with 
ponderosa pine in the Black Hills. A prediction 
equation for mortality could not be computed 
for thinned stands with an average d.b.h. of 
10.0 inches or larger. Small reductions are 
made in PONYLD for thinned and unthinned 
stands of smaller diameter. 

The prediction equation in PONYLD for 
percentage of mortality expressed as a decimal 
(DIED) contains average stand d.b.h. and basal 
area per acre, both at the beginning of the 
period, as independent variables. Data to com- 
pute such equations can be obtained from 
two sources: 

a. Permanent plots that have been measured 
at least as frequently as the prediction period 
to be used. 

b. Growth-prediction and other temporary plots 
that have not been partially cut for at least 
a number of years equal to the prediction 
period. It must be possible to estimate the 
number of years since death for each tree 
that died during the prediction period. 



8. Stand Volume Equation. 

Plot tallies of tree diameters and heights 
are converted to volumes per acre and other 
stand measures, as already described. Data 
from growth prediction plots, results of simu- 
lated thinnings, and other available stand tallies 
are used. Volumes are computed in total cubic 
feet and in other units of interest with appro- 
priate tree volume equations (Myers 1964). 
Only total cubic feet will be used to compute 
stand volume equations. Total cubic volume 
per acre from ground line to tip of all trees 
more than 4.5 feet tall is the only volume com- 
puted directly by PONYLD. It is, therefore, 
the only unit for which a stand volume equa- 
tion will be needed. 

Two forms of the stand volume equation 
have proven useful. They are: 



V = a + b, BII + bj D (1) 

V = (a + b, D^ H + b2 B) X N (2) 
where 

V = gross total cubic volume per acre. 
B = basal area per acre in square feet. 
H = average height of dominant and codominant 

trees. 
D = average stand d.b.h. in inches. 
N = number of trees per acre. 

Stand volume equations appear as state- 
ments to compute CUFT. Two statements are 
used because the relationship is not linear 
over the ranges of BH or D ^ H that can appear 
in the yield tables. 

Stand volume equations must apply over a 
wide range of stand densities and average 
diameters. Procedures described in the section 
Description of Program PONCHK may be useful 
in providing the variety of conditions needed 
for regression analysis or test of the functions. 



9. Volume Conversion Factors. 

Program PONYLD computes volumes in 
units other than total cubic feet of bole wood 
from cubic volumes per acre and appropriate 
conversion factors. Plot data that produce 
stand volume equations must, therefore, also 
provide conversion factors. Data from growth 
prediction plots, trial thinnings, and other 
sources are used to compute plot volumes in 
various units, as described previously. Mer- 
chantable cubic feet, board feet, square feet 
of veneer, weight per acre, or other units 
may be computed. Then, the quantity of each 
unit per total cubic foot is determined separately 
for each plot. Selection of appropriate units 
includes choice of minimum merchantable top 
diameters and diameters at breast height. The 
second column, below, shows some of the ratios 
used to obtain equations for FCTR. The third 
column shows ratios used for PROD. 



Average 


Me 


rchan 


table cubic 


Board feet 


stand d.b.h. 




feet 


4 total 


T total 


(Inches) 




cub 


ic feet 


cubic feet 


5.1 






0.355 


__ 


6.0 






.552 


— 


6.9 






.725 


— 


8.3 






.860 


0.99 


9.1 






.901 


1.55 


10.3 






.931 


2.38 


19.0 






.962 


5.33 


23.4 






.969 


5.88 



Ratios need not be computed for the smallest 
average stand diameters because the factors 
vary greatly in such stands. This has no 
important effect on yield table construction. 
Merchantable material will not be a part of 
thinnings until stand diameter is large enough 
for conversion factors to be reliable. 

Regression analysis provides functions to 
compute conversion factors from other stand 
variables. FCTR can be estimated from average 
stand d.b.h. Estimates for PROD for ponderosa 
pine are improved if basal area per acre is 
also included in the equation. More than 
one equation for FCTR and PROD appear in 
PONYLD so the relationships can be expressed 
by simple linear functions over a wide range 
of d.b.h. 

As with stand volume equations, conver- 
sion factors must apply over a wide range of 
stand conditions. The description of program 
PONCHK, below, presents a solution to this 
problem. 



Description of Program PONYLD 

Program PONYLD consists of a main pro- 
gram and two subroutine subprograms written 
in standard FORTRAN IV. The main program 



reads the data cards, performs most compu- 
tations, and writes the yield tables. Subroutine 
PONCUT determines the new average stand 
diameter after cutting to the specified growing 
stock level. Subroutine PONVOL computes 
volumes in total cubic feet per acre, and factors 
to convert these volumes to other units. Opera- 
tions performed by each routine are indicated 
by comment statements in the source program 
(appendix 1). 

Initial operations are the reading of the five 
data cards described in the tabulation of the 
order and contents of the data deck. The first 
two cards enter values that will not change 
during a computer run. One variable, NTSTS, 
controls the number of sets of yield tables 
to be produced, one for each group of cards 
of types 3, 4, and 5. Other variables determine 
which volumes from intermediate cuts will 
be included in the total yields printed at the 
bottom of each table, and the basis of the 
growing stock levels. Three data cards are 
read for each test. They enter the number of 
tables to be produced in a set, initial stand con- 
ditions, and controls on the operations to be 
performed. Entry of a negative or zero value 
for any variable on card types 1 to 4 or for 
REGN(l) on card type 5 will cause the printing 
of an error message and termination of the job. 



Order and Contents of the Data Deck for Program PONYLD 



Card Number of Variable 
type cards name 



Columns Format Description of variable 



1 NTSTS 



GIDE 



1 COMCU 



COMBF 



1 per 
test 



JCYCL 



1-4 



5-8 



9-16 



1-4 



14 



F4.0 



F8.3 



F8.3 



14 



Number of tests per 
batch. The number of 
sets of yield tables to be 
produced. 

Base level of set of grow- 
ing stock levels, as the 
80. in table 1 and figure 1. 
Minimum cut in mer- 
chantable cubic feet to be 
included in total yields. 
Must be at least 1.0. 
Minimum cut in board 
feet to be included in 
total yields. Must be at 
least i.O. 

Interval between inter- 
mediate cuts. A multiple 
of RINT. 



8 - 



Card 
type 



Number of Variable 
cards name 



Columns Format Description of variable 



1 per 

test 



MIX 



AGEO 



DBHO 



DENO 



DSTY 



RINT 



SITE 
THIN 



Iper REGN(l) 
test 



VLLV(l) 



INVL(l) 



5-8 



1-8 



9-16 



17-24 



25-32 



33-40 



41-48 
49-56 



1-8 



9-16 



17-24 



14 



F8.3 



F8.3 



F8.3 



F8.3 



F8.3 



F8.3 
F8.3 



F8.3 



F8.3 



F8.3 



Number of stocking lev- 
els or values of DLEV 
to be examined in one 
test. 

Initial age to be shown 
in a yield table. Stand 
age when first thinning 
occurs. 

Average stand d.b.h. just 
prior to initial thinning 
at stand age AGEO. 
Number of trees per 
acre just prior to initial 
thinning at stand age 
AGEO. 

Lowest growing stock 
level for intermediate 
cuts after initial thinning. 
Level will increase by 10 
as many times as speci- 
fied by MIX on card type 
3. 

Number of years for 
which a growth equation 
makes one projection. 
Value is 10.0 for state- 
ments in appendix 1. 
Site index for the species. 
Growing stock level for 
initial thinning at age 
AGEO. May equal DLEV. 
Stand age at which first 
regeneration cut will oc- 
cur. Must never be zero 
or blank, as REGN(l)is 
rotation length for clear- 
cutting. 

Percentage of previous 
DLEV to be left at age 
REGN(l). Will be zero 
with clearcutting. 
New interval between 
cuts in effect after age 
REGN(l). Will be zero 
with clearcutting. 



REGN(2) 25-32 



VLLV(2) 33-40 



INVL(2; 



41-48 



REGN(3) 49-56 



F8.3 



F8.3 



F8.3 



F8.3 



Stand age at which second 
regeneration cut, if any, 
will occur. Removal of 
seed trees or second cut 
of shelterwood. 
Percentage of previous 
DLEV (including effect 
of VLLV(l)) to be left 
at age REGN(2). May 
be zero. 

New interval between 
cuts in effect after age 
REGN(2). May be zero. 
Stand age at which third 
regeneration cut, if any, 
will occur. Final cut of 
3-cut shelterwood. 



All operations from statement 30 to state- 
ment 160 are performed for each table. The 
tables of a set differ by the growing stocl<; level 
to be left after the second or later thinnings 
(DLEV). The first table of each set is com- 
puted with the subsequent level entered as 
DSTY on card type 4. Each following table 
will be computed with second and later thinnings 
cut to a level 10 higher than that of the pre- 
vious table. Operations performed for each 
table are: 

1. Computation of height and volumes just 
prior to initial thinning. 

2. Partial cutting to the growing stock level 
specified by THIN for initial thinning or by 
DLEV for subsequent cutting. Cutting will 
not be simulated if the stand is already 
below the basal area specified by THIN or 
DLEV. 

3. Computation of post-cutting volumes and 
other values. 

4. Printing of table headings the first time 
through the loop and, each time through 
the loop, printing of values appropriate for 
the stand age. 

5. Projection of diameter, height, and stand 
density for one or more periods until the 
next intermediate cut is scheduled. Stand 
volumes and other values are computed and 
printed at ages when no cutting is scheduled. 

6. Repetition of steps 2 to 5 until stand age at 
time of initial regeneration cutting is reached. 

7. Redefinition of the growing stock to be left 
after cutting and the interval between re- 
generation cuttings. Operations are guided 
by entries on card type 5. Clearcutting 



calls for only one entry, stand age at time 
of removal or REGN(l). Seed tree cutting 
requires entry of values for all items on 
card type 5 to and including REGN(2) which 
is the age when seed trees are to be re- 
moved. The interval between regeneration 
cutting, REGN(l), and removal of seed trees 
is INVL(l). Shelterwood cuttings are con- 
trolled similarly except that up to three 
cuts are possible. Stand age at final cut 
will be REGN(2) for two-cut shelterwood 
and REGN(3) for three-cut shelterwood. 

8. Regeneration cuts are accomplished by repeti- 
tion of steps 2 to 7, until the age of final 
cut is reached. 

9. Printing of column totals for volumes re- 
moved. Volumes less than COMCU and 
COMBF on card type 2 will not be included 
in the totals so that commercial yields may 
be compared, if desired. Actual column 
totals may be obtained by entering values 
of 1.0 for COMCU and" COMBF on card 
type 2. 

Subroutine PONCUT computes average 
stand diameter after cutting from diameter before 
cutting and the percentage of trees retained. 
The percentage of trees retained is needed 
as an independent variable, but is itself an 
unknown. Successive percentages of trees are 
therefore tested until d.b.h. after thinning, 
number of trees retained, and residual basal 
area agree with the diameter and basal area 
combination called for by THIN or DLEV. 

These combinations, shown in table 1, ap- 
pear in PONCUT as statements for DBHP in 
the second loop and as REST in the first loop. 



10 - 



Two loops provide for the increasing and con- 
stant segments of each growing stock level 
line (fig. 1). Limiting d.b.h. for selection 
of loops is 10.0 inches minus the average 
change expected over a range of cuttings in 
stands just under 10.0 inches d.b.h. 

Subroutine PONVOL computes total cubic 
feet per acre and factors to convert this to 
other units. Conversions to merchantable cubic 
feet and to board feet are shown in the listing 
in appendix 1. Utilization standards for these 
units are given in the comment statements 
of PONVOL. Conversions to other units or 
utilization standards may supplement or replace 
those already in PONVOL. Additional units 
might be square feet of veneer or wood weight 
in pounds (Myers 1960). 

Program PONYLD should run with little 
or no modification on any computer that ac- 
cepts FORTRAN IV, has a minimum of 32K 
words of storage, and has two input output 
devices (unit 5 for program and data deck 
input and unit 6 for printed output). Changes 
to adapt the program to other tree species 
or utilization standards and for additional com- 
putations are described in the section headed 
Modification of PONYLD. 



An Application of PONYLD 

The problem described below demonstrates 
the computations made by PONYLD and the 
printed results obtained. It illustrates some 
of the questions that may be asked and the 
information that will be provided. The example 
also serves as a test problem for use in adapt- 
ing the source program to locally available 
computing facilities. 

A forest manager wishes to determine the 
intensity of thinning that will maximize volume 
production in board feet in stands of site index 
70. Length of the cutting cycle has not been 
standardized, but will be 20 years for this test. 
He also wants to compare yields from two-cut 
and three-cut shelterwood, both with the final 
removal cut scheduled for stand age 130 years 
and considering the current crop, only. Alter- 
natives calling for more than one precommercial 
thinning are unacceptable. Minimum com- 
mercial volumes per acre are 320 cubic feet 
to a 4-inch top and 1,500 board feet. The 
manager expects that his procedure for re- 
generation cuts will result in a new stand 
that contains 950 trees per acre by age 30, 
with an average diameter of 4.8 inches. 

The data deck consists of the 32 cards 
shown in figure 2. The first card calls for 



10 


80 














320 




1500 












20 


5 














30 




itfl 


950 


80 


10 


70 


80 


110 




50 


20 


130 








20 


5 














30 




'.8 


950 


80 


10 


70 


90 


110 




50 


20 


130 








20 


5 














30 




'.a 


950 


80 


10 


70 


100 


110 




50 


20 


130 








20 


•> 














30 




'iS 


950 


80 


10 


70 


110 


110 




50 


20 


130 








20 


5 














30 




'.a 


950 


80 


10 


70 


120 


110 




50 


20 


130 








20 


5 














30 




'.B 


950 


BO 


10 


70 


80 


90 




666 


20 


no 


50 


20 


130 


20 


5 














30 




'.a 


950 


80 


10 


70 


90 


90 




666 


20 


110 


50 


20 


130 


20 


5 














30 




'.B 


950 


80 


10 


70 


100 


90 




666 


20 


110 


50 


20 


130 


20 


5 














30 




'.B 


950 


80 


10 


70 


110 


90 




666 


20 


110 


50 


20 


130 


20 


5 














30 




'.a 


950 


80 


10 


70 


120 


90 




666 


20 


110 


50 


20 


130 



F^guAe l.--Va.ta dtch. ion. tut pfiobtum. 

10 tests, so there will be 10 sets of one each 
of card types 3, 4, and 5. The second card 
enters minimum merchantable volume limits. 
The third card, a type 3 card that is repeated 
nine more times, enters the 20-year cutting 
cycle and information that five subsequent 
thinning levels are to be examined in each 
test. With 10 tests of five thinning levels 
each, the computer will produce 50 yield tables. 
For brevity, only a few of them are repro- 
duced in appendix 2. 

The fourth card of the data deck, a type 
4 card that follows the type 3 card, differs 
from other type 4 cards only in the thinning 
level that controls initial thinnings. For each 
of the two shelterwood cuttings, levels 80, 
90, 100, 110, and 120 will each be imposed at 
age 30. 

The fifth card is the type 5 card for two- 
cut shelterwood. A removal cut that retains 
half the basal area specified for the subsequent 
thinning level is scheduled for age 110. The 
final cut will be made at stand age 130. The 
type 5 card is the same for the first five tests 
to be performed. Card number 20 of the data 
deck is also a type 5 card. This card and the 
other four type 5 cards specify three-cut shelter- 
wood with cuts at ages 90, 110, and 130. The 
first removal cut leaves two-thirds of the basal 
area of the subsequent thinning level. The 
second removal cut leaves half the basal area 
left after the first removal cut. 

Yield tables produced by PONYLD, a few 
of which are reproduced in appendix 2, can 



11 



assist in decisionmaking in many ways. Money 
yields and rates earned can be computed by 
applying thinning costs and stumpage values 
to the volumes given in the tables. Stand 
ages at culmination of mean annual increment, 
and rates earned assist in the selection of 
rotations. 

For the situation described above, yields 
and numbers of precommercial thinnings are of 
greatest immediate interest. These items are 
summarized in tables 3 and 4 for the 50 yield 
tables produced. Combinations of low initial 
and low subsequent growing stock levels or of 
high initial and intermediate subsequent levels 
produce the greatest volumes with one pre- 
commercial thinning. Additional comparisons 
should be made to include such factors as 
probaDle thinning costs, cubic yields from thin- 
nings not commercial for board feet, and the 
average size of tree produced. As expected, 
the current crop produces more board feet in 
130 years if cut by two-cut shelterwood than if 
by three-cut shelterwood. The latter treatment 
may, however, get the next crop off to an 
earlier start. 

The manager may now wish to vary the 
interval between cuts and other variables subject 
to his control. The production of many more 
yield tables is entirely practical. The 50 tables 
already examined required only 17.9 seconds of 
central processor time on a CDC 6400 computer. 



Table 4. — Number of precommercial thinnings if 
each of the 50 combinations of 
initial and subsequent thinning 
levels is executed as specified by 
the data deck (both types of cutting 
gave the same results) 



Initial 
thinning 




Subseq 


uent thinning level 














level 


80 


90 


100 


110 


120 


80 


1 


2 


2 


2 


h 


90 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


100 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


110 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


120 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 



One scheduled thinning could not be 
made . 



Modification of PONYLD 

PONYLD can be modified in many ways to 
answer questions of the "what would happen 
if I did this" type. Several possible modifica- 
tions are listed here. 



To Change Species: 



Table 3. — Yields in board feet, including 
commercial thinnings, of the 
50 combinations of initial and 
subsequent thinning levels. 



Initial 
thinning 




Subsequent thinning leve 


1 














level 


80 


90 


100 




110 


120 




- - 





M bd. 


ft 








i- 








TWO- 


CUT SHELTERWOOD 




80 


28.0 


29.3 


29.5 




31.3 


31.8 


90 


27.7 


27.7 


29.5 




31.4 


34.0 


100 


25.9 


27.7 


29.1 




31.3 


33.8 


110 


26.0 


27.4 


29.1 




31.3 


34.1 


120 


25.7 


27.3 


29.3 




30.9 


33.2 






THREE 


-CUT SHELTERWOOD 




80 


25.7 


27.0 


26.5 




29.0 


29.2 


90 


25.3 


25.3 


26.5 




28.9 


31.8 


100 


23.6 


25.2 


26.2 




29.0 


31.5 


110 


23.4 


25.2 


26.2 




29.0 


31.8 


120 


23.2 


25.0 


25.9 




28.5 


31.0 



PONYLD can be converted to apply to a 
different species than the ponderosa pine used 
in the example. This change requires new 
statements to compute HTSO, ADDHT, DBHO, 
and DENO in the main program. Replacement 
of statements for CUFT, FCTR, and PROD are 
needed in PONVOL and for DBHE and PDBHE 
in PONCUT. Another definition of growing 
stock than that shown in table 1 and figure 1 
requires new statements for BREAK, BUST, 
DBHP, and SQFT. A new base value (GIDE) 
can be entered on card type 1 if a level other 
than 80 is the base of the new growing stock 
levels. Ways of obtaining function for these 
variables are given in the section headed Infor- 
mation Needed. 



To Include Losses: 

Modifications can be made to include the 
effects of insects or diseases on tree growth 
and stand density. How this may be done for 
dwarf mistletoe is explained elsewhere (Myers 
etal. 1971). 



- 12 



To Add Other Measures: 

Quantities other than potential wood yields 
can be computed. For example, stand measure- 
ments used to compute volumes can also be 
used to compute the amount of slash that 
would be produced by cutting the quantities 
specified in the tables. 



To Study Actual Stands: 

Analysis of actual, thinned stands has been 
a frequently used modification of the original 
version of PONYLD. In this case, stand condi- 
tions after initial cutting are known, and informa- 
tion on possible response to this and future 
treatments is desired. Alternatively, the un- 
marked component of the stand is known and 
the purpose of analysis is to determine if treat- 
ment is justified. Modification may be accom- 
plished with the following changes in the main 
program: 

1. Read AGEO, DBHO, and DENO as usual, 
to describe the actual stand just pi'ior to 
thinning. 

2. Add a READ statement after the READ 
statement for card type 4 to enter actual 
values of DBHT, DENT, HTST, and BAST. 
These describe the stand immediately after 
initial thinning. 

3. Change the DIMENSION statement from 
VAR(IO) to VAR(14). 

4. Follow the READ card of step 2 with five 
statements: 

VAR(ll) = DBHT 

VAR(12) = DENT 

VAR(13) = HTST 

VAR(14) = BAST 

JDENT = DENT 

5. Replace the statement labeled 55 with two 
statements: 

55 IF(K .EQ. 1) GO TO 56 
CALL PONCUT 

This will bypass the initial thinning. 

6. Place three statements between GO TO 60 
and the statement labeled 58: 

56 ADDHT = HTST - HTSO 
HTCUM = HTCUM + ADDHT 
GO TO 59 

I 7. Add a label to the statement for STAND, 
three statements after label 58: 
59 STAND = DENT 



8. Place four statements just before the CON- 
TINUE statement labeled 160: 
DBHT = VAR(ll) 
DENT = VAR(12) 
IITST = VAR(13) 
BAST = VAR(14) 
JDENT = VAR(12) 



To Add Variability: 

A modification of PONYLD primarily of 
interest as a research tool is the addition of 
random elements to each prediction. Several 
stands with exactly the same basal area, site 
index, etc. do not all produce the same periodic 
growth or have the same volume conversion 
factors. A prediction equation will, however, 
indicate the same average response for all the 
stands. Response in the presence of variability 
can be studied by adding statements to compute 
the random elements, running the program 
several times, and then analyzing the results 
statistically. 

Modification of PONYLD to add variability 
to computations of DBHO illustrates how such 
changes can be made. The following statements 
are added to the program immediately after the 
statements that compute DBHO and round it 
to 0.1 inch. 

98 IDIV = (17.0 * GNTR + 3.0) / 1024.0 
NGNTR = GNTR 
GNTR = (17 * NGNTR + 3) - 1024 

*IDIV 
IF(GNTR .GT. 1000.0) GO TO 98 
IF(GNTR .LT. 0.0) GO TO 98 
Al = GNTR / 100.00 
A2 = Al * Al 
RES = 0.9565 * Al - 0.0523 * A2 - 0.0063 

* Al * A2 -h 0.00084 * A2 * A2 

- 3.3009 
IRES = RES 

IF(RES .LT. 0.0) IRES = RES - 0.5 
IF(RES .GT. 0.0) IRES = RES + 0.5 
ADJ = IRES 
DBHO = DBHO + ADJ * 0.1 



The statement for IDIV is a congruential 
pseudo-random number generator (Greenberger 
1961). A value of the variable GNTR is read 
into memory at the beginning of the program. 
It is the "seed" of the generator and may be 
any number from to 1023, inclusive. This 
variable, or the entire statement, is varied in 
successive runs of PONYLD to give the results 
an opportunity to differ. 



13 - 



The statement for RES is an empirical distri- 
bution function obtained by fitting a polynomial 
to the normally distributed residuals of the 
DBHO equation (Evans et al. 1967). 

The computation is made in three steps: 

(1) generation of a pseudo-random number, 

(2) use of this number as an independent 
variable to compute the value of a normally 
distributed residual (range: -0.3 to -1-0.3 inch 
for DBHO), and (3) addition of the residual 
algebraically to the computed value of DBHO. 

To Include Overstory: 

An addition may be needed for tables with 
shelterwood or seed tree cuts if the regeneration 
period is long enough for the next crop to 
affect growth of the overstory. In this case, 
PONYLD should be run twice. The first run 
provides basal areas at appropriate times early 
in the life of a stand. Changes are then made 
for the second run, which will be the pro- 
duction run. BAST of the DBHO equation 
becomes total basal area of overstory and under- 
story for growth projections made late in the 
life of the overstory after the new crop trees 
are large enough to influence overstory growth. 

Description of Program PONCHK 

Most functions described in the section 
headed Information Needed are computed with 



rather large amounts of plot data. The func- 
tions must apply to many combinations of 
several stand variables and to the wide range 
of stand density possible in thinned and un- 
thinned stands. It is possible, however, to 
calculate additional data for use in regression 
analyses of several of these functions from 
lesser amounts of actual field data. The de- 
rived functions must, of course, be checked 
for accuracy. If acceptable, they may be used 
in production runs of PONYLD. If not good 
enough for this, they may be used, until addi- 
tional field data are obtained, for preliminary 
modeling and adapting PONYLD to local equip- 
ment and species. 

Program PONCHK, listed in appendix 3, 
uses plot stand tables to calculate volumes, 
volume conversion factors, and changes in 
diameter and height due to thinning. Thin- 
nings that leave about 10, 17, 20, 25, 33, 50, 
67, and 75 percent of the trees are simulated. 
Printed output of PONCHK provides both 
dependent and independent variables needed 
to obtain functions for CUFT, FCTR, PROD, 
DBHE, and ADDHT. Also shown are the 
volumes removed by each level of thinning, 
including the merchantable cubic volume in 
trees below saw log size. 

Data cards needed to run PONCHK are 
shown in the accompanying tabulation. The 
last card of the data deck is a type 1 card 



Order and Contents of the Data Deck for Program PONCHK 

Card Number of Variable 

type cards name Columns Format Description of variable 



1 


1 per 
plot 


NPLT 


1-3 


13 


Plot number 






NTIM 


4-5 


12 


Diameters from measure] 
d.b.h. (2) or from inert 
ment borings (1) 






NWHN 


6-7 


12 


Field plot is unthinnei 
(1) or thinned (2) 






AREA 


8-12 


F5.3 


Plot area 






AGE 


13-16 


F4.0 


Average age of maiif 
stand 


2 


1 per 


DBH 


1-3 


F3.1 


Tree diameter to 0.1 incl 




tree 


HT 


4-6 


F3.0 


Tree height to the nea) 
est foot 






CC 


7-9 


F3.0 


Tree crown class: dom 
nant (1), codominant(2 
intermediate (3), or ove 
topped (4) 



- 14 



with 888 punched in the NPLT field. Type 2 
cards of each plot are arranged in order of 
increasing diameter. The last type 2 card 
of each plot has 99.9 (punched 999) in the 
DBH field. 

The sequence of operations is shown by 
the COMMENT statements of the program. 
Summations and computations of averages 
follow usual procedures. Simulation of thin- 
nings by PONCHK is accomplished for a plot 
as follows: 

1. A modulo for the pseudo-random number 
generator, which is appropriate for the num- 
ber of trees per acre, is computed. 

2. As many pseudo-random numbers are gener- 
ated as there are trees on one acre, using 
the generator provided and the "seed" value 
of the statement labeled 1 (Greenberger 1961). 

3. Trees are rearranged at random. 

4. Groups of randomly arranged trees are created 
with the size of each group determined by 
the percentage of trees to be retained. 

5. Appropriate trees from each group are tallied. 
For example, with PRET = 25.0, the largest 
tree of each group of four is tallied. For 
PRET = 75.0, the smallest tree of each group 
of four is ignored and the other three are 
taUied. 

6. Volumes and other values are computed 
for each percentage of trees retained. 

In tests to date, functions computed from 
data from simulated thinnings agree with results 
of field operations. For example, equations for 
DBHE derived from simulated data usually 
predict post-thinning diameters that vary 0.1 
inch or less from actual values. 

Literature Cited 

Bruce, Donald, and Francis X. Schumacher. 
1950. Forest mensuration, Ed. 3, 483 p. 
New York: McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. 
Chapman, Herman H., and Walter H. Meyer. 
1949. Forest mensuration. 522 p. New 
York: McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. 
Decourt, N. 

1965. Le pin sylvestre et le pin laricio 
de Corse en Sologne. Tables de pro- 
duction provisoires et methodes utili- 
sees pour les construire. Ann. des 
Sci. Forest. 22: 257-318. 
Evans, George W., Ill, Graham F. Wallace, 
and Georgia L. Sutherland. 

1967. Simulation using digital computers. 
198 p. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice- 
Hall Inc. 
Greenberger, Martin. 

1961. Notes on a new pseudo-random num- 
ber generator. J. Ass. Comput. Mach. 
8: 163-167. 



Meyer, Walter H. 

1938. Yield of even-aged stands of pon- 
derosa pine. U. S. Dep. Agr. Tech. 
Bull. 630, 60 p. 
Myers, Chfford A. 

1960. Estimating oven-dry weight of pulp- 
wood in standing ponderosa pines. J. 
Forest. 58: 889-891. 



1964. Volume tables and point sampling 
factors for ponderosa pine in the Black 
Hills. U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Pap. 
RM-8, 16 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and 
Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 

1966. Yield tables for managed stands 
with special reference to the Black Hills. 
U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Pap. RM-21, 
20 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and Range 
Exp. Sta., Fort CoUins, Colo. 



1967. Yield tables for managed stands of 
lodgepole pine in Colorado and Wyo- 
ming. U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Pap. 
RM-26, 20 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and 
Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 



1968. Simulating the management of even- 
aged timber stands. U. S. D. A. Forest 
Serv. Res. Pap. RM-42, 32 p. Rocky 
Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Fort 
Collins, Colo. 

and Gary L. Godsey. 



1968. Rapid computation of yield tables 
for managed, even-aged timber stands. 
U. S. D. A. Forest Serv. Res. Pap. 
RM-43, 16 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and 
Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 

, Frank G. Hawksworth, and James 



L. Stewart. 

1971. Simulating yields of managed, dwarf 
mistletoe-infested lodgepole pine 
stands. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Pap. 
RM-72, 15 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and 
Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 

and James L. Van Deusen. 

1958. Estimating past diameters of ponderosa 
pines in the Black Hills. U. S. Forest 
Serv., Rocky Mountain Forest and Range 
Exp. Sta., Res. Note 32, 2 p. 

and James L. Van Deusen. 



1960. Site index of ponderosa pine in the 
Black Hills from soil and topography. 
J. Forest. 58: 548-551, 554-555. 
Vuokila, Yrjo. 

1965. Functions for variable density yield 
tables of pine based on temporary sample 
plots. Commun. Inst. Forest. Fenn. 
60.4, 86 p. 



- 15 - 



APPENDIX 1 

Listing of Program PONYLD 



C TO COMPUTE AND PRINT YIELD TABLES FQk 



C DEFINITIONS OF VARIABLES. 



NAGEO EVEN-AGED STANDS. 



AOOMT = INCREASE OR DECREASE IN AVERAGE STAND HEIGHT BY THINNING. 

AGED = INITIAL AGE IN YIELD TABLE. 

BflSC = BASAL AkEA CUT PER ACRE. 

BASO = BASAL AREA PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING. 

BAST = BASAL A»EA PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. 

6DFC = BOARD FEET CUT PER ACRE. 

BDfO = BOARD FEET PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING. 

ODFT = BOARD FEET PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. 

CFMC = MERCHANTABLE CU. FT. CUT PER ACRE. 

CFMO = MERCH. CU. FT. PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING. 

CFMT = HERCH. CU. FT. PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. 

COMBF = MINIMUM COMMERCIAL CUT, BOARD FEET. 

COMCU = MINIMUM COMMERCIAL CUT, CU. FT. 

DBHO = AVERAGE STAND O.B.H. BEFORE THINNING. 

DRHT = AVERAGE STAND O.B.H. AFTER THINNING. 

DENC = TREES CUT PER ACRE. 

DENO = TREES PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING. 

DENT = TREES PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. 

DIED = PERCENTAGE, AS A DECIMAL, OF TREES THAT DIE DURING PERIOD 

RINT. 
DLEV = CROWING STOCK LEVEL FOR INTERMEDIATE CUTS AFTER FIRST. 
OSTY = LOWEST VALUE OF DLEV USED IN A TEST. 

GIDE = BASE FOR GROWING STOCK LEVELS, 80.0 IN EXAMPLE SHOWN. 
HTSO = TREE HEIGHT BEFORE THINNING. 
riTST = TRFE HEIGHT AFTER THINNING. 

INVL(I) = NEW CUTTING CYCLE AFTER REGENERATION CUT I. 
JCVCL = INTERVAL BETWEEN INTERMECjIATF CUTS. 
JSBD ^ SUM OF BOARD FEET FROM ALL CUTS WITH YIELD OF COMBF OR 

LARGER. 
JSMC = SUM OF MERCH. CU. FT. FROM ALL CUTS WITH YIELD OF COMCU OR 

LARGER. 
JSTF = SUM OF TOTAL CU. FT. FROM ALL CUTS. 
MIX = NUMBER OF STOCKING LEVELS EXAMINED PER TEST, 
NTSTS = NUMBFR OF TESTS PER BATCH. 

PRET = PERCENTAGE OF TREES RETAINED AFTER THINNING. 
REGNII) = STAND AGE WHEN REGENERATION CUT I OCCURS. 
RINT = NUMBER OF YEARS FOR WHICH PROJECTION IS MADE. 
ROTA ^ FINAL AGE IN YIELD TABLE. 
SITE = SITE INDEX. 

THIN = GROWING STOCK LEVEL FOR INITIAL THINNING. 
TOTC = TOTAL CUBIC FEET CUT PER ACRF. 
TOTO = TOTAL CUBIC FEET PER ACRE BEFORE THINNING. 
TOTT = TOTAL CUBIC FEET PER ACRE AFTER THINNING. 
VLLVni = PERCENT OF PREVIOUS DLEV TO BE LEFT AT REGNIH, ENTERED 

AS A DECIMAL. 

COMMON 6A,6AST,CUFT,DBHQ,DBHT,DEN0,FCTR,HITE.GI0E,PRET,PROD,HEST,S 
I TAND.VDM 
DIMENSION INVL13J ,REGNI3) ,VAR( 10) ,VLLV{ II 



C PROVIDE fOR SEVERAL GROWING STOCK LEVELS PER TEST. 
C 

30 DO 160 M=l ,M1X 

ACDHT = 0.0 

60F0 = 0.0 

BDFT = 0.0 

CFMO = 0.0 

CFMT = 0.0 

HTCUM = 0.0 

JSBD ^ 

JSMC = 

JSTF = 

TEH = M 

DLEV = (DSTY 

BASO = DENO 
C 

C OBTAIN AVERAGE HEIGHT AND VOLUMES PER ACRE. 
C 
C STATEMENTS FOR HTSO AND IF STATEMENT ARE SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 



(FIAGEC .GT. SS.O) GO TO 35 

HTSO = O.Ol't'.l ♦ AGEO » SITE 

GO TO t,0 

5 HTSO = O.sgqff? - 61.S0I<) / AGEO 
18 • ALOGlOfSITE ) / AGEO 

HTSO = 10.0 •• HTSO 
HITE = HTSO 

BA = BASO 

STAND = DENO 

VDM = DBHO 

CALL PCNVOL 

TOTO = CUFT 

60F0 = CUFT * PROD 

CFMO = CUFT * FCTR 

REST = THIN 



C ENTER LOOP FOR REMAINING COMPUTATIONS AND PRINTOUT. 
C 

00 130 K^l ,100 
C 

C CHANGE STANDARDS IF A REGENERATION CUT IS DUE. 
C 

43 IFIAGEO .GE. ROTA) GO TO 60 

IFIAGEO .LT. REGNtin GO TO 55 

IFIAGEO .NF. REGNUn GO TO '.5 

DLEV = DLEV * VLLVI 1 1 

REST = DLEV 

JCYCL = INVLl 1 I 

GO TO 55 
<.5 IFIAGEO .NE. KEGN(2H GO TO 50 

DLEV = DLEV • VLLV(2) 

REST = DLEV 

JCYCL = INVL12) 

GO TO 55 
50 IFIAGEO .NE. REGNI311 GO TO 55 

DLEV = DLEV * VLLVI 31 

REST = OLFV 

JCYCL = INVLI 3) 



0.I2I62 * AGEO - 1.50'»53 

O.R0522 * ALOGIO(SITE) + 20.5252 



C INCREASE D.B. 



THINNING AND COMPUTE POS T -TH INN ING VALUES. 



READ (5,5) NTSTS. GIDE 
5 FORMAT ( K,F<..0) 

IFINTSTS .LE. 0) GO TO 170 
IFIGIDE .LE. 0.0) GO TO 170 



READ 15,10) COMCU, COMBF 
in FORMAT ( 10F8. Jl 

VAB18) = COMCU 

VAR(9) = COMflF 
C 

C EXECUTE PROGRAM ONCE FOR EACH SET OF INITIAL VALUES OF INTEREST. 
C 

DO 160 1 = 1, NTSTS 

JTEM = 
C 

C HEAD CUTTING INTERVAL AND LEVELS PER TEST FROM CARD TYPE THREE. 
C 

JCYCL. MIX 

IX .LE. 0) GO TO 170 



READ (5,15) 
15 FORMAT (2I'.l 

IFIJCYCL .LE. 
JTEM = JCYCL 



C READ INITIAL STAND VALUES FROM CARD TYPE FOUR. 
C 

READ 15, 10) AGEO. DBHO, DENO, OS TY.K INT, SITE, THIN 

VARll) = AGEO 

VAR12) ■= DBHO 

VARI3) = DENO 

VARl*.) = DSTY 

VAR(5I = RINT 

VAH(6) = SITE 

VARI7I = THIN 
C 

C READ SILVICULIURAL CONTROLS FROM CARO TYPE FIVE. 
C 

READ i5,l0)REGNIl),VLLV(U. INVLI 1 ) , REGNI 2 ), VLL V( 2 ) , I NVL ( 2 ) ,REGN I 3 ) 

VARI 10) = REGNI 1 ) 

DO 20 L=l,10 

IFIVARIL) .LE. 0.01 GO TO 170 
20 CONTINUE 



IFIREGN(L) .£0. 
ROTA = REGNILI 
GO TO 30 
25 CONTINUE 



0.0) GO TO 25 



55 CALL PONCUT 

JOENT = (BAST / (0.0054542 • OBHT * DRHT) 

DENT = JDENT 

BAST = 0.0054542 » OBHT • OBHT ♦ DENT 

IF(6AST .LT. BASO) GO TO 5fl 

BAST = BASO 

HTST = HTSO 

DENT = DENO 

JDENI = OENO * 0.5 

D8HT = DBHO 

TOTT = TOTO 

BDFT = DDFO 

CFMT = CFMO 

GO TO 60 



-STATEMENT FOR 



DDHT IS SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 
ALOGIOIPRET) 



58 ADDHT = 7.64R33 - 3.8228 

HTCUM = HTCUM ♦ ADDHT 

HTST = HTSO ♦ ADDHT 

STAND = DENT 

VDM = DBHT 

HITE = HTST 

8A = BAST 

CALL PONVOL 

TOTT = CUFT 

BDFT = CUFT • PROD 

CFMT = CUFT * FCTR 
C 
C CHANGE MODE AND ROUND OFF FOR PRINTING. 



60 JAGeo 




IGEO 




JSITE 




SITE 




JDENO 




DENO 


0.5 


JHTSO 




HTSO < 


O.S 


JTOTO 




ITCTO 


• 0.11 ♦ 0.5 


JTOTO 




JTOTO 


• 10 


JBiSO 




BJSO 


0.5 


JCFMO 




(CFMO 


« O.l) ♦ 0.5 


JCFMO 




JCFMO 


• 10 


JBDFO 




(BDFO 


• 0.01) • 0.5 


JBOFQ 




JRDFO 


• 100 


JHTST 


= 


HTST 


0.5 


JlOtI 




ITOTT 


• 0.1) • 0.5 


JIOTI 


- 


JTOTT 


» 10 


JCFMT 


= 


(CFHT 


• 0.1) t 0.5 



JCFMT ^ JCFMT • 10 

IFIJCFMT .GT. JCFMO) JCFMO = JCFMT 

JBOFT ^ IBDFT * O.Ol ) ♦ 0.5 

JRDFT = JBDFT « 100 

IFIJMDFT .GT. JBOFOI JBDFO = JBDFT 

JBAST = BAST * 0.5 

JDENC = JDENO - JDENT 



- 16 



JftASC = JBASO - JBAST 

JTOTC = JTOTO - JTOTT 

JCFMC = JCFMO - JCFMT 

IFIJCFMC .LE. 0» JCFMC * 

J8DFC = JBDFO - JBOFT 

IFIJBOFC .LE. OJ JBOFC = 
C 

C SUM PERIODIC CUTS FOR LAST LINE OF YIELD TABLE. 
C 

IFtAGfO .GE. RCTAJ GO TO 70 

JSTF = JSTF ♦ JTOTC 

CFMC = JCFMC 

IFtCFMC .LT. COMCU) GO TO 65 

JSMC = JSMC ♦ JCFMC 
65 BDFC = J80FC 

IFIBOFC .LT. COHRF) GO TO 70 

JSBO = JS6D ♦ JPOFC 
C 

C kiRIIE HEADINGS FOR YIELD TABLE. 
C 

70 IFIK .CE. 21 GO TO 92 
C 
C CHANGE TABLE HEADING FOR OTHER SPECIES. 



WHITE (6,801 JSITE.JCYCL 
80 FORMAT I IH 1 , / // , 3 7X ,62HY I ELDS PER ACRE OF MANAGEDr EVEN-AGfO STAND 
IS OF PONOEROSA P 1 NE/ IHC^BX , I IHS I TE INDEX , I 3 , IH, , 1 <i , 1 9H- YF AR CUTT 
2ING CYCLE) 
WRITE (6.821 THIN.DLEV 
82 FORMAT ( lHO.<r I X ,26HTH I NNI NG LEVELS= INITIAL -,F6.0,1^H, SUBSEQUENT 



1 



0) 



WRITE (6,8^) 
8t> FORMAT I lH0.25X,3aHENTIftE STAND HFFORE AND AFTER T H I NN ING , 28X , 26HP 
lERlODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTSI 
WRITE 16.861 
86 FORMAT ( LHO , 9X . 5HSTAND. IPX, 5HBAS AL . 3X . 7HAVERAGE . 2X « 7MAVER AGE . 3X . 5H 
lT0TAL.3X,')HMeHCHANT-,3X.9HSAWTIMfcER,qx,5HBA$AL.4X,5HT0TAL,3X.9HHER 
2CHANT-,3X.qHSAHTIMBEH) 
WRITE 16.88) 
89 FORMAT I IH , I OX . 3HA&E ,4X , 5HT RE E5 . 3 X , '.H ARE A. <.X . 6HD. 6 .H . , 3X , 6HHE I GHT 
1.2X,6HV0LUME.2X, IIHABLE VOLUME , ^.X , 6HV0LUME, 3X,5HTREES, 3X,AHAREA,3X 
2,6HV0LUME.2X, UHA8LE VOLUME i*. X , 6H VOLUME ) 
WRITE (6,901 
<)0 FORMAT IIH .8X,7H(YEARS) ,3X,3HNO., 3X.6HSU-FT..<.X,3H|N. ,6X,3HFT..<.X 
l,6HCU.FT..5X,6HCU.FT.,6X,6HBD.FT.,4X,3HNO.,3X,6HS0.FT.,2X,6HCU.FT. 
2.5X,6HCU.FT. ,6X,6HBD.FT.) 
C 

C WRITE TABLE ENTRIES OF DIAMETER, VOLUMfcS. ETC. 
C 

92 WRITE 16,941 JAGEO.JDENO, JBASO, OBHO.JHTSQ. JTOTO. JCFMO, JBHFO 
9*. FORMAT IIH0.9X,I4,4X,I5,2X,1'.,5X,F5.1,5X,I3.<.X,I5,6X.I5,6X,I6) 
IFIAGEU .GE, ROTA) GO TO 135 

WRl TE 16,96 1 JAGEO. JDENT,JBAST,08HT, JHTST.JTOTT, JCFMT, JBOFT, JOENC, 
IJPASC, JTOTC. JCFMC, J8DFC 
96 FORMAT IIH ,9x,l'..'.X,IS,2X.l*.,5X,F5.!,5X,I3,4X,I5,6X,I'i,6X,I6,AX,I 
l5i3X,|3,5X,l'..6X,l*.,8X,15) 
C 
C COMPUTE VALUES FOR EACH PERIOD. THIN AS SPECIFIED. 



C WRITE VALUES FOR THE PERIOD IF THINNING IS NOT DUE. 
C 

WRITE (6,94 1 XAGEO,KDENO,KBASO,00HO,KHTSQ,KT0I0,KCFMO,K6DFO 
D8HT = DBHU 
BAST = BASO 
DENT = DtNO 
IZO CONTINUE 
125 REST = DLEV 
130 CONTINUE 
C 

C ADO FINAL CUTS TO TOTAL YIELDS AND WRITF TOTAL YIELDS. 
C 

135 JSTF = JSTF ♦ JTOTO 
CFMQ = JCFMO 

IF(CFMC .LT. COMCU) GO TO 140 
JSMC = JSMC ♦ JCFMO 
140 RDFO = JBOFO 

IF(eDFO .LI. COMBF 1 GO TO 145 
JSDD = JSflD * JBOFO 
145 WRITE (6,150) J S TF , JSMC , J SBD 

150 FORMAT I IHO , / ,ft7 X , 1 2H TOT AL Y I EL OS , 20X , I 4, 6X , I 4, 8X , 1 5 1 
WRITE (6,1551 COMCU, COMBF 

155 FORMAT ( IHO. / / , 1 1 X .44HMI N I MUM CUTS FOR INCLUSION IN TOTAL YIELDS — 
l,Fft.0,15H CUBIC FEET AND,F7.0,11H BOARD FEETl 

HRI TE (6 , 1561 

156 FORMAT I IHO, 1 OX , 66HME RCH. CU- FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LA 
IKGER TO 4-INCH TOP. ) 

WRITE 16,1571 

157 FORMAT ( IHO, I OX , 60HBD . FT. - TREES 10.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER T 
10 8-lNCH TOP. ) 

C 

C PREPARE FOR NEXT TABLE OF THE TEST. 

C 

AGEO = VARdl 
OfiHO = VAR(2) 
OENO = VAR 131 
JCYCt = JTEM 
160 CONTINUE 

GO TU 200 
170 WHITE (6,1751 
175 FORMAT ( IHl , / / / , 1 OX , 66HE XECUT 1 QN STOPPED BECAUSE OF NEGATIVE OR ZE 

IRQ ITEM ON A DATA CARD. 1 
200 CALL EXIT 
END 



SUBROUT I NE PONCUT 
TO ESTIMATE INCREASE IN AVERAGE D.8. 



DUE TO THINNING. 



IRINT = RINT 

IK = JCYCL / IRINT 

00 120 L=1,IK 

AGEO = AGEO ♦ RINT 

IFIAGEO .GT. ROTAl GO TO 135 

COMPUTE NEW D.B.H. BEFORE THINNING AND ROUND Off TO O.l INCH 

STATEMENT FOR DBHO IS SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 



D8H0 = 1.0097 • OBHT ♦ 0.0096 • S I TE- ( 1 . 5766»AL0G 10 1 BAST ) 1 ♦ 3. 302 1 
lOBHO = DBHO • 10.0 ♦ 0.5 
DBHO = I DBHO 
DBHO = DBHO • 0,1 



IFIDBHT .GE. 10.01 GO TO 100 

DIED = 0.002-^7 ♦ 0.00124 * D8HT ♦ 0.00028 • OBHT 
121 • BAST • BAST - 0.0000905 • DBHT * BAST 
IFIOIED .LT. 0.01 DIED = 0,0 
OENO = DENT • (l.O - DICDJ 
MNK = OENO ♦ 0.5 
DENO = MNK 
GO TO 105 
100 OFNO = 0£NT 

105 8AS0 = DENO • (0.005*542 • DBHO * DBHO) 
C 
C OBTAIN AVERAGE HEIGHT AND VOLUMES PER ACRE. 



STATfcMENTS FOR HTSO AND IF STATEMENT ARE SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 

IflAGEO .GT. 55.01 GO TO 110 

HTSO = 0.01441 • AGEO • SITE - 0.12162 • AGEO - 1. 50953 

GO TO 115 
llO HTSO = 0.59947 - 61.5019 / AGEO ♦ 0.80522 • ALOClOISITEl * 
18 • AL0G10(SI TEl / AGEO 

HTSO = 10. «• HTSO 
115 HTSO = HTSO ♦ HTCUM 

STAND = DENO 

VOM = DBHO 

HITE = HTSO 

BA = BASO 

CALL PGNVOL 

TOTO = CUFT 

BDFO = CUFT • PROD 

CFMO = CUFT • FCTR 

IC TEST IF REGENERATION CUT IS DUE. 
00 118 KU=l,3 
If (AGEO .EQ. REGN(KUl) GO TO 43 
118 CONTINUE 

: CHANGE HOOE AND HOUND OFF FOR PRINTING. 

If(L .EO. IKl GO TO 125 

KDENO = OENO ♦ 0.5 

KAGEO = AGEO 

KHTSO = HTSO ♦ 0.5 

KBASO = BASO ♦ 0.5 

KTOTO = (TGTO • 0.11 ♦ 0.5 

KTOTO = KTOTO • 10 

KCFMO = (CFMO • O.l) * 0.5 

KCFMO = KCfMO • 10 

KSOfO = (BDFO • O.Ol) ♦ 0.5 

K60F0 » KBDFO • 100 



JFIDBHO .LT. 9.41 GO TO 30 
COMPUTE D.B.H. IF DBHO IS LARGE ENOUGH FOR BASAL AREA TO REMAIN CONSTANT. 



STATEMENTS FOR DBHE AND PD8HE ARF SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 

PRET - 50.0) - 0.0001 



IFIPRET .LT. 50.01 GO TO 5 

DflHE = 0.73365 ♦ 1.02008 • DBHO - 0.01107 
14 • (PRET - 50.01 • (PRET - 50.01 

GO TO 11 
5 PDBHE = 0.49401 ♦ 0.71890 • ALOG101D8H01 - 0.22530 • ALOGIOIPRETI 
1 + 0.12616 • ALOGIO(DBHO) • AL0G10(PRET1 

DBHE = 10,0 •• PDBHE 
11 lOBHE = DBHE • 10.0 ♦ 0.5 

DBHE = lOBHE 

OPHE = DBHE « 0. 1 

DENE = DENO » PRET • 0.01 

NDENE = DENE * 0.5 

DENE = NDENE 

BASE = 0.0054542 * DBHE • D8HE • DFNE 

NBASE = BASE • 10.0 * 0.5 

BOSE = NBASE 

BASE = BASE • 0.1 

TMPY = 0.0054542 ♦ DBHE • DBHE 

TEM ^ BASE - REST 

IF( TEM .LE. IMPYl GO TO 70 

IF(TEH .LT. 4.01 GO TO 20 

PRET = PRET - 1.0 

CO TU 21 

20 PRET = PRET - 0.* 

21 CONTINUE 
GO TO 70 

C 

C COMPUTE D.B.H. IF BASAL AREA INCREASES WITH D.B.H. 

C 

30 PRET = 40.0 

1F(DHH0 .GT. 7.0) PRET = 70.0 
DO 65 J=l,l00 
C 
C STATEHtNTS FOR DBHE AND PDBHE ARt SPt C 1 E S-SPf C I F IC . 



ALOGIOIPRETI 



I ♦ 0.12616 • ALOGIOIDBHOI • ALOG10(PRET1 

DBHE = 10.0 •• PDBHE 

CC TO ',5 
40 DBHE = 0.73365 ♦ 1.02008 ♦ DBHO - 0.01107 • (PRET 

14 • (PRET - 50.0) • (PRET - 50.01 
45 lOBHE = DBHE • 10.0 ♦ 0.5 

DBHE = lOBHE 

DBHE = DBHE • O.I 

DENE = OENO • (PRET • O.Ol) 

NOENE = DENE ♦ 0.5 

DENE = NOFNE 

BASE = 0.005<.5<.2 • DBHE • DBHE • DENE 

NBASE = BASE ♦ 10.0 ♦ 0.5 

BASE = NBASE 

BASE = BASE • O.i 



- 17 - 



= VOM • VDM * HITE 



^^^.t^.l ''?;'' L^ll] rn^ln^^n COMMUN 6 A , BAS T .CUF T , OBHO, OBHT , OENO, FCTR . HI TE , C IDE . PRE F , PHOO ,« EST . 5 

IF(BASE .bl. BKtAHI tiU lU 5U iTAnn til^u 

OBHP = (GIDE / RESII • (0.08682 > BOSEl ♦ O.S'.tSb lIONU.Vun 

50 BUST . 66.2 • IRESI / GIDEI "'« _ °-° 
IFIBASE .01. BUSn GO TO 51 •^""^ " "■" 

0BHP^ = ^,G1DE / REST, . ,0.10«e . BASE, - 0.17858 C ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^_^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^_ 

51 TMPY = BASE • (GIOE / REST! ^ 
TEM = TMPY • TMPy 
DBHP = iq-OAT-VO * TMPY - 0.26671 • TEM ♦ 0.0012539 • TEM • TMPY 

I - <.'t8.76B33 ^ 

IFdMPY .CT. GiDE) DBHP = DSHD ♦ 0.8 ^ STATEMENTS FOR CUFT AND IF STATEMENT APE SPEC I ES- SPEC I F IC . 

52 lOBHP = DBHP • 10.0 ♦ 0.5 (^ 

OBHP = IDBHP IF(D2H .&T. 6000.0) GO TO 5 

DBHP = DBHR * . 1. CUFT = (0.00225 * D2H - COOOT*. • BA ♦ 0.0371H • STAND 

IFID6HP - DBHEl 60,70.61 ^q jq iq 

60 PRET = PRET • 1.02 S CUFT = 10.002*7 • 02H ♦ 0.00130 * BA - 1.40286) • STAND 
GO TO 65 10 IFIVOM .LT. 5.0) GO TO 40 

61 PRET = PRET • 0.^8 
65 CONTINUE 

70 DBHT = DBHE ^ 

f C U6TA1N CONVERSION FACTORS FOR HERCH. CU. FT. - VOLUMES TO 4. 0-INCH TOP 

C COMPUTE POST-THINNING BASAL AREA. ^ ,^ ^^^^^ ^ q INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER. 

'- C 

C CHANGE IHO IF STATEMENTS AND STATEMENTS FOR SOFT IF DIFFERENT ^ ^^^^^ STATEMENTS FOR FCTR AND FIRST ThO IF STATEMENTS ARE SPECIES- 

C GROWING STOCK LEVEL BASE IS USED. C SPECIFIC. 

C 

IFIDBHT .GT. 5.0) GO TO 75 

SOFT = 11.5B495 * DBHT - 11.09724 ^ 

GO TO 76 IF(VDM .GT. 

75 IF(DBHT .GE. 10. 0) GO TO 77 p^^p ^ q^26 
TEH = DBHT • DBHT ,,,= -,, GO TO 25 

SOFT = 7.76226 * DBHT »0. 95289 • TEM -0.07952 • TEM ♦ D6HT-3. 45624 ^^ IflvOH .GT. 10.41 GO TO 20 

76 BAST = (REST / GIOE) * SOFT FCTR = 3,46993 - 0.12017 ♦ VDM - 13.41984 / VDM 
GO TO 80 GO TO 25 

77 BAST = REST 20 FCTR = 0.99666 - 0.66932 / VOM 
80 RETURN 25 IFIVDM .LT. 9.0) GO TO 40 

END 

C 

VOLUMES TO 8-INCH TOP IN TREES 

C STATEMENTS FOR PROD AND IF STATEMENT ARE SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 

C 

!FI VUM .GT. 11.9) GO TO 30 

PROD = 0.9778} • VOM ♦ 0.00660 • BA - 7.27957 

SUBROUTINE PONVOL GO TO 40 

C 30 PROO = 5.10752 ♦ 0.10712 • VDM ♦ 0.00185 • 6A - 36.20229 / VOM 

C 40 RETURN 

C TO COMPUTE VOLUMES PER ACRE IN VARIOUS UNITS. END 



18 



APPENDIX 2 
Output of PONYLD 



Ylt-LDS PER ACRE OF MAN4CED, EVEN-AGED STANDS OF PONDEROSA PINE 

SITE INDEX 70, 20-YEAR CUTTING CYCLE 

THINNING LEVELS= INITIAL - 80., SUBSFQUENT - 80. 

ENTIKE STAND BEFORE AND AFTER THINNING PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 

TOTAL MERCHANT- SAWIIMBER 
VOLUfE ABLE VOLUME VOLUME 
CU.fT. CU.FT. BD.FT. 



STAND 




BASAL 


AVERAGE 


AVERAGE 


TOTAL 


MERCHANT- 


SAHTIMBER 




BASAL 


ACE 


IRFES 


AREA 


D.B.H. 


HE IGHT 


VOLUME 


APLF VOLUME 


VOLUME 


TREES 


AREA 


(YEARS! 


NO. 


S'J.FT. 


IN. 


FT. 


CU.FT. 


CU.FT. 


BD.FT. 


NO. 


SQ.FT 


30 


q^c 


1 H 


'..8 


2S 


1 \90 


300 









30 


288 


S7 


6.0 


27 


6 30 


300 





662 


62 


«0 


286 


83 


7. 3 


36 


1230 


930 


C 






50 


ZB'f 


107 


8.3 


^S 


1960 


1680 


1800 






■iO 


m 


78 


T. I 


'.6 


liibO 


1320 


1800 


112 


29 



70 


171 


115 


1 1. I 


59 


2e'.0 


2660 


9200 


70 


104 


80 


11.9 


60 


2030 


1910 


7500 


80 


10<. 


96 


13.0 


65 


2700 


2550 


10500 


90 


lO'. 


I U 


li-.O 


70 


31.00 


3230 


14400 


90 


67 


no 


1<..8 


71 


2'.80 


2 360 


10900 


100 


67 


92 


15.9 


75 


3050 


2910 


14400 


110 


67 


lOA 


16.9 


79 


3630 


3470 


1800U 


110 


21 


itO 


18.6 


80 


1410 


1360 


7400 


120 


21 


t,! 


20.2 


8<. 


1740 


1680 


9700 


no 


21 


5'. 


21.7 


86 


2080 


2010 


12200 



TOTAL YIELDS 

MINIMUM CUTS FOR INCLUSION IN TOTAL YIELDS — 320. CUBIC FEET AND 1500. BOARD FEET 
KERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO 4-INCH TOP. 
BO. FT. - TKEES 10.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO H-INCH TOP. 



YIELDS PER ACRE OF MANAGED, EVEN-AGED STANDS OF PONDEROSA PINE 
SITE INDEX 70, 20-YEAR CUTTING CYCLE 
THINNING LEVELS= INITIAL - 80., SUBSEQUENT - 120. 
ENTIRE STAND BEFORE AND AFTER THINNING PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 



STAND 




BASAL 


AVFUAGF 


AVERAGE 


TOTAL 


MERCHANT- 


SAHTIMBER 




BASAL 


TOTAL 


MERCHANT- 


SAWT IMBER 


AGE 


TREES 


AREA 


D.B.H, 


HEIGHT 


VOLUME 


ABLE VOLUME 


VOLUME 


TREES 


AREA 


VOLUME 


ABLE VOLUME 


VOLUME 


(YEARS) 


NO. 


SQ.FT. 


IN. 


FT. 


CU.FT. 


CU.FT . 


BD.FT. 


NO. 


SO. FT. 


CU.FI. 


CU.FT. 


BD.FT. 


30 


950 


119 


4.8 


25 


1190 


300 















30 


288 


5 7 


6.0 


27 


630 


300 





662 


62 


560 








40 


286 


83 


7.3 


36 


1230 


930 















50 


284 


107 


8.3 


45 


I960 


1680 


1400 












50 


284 


IC7 


8.3 


45 


1960 


1680 


1400 








U 








60 


281 


130 


9.2 


51 


2720 


2460 


4500 












70 


276 


148 


9.9 


58 


3510 


3240 


8400 












70 


200 


120 


10.5 


58 


2930 


2740 


8000 


76 


28 


580 


500 


400 


80 


2CC 


139 


11.3 


64 


3800 


3560 


13500 












90 


200 


157 


12.0 


69 


4670 


4390 


17100 












90 


136 


120 


12.7 


70 


3600 


3400 


13800 


64 


37 


1070 


990 


3300 


100 


136 


135 


13.5 


74 


4350 


4 120 


17900 












110 


136 


150 


14.2 


77 


5070 


4820 


22100 












110 


44 


61 


15.9 


79 


2120 


2020 


9800 


92 


89 


2950 


2800 


12300 


120 


44 


71 


17.2 


82 


2590 


2480 


12900 












130 


44 


81 


18.4 


85 


3070 


2950 


16200 













TOTAL YIELDS 

MINIMUM CUTS FOR INCLUSION IN TUTAL YIELDS — 320. CUBIC FEET AND 1500. BOARD FEET 
MERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LAHGER TO 4-INCH TOP. 
BD. FT. - TREES 10.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TU P-INCH TOP. 



19 - 



YIELDS PER ACRE CF MAN4GfD, EVEN-ACEO STANDS OF PONOEROSA PINE 
SITE INDEX 70. 20-YE4R CUTTING CYCLE 
THINNING LEVELS= INITIAL - 110., SUBSEQUENT - 100. 
ENTIRE STAND BEFORE AND AFTER THINNING PEIUUDIC INTFRMFDIATE CUTS 



STAND 




BASAL 


AVEl^AGC 


AVERAGE 


TOTAL 


^EUCHANT- 


SAHTIMBER 




BASAL 


TOTAL 


MERCHANT- 


SAWTIMBER 


AGE 


TREES 


AREA 


D.R.H. 


HE4GHT 


VOLUME 


AHLe VOLUME 


VOLUME 


TREES 


AREA 


VOLUML 


ABLE VOLUME 


VOLUME 


(YEARS! 


NO. 


SO. FT. 


IN. 


FT. 


CU.FT. 


CU.FT. 


BD.FT. 


NO. 


SO. FT. 


CU.FI. 


CU.FT. 


en. FT. 


30 


<55C 


119 


4.8 


25 


1190 


310 


(1 












30 


417 


74 


5.7 


26 


800 


310 





533 


45 


390 








40 


413 


104 


6.3 


35 


15C0 


1020 















50 


406 


131 


7.7 


44 


2370 


1900 


1400 












50 


23q 


94 


8.5 


45 


1740 


1520 


1400 


16 7 


37 


630 


380 





60 


237 


1 14 


9.4 


51 


2410 


2200 


4200 












70 


235 


133 


10.2 


58 


•»220 


2990 


8200 












70 


154 


100 


10. 5 


59 


2460 


2300 


7300 


81 


33 


760 


690 


900 



154 


133 


104 


100 


104 


1 14 


104 


129 


32 


49 


32 


58 


32 


68 



90 154 133 12.6 69 4000 3780 15300 
90 104 100 13.3 70 3050 2890 12200 



110 104 129 15.1 78 4430 4220 20200 

110 32 49 16.8 80 1730 1660 8400 72 80 

120 32 58 18.3 33 2150 2060 11200 

130 32 68 19.7 86 2580 2490 14200 

TOTAL YIELDS 

MINIMUM CUTS FOR INCLUSION IN TOTAL YIELDS — 320. CUBIC FEET AND 1500. BOARD FEET 

HFRCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO 4-INCH TOP. 
BD. FT. - TREES 10.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TU 8-INCH TOP. 



YIELDS PER ACRE OF MANAGED, EVEN-AGED STANDS OF PONDEROSA PINE 
SITE INDFX 70, 20-YEAR CUTTING CYCLE 
THINNING LEVELS= INITIAL - 80., SUBSEQUENT - 80. 
ENTIRE STAND BEFORE AND AFTER THINNING PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 



STAND 




BASAL 


AVCi^AGE 


AVERAGE 


TOTAL 


MERCHANT- 


SAWTIMBER 




BASAL 


TOTAL 


MERCHANT- 


SAWTIMBER 


AGE 


TREES 


AREA 


D.B.H. 


HE IGHT 


VOLUME 


ABLE VOLUME 


VOLUME 


TREES 


AREA 


VOLUME 


ABLE VOLUME 


VOLUME 


YEARS) 


NO. 


SQ.FT. 


IN. 


FT. 


CU.FT. 


CU.FT. 


BD.FT. 


NO. 


SQ.FT. 


CU.FT. 


CU.FT. 


BD.FT. 


30 


950 


1 19 


4.8 


25 


1190 


300 















30 


238 


57 


6.0 


27 


630 


300 





662 


62 


560 








40 


286 


83 


7. 3 


36 


1230 


930 















50 


284 


107 


8.3 


45 


1960 


1680 


1800 












50 


172 


78 


9. I 


46 


1460 


1320 


1800 


112 


29 


500 


360 





60 


171 


97 


10. 2 


52 


2070 


1930 


4800 












70 


171 


115 


11.1 


59 


2840 


2660 


9200 












70 


104 


80 


1 1.9 


60 


2030 


1910 


7500 


67 


35 


810 


750 


1700 



90 


104 


111 


14.0 


70 


3400 


3230 


14400 


90 


41 


53 


15.4 


72 


1670 


1590 


7500 



110 


41 


73 


18.1 


79 


2580 


2470 


13400 


110 


12 


26 


19.8 


81 


930 


890 


5C00 


120 


12 


31 


21.7 


84 


1160 


I 120 


6800 


130 


12 


36 


23.5 


87 


1410 


1360 


8700 



TOTAL YIELDS 

MINIMUM CUTS FOR INCLUSION IN TOTAL YIELDS — 320. CUBIC FEET AND 1500. BOARD FEET 
MERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO 4-INCH TOP. 
BO. FT. - TREES 10.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TU B-INCH TOP. 

- 20 - 



50 
60 



70 
70 



YIELDS PER ACRE OE MANAGED, EVEN-AGED STANC OF PONOEROSA PINE 

SITE INDEX 70, iO-YEAR CUTTING CYCLE 

THINNING LEVELS= INITIAL - 80., SUBSEQUENT - 120. 



STAND 




BASAL 


AVERAGE 


AGE 


TREES 


AREA 


D.B.H. 


(YEARS) 


NO. 


SO. FT. 


IN. 


30 


950 


119 


'..8 


30 


288 


57 


6.0 


'lO 


286 


83 


7.3 


50 


28'. 


107 


8.3 



ENTIRE STAND BEFORE AND AFTER THINNING 



AVERAGE TOTAL MERCHANT- 
HEIGHT VOLUME ABLE VOLUME 



276 

200 



lAe 

120 



9.9 
10.5 



T. 


CU.FT. 


25 


1190 


27 


630 



',5 
',5 



51 
58 



1960 
1960 



3510 
2930 



300 
300 



1680 
1680 



32'.0 
2T,0 



SAWTIMBER 
VOLUME 
BD.FT. 



HOO 
li-OO 



S'.OO 
8000 



TREES 

NO. 



PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 



BASAL 
AREA 



TOTAL MERCHANT- 
VOLUME ABLE VOLUME 



SQ.FT. CU.FT. 



SAHTIMBER 

VOLUME 
BD.FT. 



90 


200 


157 


12.0 


90 


82 


80 


13.'. 


100 


82 


S'. 


1',.5 


110 


82 


107 


15.5 


110 


2<. 


39 


17.3 


120 


2^. 


47 


18.9 


130 


2'. 


54 


20. A 



'V670 
2.V60 



'.390 
2330 



17100 
9800 



3700 


3530 


17100 


1390 


133U 


6900 


1730 


1660 


9200 


2090 


2010 


1 1700 



TOTAL YIELDS 

MINIMUM CUTS FOR INCLUSION IN TOTAL YIELDS — 320. CUBIC FEET AND 1500. BOARD FEET 

MERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO A-INCH TOP. 
BO. FT. - TREES 10. INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO 8-INCH TOP. 



STAND 




BASAL 


AVERAGE 


AGE 


TREES 


AREA 


D.B.H. 


lYEARSI 


NO. 


SQ.FT. 


IN. 


30 


950 


119 


'..8 


30 


'.17 


Tf 


5.7 


".O 


'.13 


10'. 


6.8 


50 


'.06 


131 


7. 7 


50 


239 


9'. 


8.5 



YIELDS PER ACRE OF MANAGEO, EVEN-AGED STANDS OF PONDEROSA PINE 

SITE INDEX 70, 20-YEAR CUTTING CYCLE 

THINNING LEVELS= INITIAL - 110., SUBSEQUENT - 100. 

ENTIRE STAND BEFORE AND AFTER THINNING 

AVERAGE TOTAL MERCHANT- 
HEIGHT VOLUME ABLE VOLUME 



PERIODIC INTERMEDIATE CUTS 



25 
26 



1190 
800 



2370 
17<.0 



310 
310 



1900 
1520 



SAWTIMBER 




BASAL 


TOTAL 


MERCHANT- 


SAWTIMBER 


VOLUME 


TREES 


AREA 


VOLUME 


ABLE VOLUME 


VOLUME 


BD.FT. 


NO. 


SQ.FT. 


CU.FT. 


CU.FT. 


BD.FT. 






533 


<.5 


390 









I'.OO 
1.400 



70 
70 



90 
90 



110 
110 



120 

130 



235 


133 


ISA 


100 


15'. 


117 


15'. 


133 



62 


90 


19 


3^. 


19 


'.1 


19 


'.7 



10.2 
10.9 



12.6 
1'..0 



16.3 
18. 1 



19.8 
21.'. 



58 
59 



69 
71 



75 

79 



3220 
2'i60 



".OOO 
2050 



3120 
1210 



1510 
1830 



2990 
2300 



3780 
19',0 



2980 
1160 



1460 
1770 



8200 
7300 



15300 
8500 



15000 
6200 



8300 
10600 



TOTAL YIELDS 

MINIMUM CUTS FOR INCLUSION IN TOTAL YIELDS — 320. CUBIC FEET AND 1500. BOARD FEET 
MERCH. CU. FT. - TREES 6.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO '.-INCH TOP. 
BD. FT. - TREES 10.0 INCHES D.B.H. AND LARGER TO 8-INCH TOP. 



- 21 - 



APPENDIX 3 
Listing and Output of Program PONCHK 



C TO OBTAIN 0*TA FOR COMPUTING FUNCTIONS USED IN PONYLD. 

C 

C UEFENITIONS OF VARIABLES. 



= AVFHAGE OeiH OF RESIDUAL STAND 1. 

VERA&E AGF OF MAIN STAND TREES ON PLOT. 

= AVERAGE HEIGHT OF RESIDUAL STAND I. 

AREA OF PLOT. 

= BASAL AREA OF RESIDUAL STAND I. 
= M 60. FT. REMOVED TO GET RESERVE STAND I. FROM TREE VOLS, 

= M BO. FT. OF STAND I AS SUM OF IREE VOLUMES. 

= AVERAGE HEIGHT OF DOM. AND COOOM. TREES ON PLOT. 

= NUMBER OF DOM. AND COOOM. TREES PER ACRE. 
CROWN CLASS OF INDIVIDUAL TRFE. 

1) = MERCH. CU. FT. REMOVED TO GET RESERVE STAND U TREE VOLS. 
1 = MERCH. CU. FT, OF STAND I AS SUM OF TREE VOLUMES. 

I = CROWN CLASS OF TREE i. 
D.e.H. OF INDIVIDUAL TREE. 

) = NUMBER OF TREES IN RESIDUAL STAND I. 
T ) = D.B.H. OF TREE I. 

II = BD. FT. PER TOTAL CU. FT. 
I) = MERCH. CU. FT. PER TOTAL CU. FT. 
I) = NUMBER OF TREES IN GROUP 1. 
) = TOTAL HEIGHT OF TREE I. 
HEIGHT OF INDIVIDUAL TREE. 
1) = ARRAY OF PSEUDORANDOM NUMBERS, 

CUBIC FEET PER H BD. FT., TREES REMOVED ONLY. 

= PLOT NUMBER. 

= PAST OR PRESENT CONDITION OF PLOT. 

= COOED RECORD OF WHETHER PLOT HAS BEEN THINNED PREVIOUSLY. 

I) = PCT. OF ORIGINAL TREES IN RESERVE STAND I. 

1) = CROWN CLASSES OF STAND TREES, IN RANDOM ORDER. 
I) = D.B.H. OF STAND TREES. IN RANDOM ORDER. 

I) = HEIGHTS OF STAND TREES. IN RANDOM ORDER. 

11 = MERCH. CU. FT. OF SUBSAWLOG TREES REMOVED TO GET STAND 

I, AS SUM GF INDIVIDUAL TREE VOLUMES. 

(M = MERCH. CU. FT. SUBSAWLOG TREES IN STAND I AS A SUM Qf 

INDIVIDUAL TREE VOLUMES. 
TOCC 1 1) = TOTAL CU. FT. REMOVED TO GET RESERVE STAND I. TREE VOLS. 
TOTOin = TOTAL CU. FT, OF STAND I AS SUM OF TREE VOLUMES. 

DIMENSION PRET(9I ,GRPS ( 9 1 . TOCC ( 9 ) , SUCMF ( 9 1 . SU6C ( 9 I .CFO ( 9 I , CFMC t 9 ) , 
IBDFC (91 ,BF019 1 ,T0T0(9) ,DEN 1 9 I , B AS ( 9 ) , AHT ( 9 ) , ADM( 9 » , B I G ( 9 ) ,BHT(9),F 
2CCM(9I ,FCBF(9) ,KPRET(9) ,KADM(9) ,KHAS(9) , K BHT ( 9 ( ,KAHT ( 9 ) ,KTaT0l9l,K 
3FCCM( 91 ,KFCBF(91,KDEN(9>,0|AMI 1000). HGT( lOOOI.CRNI 1000),1RND( 1000) 
^.RNDTRaOOO) ,RNHT(I000),RNCNI1000).KC lNBl9t 



ADM( I 
AGEv = 
AHT( I 
AREA 
BASI I 
BOFCi 
BFO( I 
BHT( I 
6IG( 1 
CC 

CFHC ( 
CFOI 1 
CRN( I 
OBH = 
DENI I 
OIAM( 
FC6F ( 
FCCMI 
GRPSt 
HGT( I 
HT = 
IRNDI 
KCINB 
NPLT 
NTIM 
NWHN 
PRET ( 
RNCNl 
RNDTR 
RNHT ( 
SUBCl 



SUBMF 



riALUE 


BATCH VARIABLES. 


ORcsm 


= 10.0 




&RPSI2I 


• 6.0 




GRPS13) 


= 5.0 




GRPSCfl 


= 4.0 




0RPS(5I 


= y.o 




0RPSI6) 


• 2.0 




GRPSI7I 


= 3.0 




GRPSI8) 


. <..o 




GRPS(<*) 


= 1.0 




riALIZE 


PLOT VARIABLES. 


TERM = 


21.0 




UREA = 


0.0 




on 3 1 = 


1,1000 




CRNd 1 


= 0.0 




DIAMd 1 


= 0.0 




HGtd 1 


= 0.0 




IRNO( 1 1 


= 




RNDTRI I 


1 = 0.0 




RNCN( I ) 


= 0.0 




RNHT( [ ) 


> 0.0 




CONTINUE 




DO 6 1 = 


1.9 




AOMI I 1 


= 0.0 




AHT( I ) 


= 0.0 




BASI 1 1 


= 0.0 




BDFC ( I 1 


» 0.0 




BFOIl 1 


= 0.0 




BHTI 1 1 


= 0.0 




BIG! 1 ) 


= 0.0 




CFNCII 1 


= 0.0 




CFOI 1 1 


. 0.0 




DENI I 1 


= 0.0 




FCBFIl 1 


= 0.0 




FCCMl 1 ) 


= 0.0 




KADMI 1 1 


= 




KAHTII ) 


= 




KBASI 1 I 


= 




KBHTI 1 1 


= 




KCINBIl 


= 




KDENI 1 ) 


= 




KFC6FII 


= 




KFCCHIl 


= 




KPRFTI I 


= 




KTOTOII 


= 




PREIll 1 


= 0.0 




SU6CI 1 1 


» 0.0 




SUBMF 1 I 


= 0.0 




lOCCU 1 


= 0.0 




TOTOIl 1 


= 0.0 




CONTINUE 




READ 15 


101 NPLT, NT 


H,NWHN, AREA, ACE 


FORMAT 


13, 212, F5. 3 


F't.Ol 



(NPLT .EO. 886) GO TO 'tOO 



C fcxPAND STAND TABLE TO ACRE BASIS. 

C READ IN TREE VALUES IN ORDER OF DBH, 



ACRE = I.O / AREA 



ALLEST FIRST. 



DO 17 L=1.100Q 

READ (5.151 OBH.HT.CC 

15 FORMAT )F3.l ,2F3.0) 
IFIDBH .EO. 99.9) GO TO 18 
AA = L 

MULT = ACRE • AA 

IFIMULT .LE. 0) MULT = I 

DO lb I=KA,MULT 

OIAMI I ( = DBH 

HGT( I I = HT 

CRN( I ) = CC 

16 CONTINUE 

KA = MULT ♦ I 

17 CONTINUE 

18 TREES = MULT 

COMPUTE VALUES OF STAND PRIOR TO THINNING. 

PRET{9) = 100.0 

DO 34 1=1, MULT 

SOFT = 0.0 

TREBF = 0.0 

TREMCF = 0.0 

TRETUT = 0.0 

SOFT = 0.005'.5<t? • DIAMin • DIAM(It 

D2H = OIAM(I) • OIAMIII • HGT ( I I 

IF STATEMENT AND STATEMENTS FOR TRETOT ARE SPEC I E S- SPEC I F I C . 

IF(D2H .GT. 6000.0) GO TO 20 

TRETOT = 0.002213 * DZH ♦ 0.030268 
GO TO 22 

20 TRETOT = 0.002'.7<. • 02H - 1.557103 

CHANGE 6.0 IF OTHER MINIMUM D.B.H. WANTED FOR MERCH. CU. FT. 

22 IF(D!AM(I1 -LI. 6.01 GO TO 30 

IF STATEMENT AND STATEMENTS FOR TREMCF ARE SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 

1F(02H .GT. 6700.01 GO TO 2'* 

TREMCF = 0.002297 • D2H - 1.032297 
GO TO 26 

2* TREMCF = 0,002<t07 • D2H - 2.257724 

CHANGE 10.0 IF OTHER MINIMUM D.B.H. WANTED FOR BD. FT. 

26 IF(D1AMI|1 .LT. 10.01 GO TO 30 

IF STATEMENT AND STATEMENTS FOR TREBF ARE SPEC lES- SPEC I F IC . 

IFIDZH .GT. 16000.0) CO TO 28 

TREBF = (0.012331 • 02H - 34.167170) • 0.001 
GO TO 30 
28 TREBF = (0.016318 • 02H - 99.2127201 • 0.001 

COMPUTE ACTUAL PLCT VALUES AS SUMS OF INDIVIDUAL TREE VALUES- 

30 AHTISl = AHT 191 ♦ HGT ( I 1 

BAS(91 = BASI9I ♦ SOFT 

6F0(9) = BF0(9) ♦ TREBF 

CF0(9I = CF0(9) * TREMCF 

T0T0I9) = T0TO(91 ♦ TRETOT 

DEN(9) = DEN(9) ♦ 1.0 
IF(CRN(U .GT. 2.0) GO TO 32 

BHT(9) = BHT(9) ♦ HGT ( II 

eiG(9) = BIG(9I ♦ 1.0 

CHANCE 10.0 IF OTHER MINIMUM D.B.H. USED FOR 8D. FT. 

32 IFIDIAM(I) .GE. 10.0) GO TO 34 

SUBMF(9) = SU8MF(9) ♦ TREMCF 
34 CONTINUE 

A0M(9) = BAS(9( / (0.0054542 • 0ENI9I) 

IF(A0Mt9) .LE. 0.01 GO TO 36 

A0M(9) = SORT ( ADM(9) ) 
36 IFtDEN(9) .LE. 0.0) GO TO 38 

AHT(91 = AHT(91 / DEN(9) 
38 IF(BIG(9I .LE. 0.0) GO TO 50 

6HT(9I = BHT(9) / 8IG(9I 

COMPUTE VALUE OF MODULO FOR GENERATOR SUITABLE FOR PLOT DENSITY. 

50 DO 55 1=1,12 

TEM = I 

TWOPR = 2.0 •• TEM 

IFITWOPR .GE. TREES) GO TO 60 
55 CONTINUE 
60 NTWU = TWOPR ♦ 0.5 

GENERATE PSEUDORANDOM NUMBERS. 

DO 85 I=ltMULT 
80 NOIV = (17.0 • TERM ♦ 3.01 / TWOPR 
NTERH = TERM 

NTERM = (17 * NTERM ♦ 31 - NTWO • NDIV 
TERM = NTERM 

IFINTERM .LE, 01 GO TO 80 
IF(NTERM .GT. MULTl GO TO 80 

85 IRN0( I 1 = NTERM 

REARRANGE TREES AT RANDOM, 

DO 90 1 = 1 ,MULT 
NBR = |RND( I I 
RN0TR(NBR1 = D|AM( I ) 
RNHT(NBR) = HGT( I ) 
RNCN(NflR) = CRN! I I 
90 CONTINUE 

APPLY DESIGNATED THINNING LEVELS, ONE AT A TIME. 
RETAIN ONE TREE FROM EACH GROUP, 



- 22 



DO 150 M = l ,6 

NOGP » TRtES / GRPS(NI 

ANOGP > NOGP 

TEM = ANOGP • GRPSIM) 

IFfTEM .EQ. TREES) GO TO 92 

NOGP = NOGP ♦ I 

ANOGP = ANOGP • l.O 

SELECT LARGEST TREE IN EACH GROUP. 

92 LX » 1 

IGP = GRPSIMl 

MX = IG" 

00 125 IJ=!,NOCP 

00 9', IL = i.HULT 

JK = MULT - IL ♦ I 

DO 9*. NK = LX,MX 

NHR = NK 

IFIRNDTRINBR) .EQ- OIAMIJKI) GO TO 98 
94 CONTINUE 

COMPUTE BASAL AREA AND VULUME OF EACH SELECTED TREE, 

98 SOFT = 0.0 
TREBF = 0.0 
fREMCF = 0.0 
TRETOT = 0.0 

SOFT = 0.005<.5<i2 • RNOTRINBR) • RNDTRtNBR) 
02H = RNOTRINBR) • RNOTRINBR) • RNHTINBRI 

IF STATEMENT AND STATEMENTS FOR TRETOT ARE SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 

IF(D2H .GT. 6000.0) GO TO 100 

TRETOT = 0.002213 • 02H • 0.030280 
GO TO 102 

100 TRETOT = 0.002'tT* • D2H - 1.557103 

CHANGE 6.0 IF OTHER MINIMUM O-B.H- USED FOR MERCH. CU. FT. 

102 IF(RNOTRINBR) .LT. 6.0) GO TO 110 

[F STATEMENT AND STATEMENTS FOR TREMCF ARE SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 

If(02H .GT. 6700.01 GO TO 104 

TREMCF = 0.002297 • 02H - 1.032297 
GO TO 106 

104 TREMCF = 0.002407 • 02H - 2.257724 

CHANGE 10.0 IF OTHER MINIMUM O.B.H. USEO FOR 60. FT. 

106 IFIRNDTRINBR) .LT. 10. 0> GO TO llO 

IF STATEMENT AND STATEMENTS FOR THEBF ARE SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 

IF102H .GT. 16000.0) GO TO 108 

TREBF = 10.012331 • 02H - 34.1671701 • 0.001 

GO TO 110 

108 TREBF = 10.016318 • 02H - 99.2127201 • O.OOl 

110 AHTfM) = AHT(M1 ♦ RNHT(NBR) 

IFIRNCN(Nt)R) .GT. 2.0) GO TO 115 

BHTIM) = BHT(M) ♦ RNHTINBR) 

BIG(M1 = BIGIM) ♦ 1.0 

115 BASIM) = BAS(M) . SOFT 

TOTO(M» = TOTO(M) ♦ TRETOT 

CFOIM) = CFO(MI ♦ TREMCF 

BFO(M) = BFOtMl * TREBF 

OEN(M) = DENtMt t^ 1.0 

, CHANGE 10.0 IF OTHER MINIMUM O.B.H. USED FOR BO. FT. 

IF(RNDTR(N9R1 .GE. 10.0) GO TO 120 

SUBMFIMI = SUBMF(M) ♦ TREMCF 
120 LX = MX ♦ 1 
125 MX = MX ♦ IGP 

; COMPUTE ACTUAL PLOT VALUES. 

AOMIMl = BAS(M) / (0.0054542 • DCNIM)) 

IFUOMIM) .LE. 0.0) GO TO 130 

A0M{MJ = SQRTIAOKIMI) 
130 IFIOEN(M) .LE. 0.01 GO TO 135 

AHTIM) = AHTIM) / DENIMl 
135 IF(eiG)H) .LE. 0.01 GO fO 140 

BHT(H) = BHT(M) / BIGIM) 
140 PRETIMI = IDEN(M) / 0ENI91I • 100.0 

: COMPUTE VALUES FOR PART OF STAND TO BF REMOVED. 

SUeC(M) = SUBMFI9) - SUBMFIM) 

CFMCIMJ » CF0(91 - CFO(M) 

BDFCIMl = 6F0I9) - BFOIM) 

TOCClM) = T0T019) - TOTO(M) 



150 CONTINUE 

c 

C APPLY DESIGNATED THINNING LEVELS. ONE AT A TIME. 

C REMOVE ONE TREE FROM EACH GROUP. 

C 

DO 200 M=7,8 

NOGP = TREES / GRPSIMl 

ANOGP = NOGP 

TEM = ANOGP • GRPSIMl 

IFIIEM .EQ. TREES) GO TO 152 

NOGP = NOGP ♦ 1 

ANOGP = ANOGP * 1.0 

c 

C SELECT SMALLEST TREE IN EACH GROUP. 
C 

152 LX = 1 

IGP = GRPSCMl 

MX . IGP 

DO 175 IJ=1 ,NOGP 

00 154 IL=1.MULT 

DO 154 NK=LX,MK 

NBR = NK 

IFIRNOTRINBR) .EQ. DIAHIIL)) GO TO 158 
154 CONTINUE 
C 

C COMPUTE BASAL AREA ANO VOLUME OF EACH SELECTED TREE. 
C 

158 SOFT = 0.0 

TftEBF = 0.0 

TREMCF a 0.0 

TRETOT = 0.0 

SOFT = 0.0054542 • RNOTRINBR) • RNOTRINBR) 

D2H = RN0TR(NBR1 • RNOTRINBR) • RNHTINBR) 



: IF STATEMENT AND STATEMENTS FOR TRFTOT ARE SPEC lES-SPFClF IC. 

IFt02M .GT, 6000.0) GO TQ 160 

TRETOT = 0.002213 • D2H • 0.030268 
GO TO 162 

160 TRETUT = 0.002474 • 02H - 1.557103 

CHANGE 6.0 IF OTHER MINIMUM D.B.H. USED FOB MERCH. CU. FT. 

162 IFIRNOTRINBR) .LT. 6.0) GO TO 170 

IF STATEMENT AND STATEMENTS FOR TREMCF ARE SPECIES-SPECIFIC. 

IFID2H ,GT. 6700.0) GO TO 164 

TREMCF = 0.002297 • 02H - 1.032297 
GO TO 166 

164 TREMCF = 0.002407 • D2H - 2.257724 

CHANCE 10.0 IF OTHER MINIMUM D.B.H. USFO FOR BO. FT. 

166 IFIRNOTRINBR! -LI. 10.0) GO TO 170 
[F STATEMENT ANO STATEMENTS FOR TREBF ARE SPEC I ES- SPEC I F IC . 

IF(D2H .GT. 16000.01 GO TO 168 

TRESF = (0,012331 • 02H - 34.1671701 « O.OOl 

GO TO 170 
168 TREBF = (0.016318 • D2H - 99.2127201 • 0.001 
170 AHT(M1 = AHTIM) + RNHT(N6R) 

IF(RNCN(NBR) .GT. 2.0) GO TO 172 

HHT(M) = BHT(M) ♦ RNHTINBR) 

6IG(M) = BIG(M1 ♦ 1.0 
172 BaS(M) = BAS(M) ♦ SQFT 

TOTOIM) = TOTOIMl ♦ TRETOT 

CFO(M) = CFO(M) ♦ TREMCF 

BFOIMl = BFOIM) ♦ TREBF 

OENIM) = OENIMl t 1.0 

CHflNbE 10. IF OTHER MINIMUM O.B.H. USED FOR 80. FT. 

IFIRNOTRINBR ) .GE. 10.01 GO TO 174 
SUBMFIMI = SUBMFIMI • TREMCF 

174 LX = MX ♦ 1 

175 MX = MX ♦ IGP 

AHTIMl = AHini » 0EN(9) - AHTIMl 
BHTIM) = 6HTI91 • BIGI91 - BHTIM! 
BIGIMl = B1GI9) - BIGIM) 
BASIMI = BASI9) - BASIM) 
TOTOIMl = T0T0I9) - TOTOIM) 
CFOIM) = CF0(91 - CFOIM) 
BFOIMl = BF0I9) - BFOIM) 
DENIHI = DENI91 - DENIM) 
SUBMFIMI = SUBMF(91 - SUBMFIM) 

COMPUTE ACTUAL PLOT VALUES. 

AOMIMl = BASIMI / 10.0054542 * OEN(M)) 

IFIAOMIM) .LE. 0.01 GO TO 180 

ADM(H) = SQRTI AQMIMl 1 
180 iFIDENIMl .LE. 0.01 GO TO 185 

AHTIMl = AHTIM) / DENIMl 
185 IFIBIGIHI .LE. 0.01 GO TO 190 

BHTIM) = BHTIM) / BIGIM) 
190 PRETIMI = lOFNIM) / DENI9I1 • 100.0 

COMPUTE VALUES FOR PART OF STAND TO HE REMOVED. 

SUBC(M) = SUBMFI9) - SUBMFIMI 

CFMCIMl = CF0I91 - CFOIMl 

BOFC |M| = 6F019) - BFOIMl 

TOCCIMl = T0T0I9) - TOTOIM) 
200 CONTINUE 



C COMPUTF VOLUME CONVERSION FACTORS FOR EACH PLOT. 
C 

00 260 1=1,9 

IFIBDFCIIl .EQ. 0.01 GO TO 255 

KCINB(I) = IICFMCII) - SUBCnil / BOFCIIU • 10000.0 
255 IFITOTOIll .£0. 0.0) GO TO 260 

FCCMII 1 = CFO( I 1 / TOTOU) 

FCBFII) = IBFOIIl • 1000.01 / TOTOIM 
260 CONTINUE 
C 

C SET NUMBER OF DECIMAL PLACES TO BE RETAINED FOR PUNCHING. 
C 

00 270 1=1.9 

KADMtll = ADMII) * 100,0 ♦ 0.5 

KAHTIIl = AHTdl • 100. • 0.5 

KBASU) = BASH) • 100,0 ♦ 0,5 

KBHTltl = BHTin • 100.0 ♦ 0.5 

KOENtll = OENCI) 

KFCBFII) = FCBFIII ♦ 1000.0 • 0.5 

KFCCMIIl = FCCMII) • 1000. ♦ 0.5 

KPRETIII = PRETII) • 1000. ♦ 0.5 

KTOTOM 1 = TOTOni • 100. ♦ 0.5 
270 CONT INUF 
C 

C WRITE RESULTS. ONE PAGE PER PLOT. 
C 

WRITE 16.3001 
300 FORMAT I IH 1 , / , 44X , 40HvnLUME ANALYSIS OF PONDEROSA PINE STANDS) 

MRITE 16,3021 NPLI .NTIM.NMHN 
302 FORMAT ( IHO, 9X , 11 HPLOT NUMBER , 1 4 , 1 X , I H- , I 2. IX, IH- , I 2 ) 

HRITE 16.304! PRET 
304 FORMAT I IHO, / , 1 X , 1 9HPCT. TREFS RET A INED, 4X , 9F 10. 2 ) 

MHI TE (6. 106 1 DFN 
306 FORMAT (1H0,12HN0. OF TREES * I IX . 9F 1 0.0 1 

HRITE (6,3061 BIG 
306 FORMAT I1H0.19HN0. DOM. ANO CODOM. , 4X , 9F I 0. 1 

WRITE 16,310) ADM 
310 FORMAT ( 1 HO , I 4HAVERACE 0. B.H. ,9X . 9F 10. 2 1 

WRITE (6,3121 AHT 
312 FORMAT I IHO, 14HAVERAGE HE IGHT , 9X , 9F 10. 2 1 

WRITE 16,314) 8HT 
314 FORMAT (IHO.lflHAVF. HT . 0, ANO C , , 5X , 9F 10 . 2 I 

WRITE (6,316) BAS 
316 FORMAT I IHO . 1 OHB ASAL AREA . I 3X ,9F 1 .2 1 

WRITE 16,320) 
320 FORMAT I IHO , 35HAC TUAL VOLUMES, FROM TREE VOLUMES -1 

WRITE (6,322) TOTO 
522 FORMAT ( IHO . 5 X , 1 3HT0T AL CU. F T . , 5X , OF 1 0. 2 ) 

WRITE 16.324) CFO 
324 FORMAT I IH0, 5X , 14HMERCH. CU. F T . , 4X .9F 10. 2 » 

WRITE (6,3261 BFO 
326 FORMAT I1H0,5X,9HM BO. FT . , 9X ,9F 10 . 2 I 



- 23 - 



WHITE (6.3?8) SUBMF 



328 FORMAT 



lH0,5x,lflHCU. FT.. SUBSawL0G,9Fl0.21 



WRITE lb, 330) 



330 FORMAT 

WRITE I 
332 FORMAT 



lHO,2'3HCONVeRSION OF TOTAL CU. FT. -) 
,3321 FCCM 
I1HO,5X,16HTO MERCH CU. FT . , 2x , <)F 10 . 3 1 



WRITE 16,33^1 FCBF 



33^, FORMAT 
WRITE l( 

3<,5 FORMAT 
WRITE If 



IH0,5X»I0HT0 BD. FT.,8x,yF 10. 3) 

.3451 

1H0,36HV0LUMES REMOVED. FROM TREE VOLUMES -I 

.322) TOCC 



WRITE I6,32<.) CFML 
WRITE 16.326) ROFC 
WRITE (6,328) SUBC 



C RUNCM RESULTS FOR INPUT 10 REGRESSION ANALYSIS. 



00 365 1=1.9 

WRITE 17.360) NPLT.NTIM.NHHN.KPRETl I ) .K ADMI I ) .HBAS I I I .KBHT I I ) .KAHT 
1(I).K0EN(I).KT0T0(I).KCINBII).KRHTI<)) 
360 FORMAT 113.212.17.15.316.15.217,16) 
365 CONTINUE 

DO 375 1=1,9 

WRITE 17.370) NPl T .NTI M.NWHN.KPRE T { I ) ,KA0M I 9 ) .KDFNI I ) . K ADMI I ) 
370 FORMAT 113.212.17.315) 
375 CONTINUE 

DO 3B5 1=1,9 

WRITE (7,3ftO) NPLT.NTIM.NWHN.KAOMI I l.KRASI I I.KFCCMI I ).KFreF( I 1 
380 FORMAT 113.212.15.316) 
385 CONTINUE 

CO TO 1 
'iOO CALL EXIT 

END 



PLOT NUMBEK 62-2 



VOLUME ANALYSIS OF PONDERDSA PINE STANDS 



PCT. TREES RETAINED 

NO. OF TREES 

NO. DOM. AND CODOM. 

AVERAGE D.B.H. 

AVERAGE HEIGHT 

AVE. HT. 0. AND C. 

BASAL AREA 

ACTUAL VOLUMES. FROM TREE VOLUMES 
TOTAL CU. FT. 58'.. 07 

MERCH. CU. FT. 563.06 

M BD. FT. 3.23 

CU. FT., SUBSAWLOG 0.00 

CONVERSION OF TOTAL CU. FT. - 

TO MERCH CU. FT. .46'. 

TO BD. FT. 5.530 

VOLUMES REMOVED, FROM TREE VOLUMES 
TOTAL CU. FT. 328S.55 

MERCH. CU. FT. 3153.67 

M BD. FT. 16.26 

CU. FT., SUBSAWLOG 0.00 



10 


00 


17.1*. 


20.00 


25.71 


J'.. 29 


50.00 


65.71 


74.29 


100.00 




7. 


12. 


I'f. 


18. 


2*, 


35. 


A6. 


52. 


70. 




7. 


12. 


l-,. 


18. 


2«. 


35. 


46. 


52. 


66. 


19 


86 


19. 17 


19.06 


18.90 


18.29 


17.85 


17.50 


17.56 


16.67 


86 


86 


85. 17 


85.07 


85.39 


83.87 


S3.<.6 


83.02 


83.02 


82.10 


86 


86 


85.17 


85.07 


85.39 


83.87 


8 i.<.6 


83.02 


83.02 


82.29 


15 


06 


2'..0<i 


27.73 


35.06 


43.81 


60. 8"^ 


76.85 


87.45 


106.09 



913.54 1051.99 

879.89 1013.10 

4.96 5.69 

0.00 0.00 



.963 
5.427 



.96 3 
5.412 



2960.09 2821.64 

2836.84 2703.63 

14.54 13.80 

0.00 0.00 



1331.21 

12S3.74 

7. 19 

0.00 

.963 
5.395 

2540.42 

2432.99 

12.30 

0.00 



1638.01 2261.05 

1575.82 2173.82 

8.67 11.80 

0.00 0.00 



.962 
5.293 



.961 
5.219 



2235.62 1612.58 

2140.91 1542.91 

10.82 7.69 

0.00 0.00 



2835.88 

2724.91 

14.62 

0.00 

.961 
5. 156 



3227.72 3873.63 

3101.68 3716.73 

16.66 19.49 

0.00 0.00 



.961 
5.163 



.959 
5.032 



1037 


75 


645.91 





00 


991 


82 


615.05 





00 


4 


87 


2.83 





00 





00 


0.00 





00 



Agriculture— CSU, Ft. Collins 



- 24 - 



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)A Forest Service 
sarch Paper RM-80 

ember 1971 

ky Mountain Forest and 
ge Experiment Station 

!st Service 

. Department of Agriculture 

Collins, Colorado 



DAILY TEMPERATURES 
AND PRECIPITATION 
FOR SUBALPINE FOREST 
CENTRAL COLORADO 

by Arden D. Haeffner 




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Abstract 

Daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation 
are presented for two subalpine forest stations near Fraser, Colo- 
rado. Records were collected over a 33-year period at 9,070 feet. 
Mean annual temperature was 33° F., with the extremes ranging 
from -42° to 91° F. Annual precipitation ranged from 17 to 28 
inches, with an average of 23 inches. Five years of record at 
10,620 feet indicates lower maximum temperatures as well as 
higher minimums. 

Key words: Climate, precipitation, temperature, snow, storms, 
watershed management, Fraser Experimental Forest. 



jfi 



M 



USDA Forest Service December 1971 

Research Paper RM-80 



Daily Temperatures and Precipitation for Subalpine Forest, 

Central Colorado 



by 

Arden D. Haeffner 

Associate Hydraulic Engineer 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station-^ 



1 

Central headquarters maintained at Fort Collins in cooperation with Colorado State 
University. 



Contents 

Page 

Location Description 1 

Headquarters Area 2 

Fool Creek Windtower Station 3 

Collection, Analysis, and Presentation of Data 3 

Thermal and Precipitation Regime 3 

Literature Cited 5 

CI imatolog i cal Summary - Dally Precipitation 6 

Headquarters Area 6 

Fool Creek Windtower Station 23 

C 1 imatologi ca 1 Summary - Daily Temperatures 27 

Headquarters Area 27 

Fool Creek Windtower Station ^3 



4 



Daily Temperatures and Precipitation for 
Subalpine Forest, Central Colorado 



Arden D. Haeffner 



The subalpine forests of the central Rocky 
Mountains are becoming increasingly valuable 
for timber, water, recreation, and wildlife habi- 
tat. With accelerated development of these 
resources, representative climatological data are 
needed for managers to make wise land-use 
decisions. To help meet this need, this Paper 
presents the daily precipitation and maximum 
and minimum temperatures collected at two 
observation stations in the subalpine forest 
of the Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, 
Colorado. 

Annual summaries of the daily values col- 
lected at the two stations are given. The 
Headquarters Area, located at an elevation of 
9,070 feet, is approximately 5 miles southwest 
of Fraser, Colorado. Its latitude is 39°54' north 
and longitude is 105°53' west. Records were 
collected over a 33-year period, 1939-71. Thirteen 
years of the temperature data, 1940-42, 1943 
j except December, 1956, 1964-71, and 14 years 
|of the precipitation data, 1940-42, 1943 except 
iDecember, 1956, 1963-71, are complete. Only 
partial record for the other years is avail- 
able. At the Fool Creek Windtower Station, 
6 years of complete record, 1966-71, and 6 years 
of intermittent temperature record are given. 
This station, located at an elevation of 10,620 
feet and 39°53' north latitude and 105°52' west 
longitude, is about 6 miles south-southwest of 
Fraser, Colorado. The above locations and 
elevations are taken from U.S. Geological Survey 
topographic maps, 1957 Bottle Pass and Fraser, 
Colorado 7V2-minute quadrangles. 



Location map ^OK thz 
TKai,e,n ExpiiHAjntwtaJi ToKZy^t. 



Location Description 

The Fraser Experimental Forest, located 
about 45 miles west of Denver, Colorado (fig. 
1), is situated just west of the Continental 
Divide in the headwaters of the Colorado River. 
It is drained by St. Louis Creek, a north-south 
drainage (fig. 2). The two observation stations 
are located within the boundary of the Experi- 
mental Forest. 



ENVER 




Colorado 
Springs 










Figu-ie 2.-- 

Location o^ thi 
two pfilmoAy 
i^natkzn. itatioi 

ffLCUdA 

E Kpzfiumyitat 
foi^it. 



Headquarters Area 

The Headquarters Area is bordered by St. 
Louis Creek on the east, West St. Louis Creek 
on the north and west, and a forested ridge 
about 400 feet high on the south (fig. 2). The 
station area lies on a bench separating these 
two streams, and slopes in a northeasterly 
direction away from the foot of the ridge on 
the south at about a 4 percent grade. The 
area is characterized by an uneven-aged stand 
of lodgepole pine and small clearings, in which 
the weather instruments have been located. 
This stand resulted after the original forest of 
lodgepole pine and spruce-fir was cut over 
in 1910 and later burned (Alexander 1956). 
Second-growth lodgepole pine averaged about 
30 years old when precipitation and temperature 
observations were started in 1939. Footnotes 
on the annual summaries indicate the instru- 
ments have been located at three different 
sites during the period of record: 



The Snow Evaporation Site was a natura 
opening 75 to 150 feet, with the long axii 
in a north-south direction, near the north ent 
of the Headquarters Area. Lodgepole pin^i 
trees bordering the opening on the north 
east, and west sides averaged 60 to 70 feei 
tall, but to the south only reached 40 fee 
in height. The gages were located near th 
northeast corner of the area from 1939 to Octc 
ber 18, 1942. 

The Headquarters Climatic Site is a 60-footi| 
diameter opening cut in lodgepole pine, 30 t 
40 feet tall. It is located near the center of th 
Headquarters Area at an elevation of 9,070 fee . 
The weather instruments operated there wer; 
installed near the center of the clearing. Bot 
the temperature and precipitation gages wei 
moved to this site on October 19, 1942, wit 
the temperature gages remaining to the preset I 
time and the precipitation gages remainir; 
through June 26, 1962. 



The Headquarters Opening Site is a large 
opening about 500 feet in diameter, located 
approximately 400 feet south of the Climatic 
Site. The edge of the opening borders the base 
of the forested ridge to the south. Lodgepole 
pine. 40 to 50 feet tall, surrounds the clearing. 
The precipitation gage has been located near 
the middle of the opening since December 
20, 1962. 

Fool Creek Windtower Station 

The Fool Creek Windtower Station, at an 
elevation of 10,620 feet, is located on the ridge 
separating East St. Louis and Fool Creek water- 
sheds (fig. 2). The weather instruments were 
installed in 1965 on a 15 percent slope, facing 
northeast in the upper middle part of an open- 
ing about 130 feet wide by 460 feet long. The 
opening is one of the small blocks from which 
timber was cut in 1954 as part of the Fool 
Creek experiment (Leaf 1970). Lodgepole pines 
60 to 70 feet tall on the ridge crest protect the 
site from prevailing winds. The intermittent 
temperature record, 1951-56, was collected by a 
hygrothermograph about 100 feet higher on the 
slope near the south edge of a 25- to 30-foot 
opening. This small opening was surrounded 
by trees until the timber harvest in 1954. 

Collection, Analysis, and 
Presentation of Data 

The data were obtained either by reading 
instruments daily near 8:00 a.m., or from charts 
worked up from recording instruments. 

For those years footnoted "Above Data are 
8:00 a.m. Observations," precipitation was meas- 
ured at about 8:00 a.m. m.s.t. by weighing an 
8-inch-diameter gage charged with an antifreeze 
solution and oil. If a recording chart was not 
available and a day or several days transpired 
between 8:00 a.m. readings, an asterisk (*) 
was placed beside the data to indicate this 
amount of precipitation was collected since 
the previous measurement. Daily precipitation 
amounts for the remaining years were taken 
from 24-hour or weekly recording charts of a 
weighing-type recording rain gage. Estimated 
amounts, noted with an "E" to the side, were 
based on nearby station records. 

Records of air temperature were either ob- 
tained by reading Weather Bureau-type maxi- 
mum and minimum thermometers near8:00a.m. 
daily, or from thermographs or hygrothermo- 
graphs supplemented by thermometers. Records 
footnoted "Above Data Are Adjusted 8:00 a.m. 
Observations - Max. Temp. Set Back 1 Day" 



were obtained by an observer reading a maxi- 
mum-minimum thermometer each day near 8:00 
a.m. The maximum temperature read on any 
given morning probably, with few exceptions, 
occurred the day before. The maximums have 
therefore been listed in the annual summaries 
for the previous day, not the day on which 
they were obtained. If several days transpired 
between readings, and a recording chart was 
not available to fill in these missing days, an 
asterisk was placed beside the data to indicate 
the minimum or maximum temperature that 
occurred during the interval. 

All data are on IBM cards, and the sum- 
maries are computer printouts. 

Thermal and Precipitation Regime 

The Headquarters Area has a mean annual 
temperature of 33° F., obtained as an average 
of daily maximums and minimums for 13 years 
of record (table 1). For the 33-year period, 
the observed temperature range was -42° F. 
to 91° F. The lowest temperature was recorded 
when Eraser, Colorado, commonly reported as 
the "Icebox of the Nation" at an elevation 
of 8,500 feet, recorded -53° F. and Berthoud 
Pass, elevation 11,314 feet, reported -28° F. 
(U.S. Dep. Commerce 1962, Judson 1965). This 
reflects a tiend characteristic of temperatures 
in relation to elevation in mountainous regions. 
The lower elevation stations register a lower 
minimum as well as a higher maximum tem- 
perature, particularly when cloud coverage is 
light. At night, the heavier cold air drains 
down the mountains, dropping temperatures at 
lower elevations to the lowest minimums. 
During the day, the temperature follows the 
normal lapse rate, reducing the maximums as 
elevation increases. The monthly thermal 
regime, as well as precipitation at Headquarters, 
is summarized in table 1. 

Annual precipitation at the Headquarters 
Area has averaged 22.6 inches for 14 years of 
complete record, ranging from 16.94 to 28.29 
inches (table 1). This extreme variation is 
about ±25 percent of the mean. About two- 
thirds of the annual precipitation falls during 
the months of October through May. This 
period is particularly significant, since 85 to 
90 percent of the annual runoff comes directly 
or indirectly from snow (Wilm and Dunford 
1948). In addition, nearly one-third of this 
October-May precipitation is produced from an 
average of only three storms (table 2). Since 
only daily values are available, a storm is that 
amount of precipitation accumulated on con- 
secutive days. 



Comparative data between the Fool Creek 
Windtower Station and Headquarters Area follow 
the temperature trend described earlier. Pre- 
cipitation increases with elevation as expected. 
The influence of elevation is greatest during 



the winter months when orographic flow pre- 
dominates. The precipitation measurements 
at the Fool Creek Windtower Station are affected 
by the harvest cutting made in 1954 (Hoover 
and Leaf 1966). 



Table 1. — Summary of temperature^ and precipitation^ data for Headquarters, Fraser 

Experimental Forest 









Temperature 










Preci 


pitation 




Month 
























Average 




Abso 


lute 














Mean 


Maximum 


Minimum M 


aximum 


Min 


imum 


Mean 


Median 


Maximum 


Minimum 








- °F _ 










_ _ _ T«"V^'^" 


























January 


14 


29 


- 1 


49 




-37 


2.11 


2.29 


3.28 


0.77 


February 


15 


32 


- 2 


57 




-42 


1.74 


1.90 


3.48 


.59 


March 


22 


39 


4 


64 




-30 


1.86 


1.58 


3.41 


.74 


April 


32 


48 


16 


79 




-10 


2.35 


1.86 


4.61 


1.03 


May 


40 


57 


24 


78 




4 


2.04 


1.74 


5.20 


.54 


June 


48 


68 


29 


83 




17 


1.87 


1.71 


4.95 


.20 


July 


55 


75 


35 


87 




23 


1.94 


1.50 


4.28 


.66 


August 


52 


72 


33 


86 




20 


2.13 


1.90 


4.40 


.43 


September 


45 


63 


27 


80 




6 


1.64 


1.78 


3.51 


.19 


October 


35 


52 


18 


71 




- 7 


1.48 


1.22 


4.29 


.24 


November 


22 


37 


6 


59 




-21 


1.61 


1.35 


2.80 


.75 


December 


14 


29 


- 1 


51 




-28 


1.79 


1.61 


3.19 


.86 


Total 


33 


50 


16 


87 




-42 


22.58 


22.67 


28.29 


16.94 



13 years of data: 1940-42; 1943, except Dec; 1956; 1964-71. 

14 years of data: 1940-42; 1943, except Dec; 1956; 1963-71. 



Table 2. — Summary of storms (October-May) for Headquarters, Fraser Experimental Forest 





Storms 


0.5 


Storms 


0.51 


Storms 


1.0 


Yearly 


storm 


Year 


inch or 


less 


to 1.0 


inch 


inch or 


more 


totals 


■ 




Total 




Total 




Total 




Total 




Number 


precipi- 
tation 


Number 


precipi- 
tation 


Number 


precipi- 
tation 


Number 


precipi- 
tation 






Inches 




Inches 




Inches 




Inches 


1939-40 


29 


5.49 


5 


3.22 


3 


4.05 


37 


12.76 


1940-Al 


30 


4,70 


10 


6.96 


1 


1.45 


41 


13.11 


1941-42 


40 


7 01 


5 


3.62 


4 


5.36 


49 


15.99 


1942-43 


22 


4.44 


12 


8.09 


6 


9.89 


40 


22.42 


1955-56 


35 


7.39 


6 


4.33 


4 


6.60 


45 


18.32 


1963-64 


33 


6.05 


7 


4.54 


1 


1.16 


41 


11.75 


1964-65 


34 


6.30 


6 


3.92 


3 


5.40 


43 


15.62 


1965-66 


30 


5.16 


2 


1.34 


3 


3.43 


35 


9.93 


1966-67 


32 


6.02 


7 


4.76 


3 


3.77 


42 


14.55 


1967-68 


34 


7.13 


8 


5.38 


1 


1.19 


43 


13.70 


1968-69 


40 


7.17 


5 


3.46 


2 


3.52 


47 


14.15 


1969-70 


26 


4.83 


8 


5.23 


5 


8.90 


39 


18.96 


1970-71 


35 


8.04 


9 


5.93 


3 


4.42 


47 


18.39 


Total 


420 


79.73 


90 


60.78 


39 


59.14 


549 


199.65 




76.5 


39.9 


16,4 


30.4 


7.1 


29.6 







Literature Cited 

Alexander, R. R. 

1956. Two methods of thinning young 
lodgepole pine in the central Rocky 
Mountains. J. Forest. 54: 99-102. 
Hoover, Marvin D., and Charles F. Leaf. 

1966. Process and significance of inter- 
ception in Colorado subalpine forest. 
Nat. Sci. Foundation Advanced Sci. 
Seminar, Int. Symp. Forest Hydrol. 
Procp. 213-234. 
Judson, Arthur. 

1965. The weather and climate of a high 
mountain pass in the Colorado Rockies. 



U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Pap. RM-16, 28 p. 
Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., 
Fort Collins, Colo. 

Leaf, Charles F. 

1970. Sediment yields from central Colo- 
rado snow zone. Amer. Soc. Civil Eng., 
J. Hydraulics Div., 96 (HYl): 87-93. 

U.S. Dep. Commerce, Weather Bureau. 

1962. Climatological data, Colorado. 67(1): 
1-16. 

Wilm, H. G., and E. G. Dunford. 

1948. Effect of timber cutting on water 
available for streamflow from a lodge- 
pole pine forest. U.S. Dep. Agr. Tech. 
Bull. 968, 43 p. 



HE4DQUSRTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
FEB MAR APR 



CLIHATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



DAILY PRECIPITATION 
MAY JUNE JULY 



INCHES 
AUG 



YEAR 1939 
NOV DEC 



9 


H 


10 


M 


11 


H 


12 


H 


13 


H 


l* 


H 


15 


H 


16 


H 


17 


M 


18 


M 


19 


M 


20 


H 


21 


H 


22 


H 


23 


H 


2'. 


M 


25 


M 


26 


M 


27 


M 


28 


M 


29 


M 


30 


M 


31 


H 


TOT 





.OOE 
.OOE 

• OOE 

• OOE 

• OOE 

.OOE 

• OOE 

• OOE 
.OOE 
-OOE 

.OOE 
.0* 

.00 
.00 
.10 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.O'l 

.16 
.07 
.00 
.05 
.53 

.05 



.22 
.26 

.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.10 
.00 

.00 
.00 

.09 
.00 

.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.09 

.17 

.06 
.10 

.00 
.00 

.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.16 
.07 

.1* 

.02 
.00 
.20 
.00 
.01 



.23 
.12 

.00 
.00 
.06 

.37 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.09 
.13 
.00 
.0* 

.00 



.00 
.05 
.05 
.00 



.21 

.00 
.00 
.05 
.03 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.05 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.OOE 
.OOE 
• OOE 
.OOE 



OOE 


1 


OOE 


2 


OOE 


3 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


6 


00 


7 


00 


8 


00 


9 


00 


10 


00 


11 


08 


12 


00 


13 


00 


14 


00 


15 


00 


16 


03 


17 


03 


18 


00 


19 


00 


20 


03 


21 


03 


22 


03 


23 


00 


2'. 


05 


25 


00 


26 


0* 


27 


00 


28 


13 


29 


00 


30 


15 


31 


60 


TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT SNOW EVAPORATION SITE 
E = ESTIMATED 



GAGE FIRST ESTABLISHED IN JULY OF 1939. 
M = MISSING DATA 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
FEB MAR APR 



CLIHATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
JUNE JULY AUG 



YEAR 1940 
NOV DEC 



1 


.00 


.16 


.03 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.18 


.02 


.00 


.04 


.08 


.00 


1 


2 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.00 


.35 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.15 


.00 


2 


3 


.16 


.06 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.30 


.00 


.31 


.00 


.04 


.00 


3 


4 


.13 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.03 


.03 


.00 


4 


5 


.05 


.03 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.30 


.01 


.00 


5 


6 


.34 


.00 


.17 


.10 


.00 


.29 


.02 


.10 


.03 


.06 


.00 


.00 


6 


7 


.05 


.20 


.00 


.03 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.06 


.00 


.04 


.00 


7 


8 


.05 


.04 


. 18 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


8 


9 


.07 


.05 


. 11 


.17 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.37 


.00 


.00 


.00 


9 


10 


.15 


.03 


.07 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.24 


.09 


.00 


.23 


.00 


10 


11 


.15 


.48 


.06 


.17 


.00 


.00 


.34 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.32 


.20 


11 


12 


.37 


.15 


.14 


.00 


.26 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.16 


.02 


12 


13 


.33 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.32 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.24 


.05 


.00 


.17 


13 


14 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.02 


.00 


.02 


14 


IS 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.22 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.02 


15 


16 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.07 


.23 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


16 


17 


.05 


.00 


.23 


.00 


.48 


.00 


.44 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


17 


IB 


.31 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.25 


.01 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.05 


18 


19 


.02 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.02 


.06 


.95 


.00 


.00 


.00 


19 


20 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.15 


.00 


.07 


.05 


.00 


.10 


.00 


20 


21 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.91 


.40 


.00 


.33 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


21 


22 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


22 


23 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.07 


.16 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


23 


24 


.06 


.22 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.31 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.05 


24 


25 


.14 


.06 


.05 


.06 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.03 


25 


26 


.15 


.12 


.00 


.08 


.24 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.56 


.00 


.00 


.00 


26 


27 


.08 


.03 


.10 


.13 


.13 


.00 


.08 


.09 


.04 


.08 


.00 


.15 


27 


28 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.61 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.07 


.02 


.06 


.19 


28 


29 


.00 


.02 


.00 


. 14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.10 


29 


30 


.00 




.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.15 


.00 


.09 


.06 


30 



DATA COLLECTED AT SNOW EVAPORATION SITE 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 22.79 INCHES 



CLIMATOLOGICAt SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 







HEADOJARTERS - ELEV 


9070 FT 












YEAR 


1941 
















DAILY PRECIPITATION - 


INCHES 














JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




OAY 


























OAY 


^ ' 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


1 


V 2 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.58 


.03 


.10 


.14 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.03 


2 


Y 3 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.55 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.37 


.00 


3 


4 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.26 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.12 


.00 


.12 


4 


5 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.36 


.20 


5 


6 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.14 


.28 


.29 


.00 


.48 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.00 


6 


7 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.14 


.30 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.21 


.04 


7 


8 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.02 


.08 


.00 


.01 


.79 


.05 


.00 


.00 


8 


9 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.41 


.62 


.00 


.00 


9 


10 


.00 


.22 


.15 


.00 


.01 


.05 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


10 


U 


.00 


.10 


.15 


.02 


.00 


.36 


.00 


.24 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


11 


12 


.00 


.27 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


. 13 


.27 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


12 


13 


.00 


.15 


.00 


.72 


.00 


.35 


.00 


.23 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.00 


13 


1<. 


.00 


.00 


.89 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.16 


.39 


.00 


.03 


14 


15 


.06 


.04 


.08 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


15 


16 


.05 


.20 


.00 


.02 


.02 


.04 


.29 


.43 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


16 


17 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.32 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.34 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


17 


18 


.00 


.15 


.00 


.53 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.12 


18 


19 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.00 


19 


20 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.22 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


20 


21 


.21 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.25 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


21 


22 


.0* 


.20 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.05 


.04 


22 


23 


.I'. 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.08 


.03 


.00 


.02 


.13 


.03 


.05 


.08 


23 


2'. 


.c 


.26 


.14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


24 


25 


.13 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


25 


26 


.00 


.03 


.02 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.07 


.03 


.06 


.20 


.00 


.19 


26 


27 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.05 


.35 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


27 


28 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.62 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


28 


29 


.00 




.00 


.14 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.00 


29 


30 


.00 




.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.15 


.05 


.00 


.00 


30 


31 


.l". 




.00 




.00 




.00 


.00 




.05 




.00 


31 


TOT 


.81 


1.97 


2.22 


4.16 


1.09 


1.71 


1.31 


2.58 


1.87 


2.02 


1.35 


.86 


TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT SNOW EVAPORATION SITE 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 21.95 INCHES 

ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG S 



YEAR 1942 



.15 

.04 
. 1 1 
.10 

.00 

.00 
.16 
.51 
.51 

.00 



11 


.00 


12 


.00 


13 


.00 


14 


.00 


15 


.00 


16 


.00 


17 


.25 


18 


.00 


19 


.00 


20 


.00 


21 


.00 


2 3 


.00 


23 


.00 


24 


.00 


25 


.06 


26 


.11 


27 


.00 


28 


.00 


29 


.00 


30 


.21 


31 


.02 


TOT 


2.23 



.00 
.04 

.00 
.07 
.35 

.00 
.09 
.27 
.17 
.00 

.00 
.07 
.00 
.03 
. 14 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.07 
.00 

.25 
.25 

.00 
.00 
.00 

.05 
.05 
.11 
.16 
.15 

.01 
.00 



.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.06 


. 13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 




.00 




.00 




.00 


1.60 


1.54 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.06 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.01 
.00 
.00 

.02 
.00 
.36 
1.34 
.00 

.00 
.00 
• 24 
.86 
.35 

.25 

.20 
.00 
.00 
.92 



.24 
.40 
.24 
.00 
.09 

.09 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.09 
.05 
.00 

.04 
. 18 
.06 



.00 
.00 



.42 

.03 



.00 
.20 
.28 
.11 

.00 
.00 
.91 
.00 
.07 



.05 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.02 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.07 
.00 

.14 

.00 



.00 

.62 
.41 
1.45 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.31 
.03 

.00 
.00 
.15 
.00 
. 13 



.05 
.07 
.00 
.00 

.11 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.20 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.19 



.05 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.30 
.00 
.06 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.13 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.18 
.17 
.00 

.15 
.37 
.00 
.00 

.00 



.45 
.81 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 
.12 

.38 



.00 
.34 
.00 
.00 
.38 

.02 
.00 
.00 
.36 
.09 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 

.01 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.33 



.20 
.43 
.03 
.39 



.15 


1 


.22 


2 


.61 


3 


.11 


4 


.06 


5 


.00 


6 


.00 


7 


.07 


8 


.01 


9 


.14 


10 


.39 


U 


.03 


12 


.00 


13 


.00 


14 


.00 


15 


.00 


16 


.00 


17 


.00 


18 


.00 


19 


.00 


20 


.00 


21 


.01 


22 


.06 


23 


.15 


24 


.28 


25 


.03 


26 


.00 


27 


.00 


28 


.04 


29 


.16 


30 


.00 


31 


2.52 


TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT SNOW EVAPORATION SITE I JAN. 
ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION -^ 26.17 INCHES 
OCT. 18) DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE I0CT.19 - DEC. 311 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
FEB MAR APR 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
MAY JUNE JULY AUG 



YEAR 1943 
NOV DEC 



I 


.00 


.00 


.18 


.00 


.01 


.02 


.01 


.03 


.00 


.08 


.16 


.00 


1 


2 


.00 


.00 


.32 


.00 


.01 


.53 


.00 


.34 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


2 


3 


.12 


.27 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.38 


.00 


.46 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


3 


4 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


4 


5 


.00 


.37 


.58 


.00 


.28 


.00 


.03 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


5 


6 


.02 


.17 


.24 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.30 


M 


6 


7 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.61 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


M 


7 


8 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.IZ 


.53 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.02 


M 


8 


9 


.00 


.38 


.09 


.24 


.33 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


9 


10 


.00 


. 10 


.35 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


10 


11 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.28 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


11 


12 


.00 


.40 


.00 


.18 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.25 


.00 


M 


12 


13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.15 


.00 


H 


13 


l* 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


14 


15 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.53 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


15 


16 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.32 


.04 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


16 


17 


.05 


.00 


.06 


.10 


.03 


.00 


.00 


. 12 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


17 


18 


.32 


.00 


.25 


.04 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.37 


.02 


.00 


.00 


M 


18 


19 


.01 


.00 


.25 


.03 


.44 


.00 


.00 


. 15 


.32 


.00 


.00 


M 


19 


20 


.00 


.03 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


. 12 


.04 


.00 


.00 


M 


20 


21 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.09 


.00 


M 


21 


21 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.06 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


12 


23 


.12 


.21 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.27 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.04 


M 


23 


24 


.26 


.40 


.10 


.00 


.52 


.00 


.00 


.16 


.00 


.04 


.06 


M 


24 


25 


.18 


. 10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.63 


.00 


.00 


.07 


M 


25 


26 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.16 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


M 


26 


27 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


. 16 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


27 


28 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


28 


29 


. 18 




.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


H 


29 


30 


.15 




.00 


.01 


.86 


.54 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.12 


.00 


M 


30 


31 


.15 




.12 




.33 




.17 


.20 




. 14 




M 


31 


OT 


1.67 


2.54 


3.10 


1.19 


5.20 


2.17 


.66 


2.94 


.56 


1.00 


.89 


l.3'l 


TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. 
M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATIC SITE 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 23.26 INCHES 

ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEAOOUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

FEE MAR 



1 


.OOE 


2 


.OOE 


3 


l.28» 



9 
10 

1 1 
12 
13 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 



9070 F 


T 












YEAR 


1944 








DAILY PRECIPITATION - 


INCHES 












APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


H 


1 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.56 


M 


M 


2 


M 


M 


.12 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


H 


3 


M 


M 


.10 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


H 


4 


M 


M 


.48 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


5 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


H 


M 


6 


M 


M 


.22 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


7 


M 


M 


.30 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


M 


8 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


9 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.85* 


M 


10 


M 


M 


.00 


.44 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


11 


M 


M 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


12 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


13 


2.68« 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


M 


14 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


M 


15 


M 


M 


.00 


. 10 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


16 


M 


H 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


17 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


18 


H 


M 


.00 


.00 


.48 


.00 


.00 


H 


M 


19 


M 


M 


.00 


.09 


.07 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


20 


M 


M 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


21 


M 


M 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.01 


.00 


M 


M 


22 


M 


H 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.10 


M 


M 


23 


M 


M 


.00 


.05 


.04 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


24 


M 


M 


.00 


.32 


.50 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


25 


M 


M 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


26 


H 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


27 


1.28» 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


28 


.05E 


3.09» 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


29 


.04E 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


30 




.29 




.00 


.00 




.00 




H 


31 


4.05 


3.38 


1.34 


1.37 


1.18 


.03 


.66 






TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. 

6 = ESTIMATED 

M = MISSING DATA 



CLIIATIC SITE 



ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 

♦ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



CLIMSTHLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 



DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
FbB MAR APR HAY JUNE JULY AUG 



r 3 



9 

10 



M 


.00 


.50 


.00 


.05E 


.07 


.32 


.00 


M 


.00 


.02 


.00 


M 


.00 


. 16 


.06 


M 


.00 


.57 


.00 


M 


.00 


.06 


.00 


M 


.00 


.06 


.00 


M 


.^<< 


.00 


.00 


M 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.8^» 


.09 


M 


.00 


M 


.'.2 


.<.2» 


.00 


M 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.12* 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


. 10 


.00 


.93 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


M 


.06 


.00 


.35 


.49» 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.20* 


.00 


.00 


.2'. 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.27 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.21 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.2'.» 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.35 


.23 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


. 19 


M 


M 


.2'. 


.09 


• O** 


M 




.62 


.00 






3.16 


3.3'i 





YEAR 


19<i5 




NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


H 


M 


, 


M 


M 


2 


M 


M 


3 



11 M M M M H M .11 .00 .00 M M M 11 

12 M M M MM .84» .09 M .00 M M M 12 

13 M M M M M M .1,2 .<i2» .00 M M M 13 
!<■ M M M MM 

15 M H M MM 

16 M M M MM .00 .10 .00 .93 M M M 16 

17 M M M MM .00 .00 .00 .00 M M M 17 

18 M M M MM .00 .06 M .06 M M H 18 

19 M M M MM .00 .35 .49» .00 M M M 19 

20 M M M MM .00 .00 M .00 M M M 20 

21 M H M MM .06 .00 .20* .00 M M M 21 

22 M M M MM .00 .2'. .00 .00 M M M 22 

23 M M H MM .00 .27 .00 .07 M M M 23 

24 M M M MM .00 .21 .00 .00 M M M 24 

25 M H M MM .00 .00 M .00 M M M 25 

26 M M M MM .00 .00 .24» .00 M M M 26 

27 M M M MM .00 .00 .00 .35 M M M 27 

28 M M M MM .23 .00 .00 M M M M 28 

29 M M M M .00 .19 M M 1.15» M M 29 

30 M M M M .24 .09 .04» M M M H 30 

31 M M M .62 .00 M M 31 
TOT 3.16 3.34 TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 'ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 

M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1945 

DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 
lY DAY 

1 M M M M M H .00 .00 .01 M M H 1 

2 M M H M M M .00 .00 .00 M M M 2 

3 M M M M M M .00 .00 .00 M M M 3 



H 


.00 


.00 


.01 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


. 18 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.12 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.05 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.23 


.00 


.00 


.15 


.40 


.19 


.00 


.39 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.08 


.14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.53 


.37 


.00 


.00 


.23 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.51* 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.26 


. 14 


.00 


.00 


.34 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


. 1 1 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.OOE 


.00 


.20 


.21 


.OOE 


.00 


.22 


.00 


.OOE 


.00 


.22 


.00 


.OOE 




.00 


.00 






1.99 


1.81 


.93 



25» 


11 


M 


12 


M 


13 


M 


14 


M 


15 



11 M H M M M 

12 M M M MM 

13 M M M MM 

14 M M M MM 

15 M M M M M 

16 M M M MM 

17 M M M MM 

18 M M M MM 

19 M M M MM .00 .00 .00 .51* H M M 19 

20 M H M MM .00 .00 .00 .00 M M M 20 

21 M M M MM .00 .00 .00 .00 M M M 21 

22 M M M MM .00 .00 .26 .14 M M H 22 

23 M H M MM .00 .00 .34 .00 .76* M H 23 

24 M M M MM .00 .00 .00 .00 M M M 24 

25 M M M MM .00 .11 .03 .00 H H M 25 

26 M H M MM .00 .00 .07 .00 M M M 26 

27 M M H MM .00 .03 .00 .OOE M M M 27 

28 M M M MM .00 .20 .21 .OOE M M M 28 

29 M H H M .00 .22 .00 .OOE M M H 29 

30 M M M M .00 .22 .00 .OOE M M M 30 

31 M M M .00 .00 M M 31 
TOT 1.99 1.81 .93 TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOUTS. CLIMATIC SITE E = ESTIMATED 

♦ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SIMCE LAST OBSERVATION M = MISSING DATA 



LY PRECIPITATION 


- INCHES 




JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


M 


.00 


.06 


.00 


M 


.00 


.02 


.00 


M 


.01 


.20 


.04 


M 


.00 


.1* 


.00 


H 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.17 


.25 


.04 


.OOE 


.02 


.19 


.00 


M 


.0<. 


.75 


.15 


H 


.00 


.00 


H 


M 


.00 


.41 


H 


I. 2b* 


.00 


.08 


1.02* 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.7<. 


.00 


.00 


M 


.31 


.08 


.00 


H 


.04 


. 13 


.00 


M 


.00 


.07 


.05 


M 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.23» 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.83' 


.15 


.00 


.00 


M 


.02 


M 


.00 


.01* 


.00 


.31* 


.00 


H 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.o* 


.00 


M 


.00 


.07 


.05 


M 


.00 


.21 


.00 


.33* 




.06 


.00 






1.88 


2.77 


1.68 



M 


M 


9 


M 


M 


10 


M 


M 


11 


M 


M 


12 


H 


M 


13 


M 


M 


14 


M 


M 


15 


M 


M 


16 


M 


H 


17 


M 


H 


18 


M 


M 


19 


M 


M 


20 


M 


H 


21 


M 


M 


22 


M 


M 


23 


H 


M 


24 


M 


M 


25 


M 


M 


26 


M 


M 


27 


n 


H 


28 


M 


M 


29 


M 


M 


30 




M 


31 
TOT 



CLIM4T0L0&IC4L SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEAOOUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1947 

DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

1 H M M M M M .00 .06 .00 M M M 1 

2 M M M 2.99* M M .00 .02 .00 M H M 2 

3 H 2.32* 2.75* M M M .01 .20 .04 M M M 3 

M 

M M M M M M .00 .00 .00 H 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 

IS 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
2S 

26 
27 
28 
29 

30 

31 

TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE E = ESTIMATED 

*ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 

HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1948 

DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 

JAN FED MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

DAY DAY 

1 M H H 10.64* M M M .00 .00 N M M 1 

2MMM MMM M .00 .00 M M M 2 

3 M M M M 2.92* M M .00 .00 M M M 3 

4MMM MMM MM .00 M M M 4 

5M M H M M M M M.OO M M M 5 

6 M M M MMM 3.19* .32* .00 M M M 6 

7 M M M MM 1.38* .00 M .00 M M M 7 

8 M M M MMM .00 M .00 H M M 8 
9M K M M M M .00 .09* .00 M M M 9 

10 M M M MMM .07 .00 .00 M M M 10 

11 M M M MMM .00 .00 .00 M M M 11 

12 M M M MMM .00 .01 .00 M M M 12 

13 M M M MMM .00 .00 .00 M M M 13 

14 M M M MMM .00 .00 .00 M M H 14 

15 M H M MMM .00 .00 .00 M M M 15 

16 M H M MMM .01 .00 .00 M M M 16 

17 M M M MMM .00 .00 .00 M M M 17 

18 M M M MMM .00 .00 .00 M 2.55* M 18 

19 M M M MMM .01 .00 .04 M M M 19 

20 M M H MMM .18 .00 .00 M M M 20 

21 MMM MMM M .00 .00 M M M 21 

22 M M M MMM .21* .00 .00 M M M 22 

23 M M M MMM .00 .00 .00 M M M 23 

24 M M M MMM .26 .11 .00 M M M 24 

25 M M M MMM .00 .00 .00 M M M 25 

26 M H M MMM .00 .56 .02 M M M 26 

27 M H M MMM .00 .00 .00 M M M 27 

28 MMM MMM M .00 .00 M M M 28 

29 M M M MMM .44* .00 .06 M M M 29 

30 M M M M M .00 .00 .43 M M M 30 

31 H M H .00 .00 H M 31 
TOT 1.09 .55 TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HUQTS. CLIMATIC SITE *ACCUMULATEO PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 

M = MISSING DATA 



HEADOUARrERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
FEB M4R APR 



CLIHATOLQGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



DAILY PRECIPITATION 
MAY JUNE JULY 



INCHES 
AUG 



YEAR 19*9 
NOV DEC 



1 L 
12 
13 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
2* 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

TOT 



.OOE 
. 38» 



3.13» 

H 

M 



. 73» 
.26 



.01» 
.06 



.29* 
.OOE 
.OOE 
.OOE 



.50 
.20 



. 37* 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 

4.12 



.00 
.05 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.07 
.12 
.38 
.22 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.08 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.07 
.00 

.00 

.99 



.00 
.00 
.55 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.32 
.05 

.07 
.00 
.01 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.0". 



11 

12 
13 

l*. 

15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
ZZ 
23 
2'. 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 
♦ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



E = ESTIMATED 

M ■= MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



11 
12 
13 



16 
17 

18 
19 

20 

21 
ZZ 
23 
2* 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 

30 

31 
TOT 



HEADQUARTERS 
FEB 



S - ELEV. 


9070 FT 












YEAR 


1950 








DAILY PRECIPITATION - 


INCHES 










MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


M 


. 17 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.07 


.17 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.45 


.43 


M 


M 


.52 


.00 


.65 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


M 


M 


.17 


.00 


.31 


.00 


.21 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.00 


.53 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


M 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.02 


M 


M 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.03 


.29 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


M 


H 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.79 


M 


M 


.28 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.19 


.00 


.41 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.14 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.40 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


. 19 


.00 


.00 


M 


H 


.1 1 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


M 


M 


H 


.79 


. 10 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.10 


.12 


M 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


. 1<. 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.02 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


.00 


.21 


.00 


. 19 


.00 


. 19 


.00 


M 


H 


M 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.48 


.00 


M 


H 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.ze* 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.24 


.00 


M 


M 


.00 


.07 


.38 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.21 


.00 


.75 


.00 


.00 


.19 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.17 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.34 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.38 


.".l 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.31 


.28 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 



.00 .00 

3.21 2.40 1.03 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 

17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
ZZ 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 
•ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AH OBSERVATIONS 
H = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOGlCaL SUMMARY 
FR4SER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



ERS - ELEV 


9070 FT 












YEAR 1951 










DAILY PRECIPITATION ■ 


- INCHES 












MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


M 


.00 


.31 


.03 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


I 


M 


.00 


.06 


.15 


.00 


. 12 


.00 


.24 


M 


M 


2 


M 


.00 


.00 


.67 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.24 


M 


M 


3 


M 


.00 


.00 


.25 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.09 


M 


M 


4 


M 


.53 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.07 


M 


M 


5 


M 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.38 


M 


» 


6 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


7 


M 


. 14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


M 


8 


M 


.17 


.17 


.08 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


9 


M 


.44 


.17 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


10 


M 


.03 


.00 


.40 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


11 


M 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.38 


.00 


M 


M 


12 


M 


.02 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


13 


M 


.00 


.45 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


H 


14 


M 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


H 


M 


15 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


16 


M 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.02 


M 


M 


17 


M 


. 14 


.35 


.72 


.15 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


18 


M 


.54 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.19 


.00 


M 


M 


19 


M 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.05 


.00 


.00 


M 


H 


20 


M 


.28 


.00 


1.09 


. 11 


.62 


.53 


.40 


M 


M 


21 


M 


.41 


.34 


.00 


.27 


.00 


.09 


.19 


M 


M 


22 


M 


.07 


.00 


.33 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.03 


M 


M 


23 


M 


.00 


.21 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


24 


M 


.23 


.03 


.06 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


25 


13.90» 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


H 


26 


.00 


.26 


.14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.19 


M 


M 


27 


.'.3 


.00 


.08 


.00 


. 14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


28 


.02 


.00 


.02 


.14 


.19 


.00 


.27 


.00 


H 


H 


29 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.52 


.00 


.OOE 


M 


M 


30 


.05 




.00 




.00 


.00 




• OOE 




M 


31 




3.50 


2.50 


4.06 


1.06 


1.69 


1.46 


1.85 






TOT 



u 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 

E = ESTIMATED •ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 

M = MISSING DATA 



CLl MATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1952 

DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 
HY DAY 

1 M M M M .07 .17 .00 .10 .24 .00 M M 1 

2 M M M M .00 .02 .00 .09 .00 .00 H M 2 

3 M M M M .00 .01 .00 .07 .00 .CO M H 3 



9 
10 

11 M M M .02 .00 .00 .00 .97 .00 .00 M M 11 

12 M M H .15 .00 .00 .03 .07 .00 .00 M M 12 

13 M M M .07 .06 .00 .00 .00 .13 .00 M M 13 
14 
15 

l*" M M H .07 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 M H 16 

1' M M M .02 .04 .00 .00 .00 .14 .00 M M 17 

18 M M M .00 .03 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 M M 18 

l** M M M .00 .07 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 M M 19 

20 H M H .00 .31 .00 .00 .18 .00 .00 M H 20 

21 M H M .31 .24 .00 .00 .00 .00 .05 M M 21 

22 H M H .01 .28 .00 .00 .20 .00 .OOE M H 22 

23 M M H .05 .18 .02 .00 .00 .00 .OOE M M 23 

24 M M M .00 .39 .04 .00 .04 .00 .OOE M M 24 

25 H M M .00 .00 .07 1.39 .00 .00 .OOE M M 25 



26 



28 



30 



TOT 







DAILY PREC 


PITATION 


- INCHES 








APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NO 


M 


.07 


.17 


.00 


. 10 


.24 


.00 


M 


M 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.00 


H 


M 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.CO 


M 


M 


.02 


.91 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.00 


M 


H 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.28 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.01 


.00 


.14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


16.40* 


.12 


.01 


.07 


. 10 


.10 


.00 


H 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.31 


.07 


.00 


M 


.17 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.00 


H 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.97 


.00 


.00 


M 


.15 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.07 


.00 


.00 


M 


.07 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.44 


.00 


.00 


H 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


M 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.02 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.00 


M 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.18 


.00 


.00 


M 


.31 


.24 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


M 


.01 


.28 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


• OOE 


M 


.05 


. 18 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.OOE 


M 


.00 


.39 


.04 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.OOE 


M 


.00 


.00 


.07 


1.39 


.00 


.00 


.OOE 


M 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.45 


.00 


.00 


.OOE 


M 


.00 


.37 


.04 


.03 


.07 


.00 


.OOE 


M 


.02 


.00 


.04 


.11 


.17 


.00 


.OOE 


H 


.35 


.04 


.00 


.27 


.14 


.10 


.OOE 


H 


.41 


.04 


.05 


.04 


.24 


.00 


.OOE 


M 




.03 




.00 


.00 




.OOE 






2.44 


1.40 


2.56 


3.77 


.78 


.05 





26 



2' M M M .00 .37 .04 .03 .07 .00 .OOE M M 27 



28 



2"* M M M .35 .04 .00 .27 .14 .10 .OOE M M 29 



30 



31 M M .03 .00 .00 .OOE M 31 



TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOQTS. CLIMATIC SITE ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 

E - ESTIMATED *ACCUMULATEO PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 

M = MISSING DATA 



13 

15 

16 
17 
IB 
11 
20 

21 
22 
23 
2'. 
25 



27 

28 
29 
30 



HEAOOUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
FEB MAR APR 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
MAY JUNE JULY AUG 



.OOE 


.02 


.33 


.12 


.OOE 


.00 


.22 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.01 


.02 


1.'.2 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.!'< 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.03 


.1', 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.05 


1.15 


.00 


.00 


.00 


1.13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.26 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.81 


M 


.00 


.00 


.30 


M 


.00 


.00 


.23 


.20» 


.00 


.00 


. 12 


.00 


.OOE 



YEAR 


1953 




NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


M 


M 


1 


M 


M 


2 


M 


M 


3 



7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 
13 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
2'. 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 

♦ ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATIO») 



E = ESTIMATED 

H = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



11 
12 
13 
l". 
15 

16 

17 

18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
2', 
25 

26 
27 
28 



HEADQUARTERS - 
FEB MAR 



070 FT 














YEAR 


1954 








DAILY PRECIPITATION - 


INCHES 












PR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


OOE 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.20 


M 


H 


1 


OOE 


.38 


.42 


. 11 


.00 


.10 


.00 


M 


M 


2 


00 


.00 


.00 


.24 


.00 


.28 


.00 


M 


M 


3 


00 


. 11 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


4 


00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.17 


.21 


.04 


M 


M 


5 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.31 


.06 


.00 


M 


M 


6 


00 


.00 


.27 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


7 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.03 


M 


M 


8 


00 


.00 


.00 


. 14 


.00 


.14 


.00 


M 


M 


9 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.35 


M 


M 


10 


00 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.03 


.03 


M 


M 


U 


00 


.06 


.OOE 


.00 


.07 


.11 


.00 


M 


H 


12 


OOE 


.00 


.OOE 


.00 


.07 


.03 


.10 


H 


M 


13 


00 


.00 


.04 


.34 


.00 


.00 


.35 


H 


M 


14 


10 


.00 


. 14 


.11 


.03 


.00 


.00 


H 


M 


15 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


. 18 


.04 


.00 


M 


M 


16 


00 


.00 


.00 


.48 


.07 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


17 


00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


,00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


18 


lA 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


H 


M 


19 


00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


20 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


21 


00 


.04 


.00 


.24 


.04 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


22 


00 


.21 


.00 


. 10 


.03 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


23 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


1.06 


M 


M 


H 


24 


00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


H 


M 


25 


3'. 


.17 


.00 


. 11 


.07 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


26 


00 


.O". 


.06 


.03 


.00 


.24 


M 


M 


M 


27 


00 


.00 


. u 


.07 


.00 


.31 


.75* 


M 


M 


28 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.OOE 


H 


H 


29 


'•S 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.20 


.OOE 


M 


H 


30 



31 

TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 

E = ESTIMATED 

M " MISSING DATA 



ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AH OBSERVATIONS 

•ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



CLIHATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



HCAUOUABTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 



YEAR 


1955 


NOV 


DEC 


.34 


.00 


M 


.20 


.07* 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.00 


.00 


.31 


.3* 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.17 



DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 

JAN ftp MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT 
DAY 

1 M y M M .00 .00 .00 .09 .00 .00 .34 .00 1 

2 M M 9.10* H .00 .00 .00 .03 .00 .00 M .20 2 

3 M M M M .14 .00 .00 .08 .00 .00 .07* .00 3 

4 M M M M .00 .04 .00 .24 .00 .00 

5 M M M M .00 .26 .00 .06 .00 .34 

6 M ^ M M .00 .50 .00 .37 .00 .00 .00 .00 6 

7 M M M H .OOE .00 .00 .23 .00 .00 .31 .34 7 

8 M M M MM .00 .00 .35 .00 .00 .00 .04 8 

9 M M M M .38» .00 .00 .02 .04 .00 .00 .00 9 

10 M M >1 H .38 .00 .00 .00 .00 .05 .10 .17 10 

11 M M M M .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 11 

12 M ,v 1 H .00 .00 .34 .00 .00 .00 .90 .04 12 

13 M M M M .00 .04 .00 .00 .00 .00 .21 

14 M M M M .00 .00 .00 .32 .00 .00 .13 

15 M M M M .00 .21 .00 .35 .00 .00 .52 

16 M M M M .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .07 

17 M M M M .27 .03 .00 .47 .00 .00 .31 

18 M M M M .07 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .14 

19 M ^' M M .03 .03 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 

20 MUM M .00 .00 .00 .00 .18 .00 .00 

21 M M M .00 M .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 

22 M ri M .00 M .00 .00 .00 .00 H .00 

23 M M M .07 .25* .00 .00 .00 .00 M .13 

24 ■^ M M .OOE .34 .00 1.25 .00 .00 .28* .00 

25 M M n .03 .00 .00 .13 .00 .14 .00 .07 

26 M M 1 .00 .00 .00 .47 .25 .03 .00 .00 

27 M M M .07 .62 .00 .26 .00 .00 .00 M 

28 M M M .24 M .00 .08 .50 .00 .08 .42* 

29 M M .00 M .00 .00 .00 .00 .55 .00 

30 M M .00 .03* .00 .00 .00 .00 .06 .00 

31 M M .00 .00 .00 .00 
TOT 2.51 I. 11 2.53 3.36 .39 1.36 3.72 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 

E - ESTIMATED *ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 

M = MISSING DATA 



.00 


13 


.00 


14 


.00 


15 


.24 


16 


. 14 


17 


.07 


18 


.00 


19 


.00 


20 


.00 


21 


.00 


22 


.28 


23 


.00 


24 


.00 


25 


.00 


26 


.00 


27 


.00 


28 


.00 


29 


.00 


30 


.00 


31 


.66 


TOT 



CL INATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPtRIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 


9070 FT 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


.C4 


.00 


.00 


. 1 I 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.55 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.45 


.00 


.CO 


.24 


M 


.00 


.03 


.00 


M 


.00 



YEAR 1956 



DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 

JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

DAY 

1 .07 .04 .00 .00 .11 .00 .29 .34 .00 .OSt M M 1 

2 .03 .CO .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .15 .CO .00 .14» M 2 



3 .04 .00 .04 .55 .00 .CO .07 .05 .00 .00 K M 3 

.00 .00 .00 .00 .05 

.00 .CO .00 .CO .00 

.CC .00 .00 .45 .00 .17 .00 .00 .00 M 

.00 .CO .24 M .00 .00 .CO .00 .00 M 

.00 .03 .00 M .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .03* 

.CO .00 .2i« .00 .no .00 .00 .00 .00 

.00 M .00 .00 .20 .CO .00 .02 .00 

.CO M .00 .03 .00 .21 .00 .00 .00 

.28 .24* .00 M .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 

.41 .00 .00 M .00 .11 .00 .00 M 

.14 .18 M .28» .00 .10 .00 .00 M 

.45 .17 .58» .20 .00 .15 .00 .00 .18* 

.03 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .CO .00 

.07 .00 .00 .00 .00 .CO .00 .00 .00 

.27 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .18 .00 .00 

.18 .00 .00 M .00 .CO .32 .CO .00 

.CO .00 .00 M .00 .00 .02 .00 .00 

.00 .10 M .31* .02 .00 .76 .CO .00 

.CO .00 M .07 .00 .00 .00 .08 .00 

.CO .00 .28* .41 .00 .45 .00 .00 .00 

.13 .00 .41 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 

.11 .00 .00 .14 .00 .00 .12 .00 .62 

f .00 .00 M .00 .00 .00 .00 M 

.C7» .07 .00 M .00 .05 .03 .00 M 

.CO .07 y .14* .00 .00 .00 .09 m 

.00 .00 M .00 .00 .00 .00 .OOE M 

.00 .93* .00 .00 1.40 .00 .OOE .34* 

.00 .00 1.05 .00 .OOE 

.21 I. II 3.44 1.69 .39 3.88 1.97 .19 1.22 

TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 22.81 INCHES 

DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AH OBSERVATIONS 

E = ESTIMATED •ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 

M = MSSING DATA 



9 


.CO 


IC 


.00 


11 


.00 


12 


.00 


n 


.CC 


14 


. 17 


15 


.24 


16 


.07 


17 


.48 


16 


.04 


19 


.00 


2C 


.17 


21 


.07 


22 


.00 


23 


.03 


24 


.31 


25 


.00 


26 


.62 


27 


.07 


28 


.52 


29 


.07 


3C 


.06 


31 


.07 


TOT 


3.13 



.86* 


M 


9 


M 


M 


10 


M 


M 


11 


M 


M 


12 


M 


M 


13 


M 


M 


14 


M 


M 


15 


.08* 


M 


16 


M 


M 


17 


M 


M 


18 


M 


M 


19 


M 


M 


20 


.33* 


1.93* 


21 


.00 


M 


22 


.00 


M 


23 


.00 


M 


24 


.00 


M 


25 


.00 


H 


26 


.00 


M 


27 


.00 


.20* 


28 


.00 


.OOE 


29 


.OOE 


.OOE 


30 




.OOE 


31 


.41 


2.17 


TOT 



HEAOQUAKIERS - ELEV. <*070 FT 
JAN FEB MAR APR 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SU^'MARY 
FRASFR FXPFRIMFNTOL FOREST, CnLIJRAOO 



DAILY PRECIPITATION 
MAY JUNE JULY 



INCHES 
AUG 



YEAR nST 



M 


M 


H 


1.27* 


M 


.02 


M 


.17 



E 


VI 


■3 


M 


IC 


l.31» 


1 1 


M 


12 


f 


1 3 


M 


l". 


f. 


15 


M 


It 


M 


17 


M 


18 


1.13' 


19 


f 


20 


M 


21 


M 


22 


M 


23 


M 


2<. 


M 


25 


.59* 


26 


M 


27 


M 


2e 


M 


29 


M 


3C 


.97* 


31 


.OOE 


OT 


'..00 



f 


.27 


H 


.Al 


M 


H 


79* 


H 


00 


H 



.lA* 

.00 



.00 
.10 



.89* 
.00 



1.2'.* 
.00 
.00 



.2^. 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.2'. 

.00 

.no 

.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
. 18 
.02 
.8"! 
. 17 

.35 
.37 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.28* 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 
.00 



.21 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.CO 

.00 
.00 
.03 
.03 
.00 

.06 
.20 
. 15 



.05 
.38 
.15 
.20 



.09 
.2'. 



.16 
.00 
.12 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.0? 

.80 
.07 
. 1 1 

.00 
.00 

.08 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

1. 19 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.09 

.03 
.97 
.03 



. 10 
.00 
.02 
.00 
.19 



-CO 
-CO 
.00 
.00 
.CO 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 



1. 10* 

.00 

. 1<. 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.35* 

.ooc 



.OOE 
1 .<.9 



9 
10 

1 1 

12 
13 
1<. 
15 

16 
17 
18 



21 
22 
23 
2". 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 

30 

31 

TOT 



DATA CCLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE 

E = ESTIMAIED 

M = MISSING DATA 



ABOVE RATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 

♦ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



CL IMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASFR FXPFRIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



1 1 
12 
13 
1*. 
15 

16 
17 

le 

19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
2-1 
23 

26 
27 

28 
29 
3C 



HEADOUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
FEB MAR APR 













YEAR 


1958 




PRECIPITATION - 


INCHES 












JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


M 


.13 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


M 


M 


1 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


. 11 


M 


M 


2 


M 


. 1*. 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


3 


M 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


M 


M 


<. 


M 


.CO 


. 1 1 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


5 


51* 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


6 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


7 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


8 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


9 


M 


-CO 


.00 


.2'i 


.00 


M 


M 


10 


M 


.00 


.21 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


11 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


12 


M 


.00 


.00 


. lA 


.00 


M 


M 


13 


M 


.CO 


.00 


. 1". 


.00 


M 


M 


1<. 


M 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


N 


M 


15 


CO 


. !<. 


.00 


.07 


.00 


M 


M 


16 


00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


17 


00 


.00 


.00 


.CO 


M 


M 


M 


18 


30 


.21 


.82 


. 11. 


M 


M 


M 


19 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17* 


M 


M 


20 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17 


M 


M 


21 


00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


22 


00 


.10 


.38 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


23 


11 


.00 


. 1". 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


2*. 


3*. 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.00 


K 


M 


25 


35 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


26 


00 


.66 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


27 


00 


.CO 


.00 


.CO 


M 


M 


M 


28 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.28* 


M 


M 


29 


00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


M 


M 


30 



DATA COLLECTED AT MOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 
•ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 
M = MISSING DATA 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 
FEe l<A« 



1070 FT 
APR 



CLIM4T0L0GICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
MAY JUNE JULY AUG 



YEAR 1959 
NOV DEC 



9 
IC 

1 I 
12 
13 

l<i 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
ZC 

21 
22 
23 
2^1 
25 

26 
27 
26 
29 
3C 



.52« 



10« 


.07 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


. 19 


.00 


.20 


M 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


H 


M 


.00 


.CO 


.18 


.CO 


M 


M 


.00 


. lA 


.06 


.CO 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.CO 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.00 


M 


sax 


.00 


.O'. 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.00 


.CO 


.CO 


.00 


M 


M 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.CO 


M 


M 


.00 


• CO 


.1 1 


.00 


1.07 


M 


.00 


.00 


. 10 


.00 


.00 


M 


.lA 


.CO 


.03 


.00 


• ll 


59» 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


. 17 


. 10 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


.O'. 


.10 


.00 


.65 


M 


M 


.2'. 


.07 


.00 


.17 


M 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.11 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


79» 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.31 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.00 


M 


.03 


.00 


.03 


.13 


H 


M 


.0'. 


.00 


.00 


.16 


M 


2'.« 


.<<l 


.00 


.I'. 


.59 


M 


00 


.c 


.00 


.07 


M 


M 


lA 


.20 


.11 


.07 


M 


M 


00 


1.07 


.00 


.11 


M 


M 


00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


2.76* 


M 


00 


.03 


.3'. 


.00 


.07 


M 



9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
2<i 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 
♦ACCUKCLAIEO PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST CRSERVATION 



ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 
M = MISSING DATA 



CL IMATOLOOICAL SUMMARY 
FRASFR EXPERIMENTAL FOKEST, COLORADO 



11 
12 
13 
\<y 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
2C 

21 
22 
23 
2A 
25 

26 
27 

28 

2<; 

3C 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
FER MAR APR 















YEAR 


1960 






DAILY PRECIPITATION - 


INCHES 












MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


M 


.00 


.CO 


.31 


.00 


.Ul 


M 


M 


1 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


2 


.^l* 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.62 


.00 


M 


M 


3 


.11 


.00 


.10 


.00 


M 


.00 


M 


M 


1 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


M 


M 


5 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17» 


.00 


M 


M 


6 


M 


.00 


.28 


.07 


.07 


.00 


M 


M 


7 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.no 


M 


M 


8 


M 


.17 


.CO 


.CO 


.21 


.00 


M 


M 


9 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.21 


M 


M 


10 


M 


.00 


.31 


.07 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


U 


.ll' 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.01 


M 


2.37» 


12 


M 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


13 


M 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.01 


.03 


M 


M 


11 


M 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.07 


.00 


M 


H 


15 


M 


.11 


.CO 


.00 


.10 


.52 


M 


M 


16 


M 


.00 


.00 


.28 


.30 


.00 


M 


M 


17 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.00 


M 


M 


18 


M 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


19 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


20 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


21 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


M 


M 


22 


M 


.00 


.56 


.06 


.17 


.00 


M 


M 


23 


M 


.00 


. 16 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


21 


M 


.00 


.08 


.52 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


25 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


26 


.06* 


.00 


.00 


.00 


• CO 


.00 


M 


M 


27 


M 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


28 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


M 


M 


29 


M 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.CO 


M 


M 


M 


30 


. 1 1» 




. 17 


.00 




M 




M 


31 




.72 


1.83 


1.11 


1.86 








TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDQIS. CLIMATIC SITE 
•ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



ABOVE DATA ARE 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 
M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLCIGICAL SUMMARY 
PHASER EXPERIMCNTAL FOREST, COLClHAnn 



HEACOUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
JAN FEB ^AR APR MAY 



Y PRFCIP I TAT ION - 


INCHES 




JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEP 


.00 


.'lO 


. 1 7 


. l-. 


.00 


.00 


.IR 


.27 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.69 


. ?s 


.CO 


.CO 


.23 



YEAR 


1961 




NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


M 


M 


1 


M 


M 


2 



.58» 


3 


.6 1« 


M 


.00 




.OOE 


M 


.OOE 




.OOE 


M 


.OOE 




.OOE 


M 


• OOE 






.00 




3 


.61 


?.10 



.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.2'. 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.O-, 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.07 


.20 


.03 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.39 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


. 10 


.00 


.n<. 


.17 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.no 


.07 


.'iS 


.0<i 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.21, 


.3B 


.00 


.00 


.69 


.00 


.Al 


.0', 


.85 


.00 


.27 


. I'l 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.01, 


.00 


M 


.00 


.03 


.20 


1.90* 


.00 


.'iS 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


M 


.00 


.00 


.00 


M 




.'.S 


.28 




.97 


3.75 


2.3fl 





11 M M M MM .03 .00 .03 .00 M M M 11 

12 M M M M .62* .00 .07 .39 .00 M M M 12 
1 3 M M r* MM .00 .00 .00 .CO M M K 13 
II, M K M MM 

15 M M M M M 

16 M W M MM 

17 l.<. 1* M M M H 

18 M M M MM .00 .00 .00 .03 M M M IS 

19 M M M M .96* .00 .04 .00 .24 M M M 19 
2C M M M MM .38 .00 .00 .69 M M M 20 



21 M M M MM .00 .41 .04 .85 M M M 21 

22 M M 3.28* M M .00 .27 .14 .31 H .38* M 22 

23 M M .00 M M .00 .00 .00 M M M M 23 

24 M M .00 M M .00 .00 .00 M M M M 24 

25 M M M M .31* .00 .04 .00 M M M M 25 

26 M M M MM .00 .03 .20 1.90* M M M 26 

27 M f .58* 3.61* M .00 .45 .00 .CO M M M 27 

28 M M .00 .OOE M .00 .00 .00 .00 M M M 28 
2S M .OOE .OOE M .10 .00 .00 M M M M 29 
3C M .OOE .OOE M .00 .00 .00 M M .24* M 30 



31 M .OOE .00 .48 .28 1.24* M 31 

TOT 3.61 ?.10 .97 3.75 2.38 TOT 



DATA COLLFCTFD AT HOOFS. CLIMATIC SITE ABOVE DATA ARC 8 AM OBSERVATIONS 

E = ESTIMATED 'ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 



DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG 



YEAR 


1962 




NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


M 


M 


1 


M 


H 


2 


M 


M 


3 



11 

12 
13 
14 

15 

16 

17 

le 

19 

2C 

21 
22 
23 
24 



26 
27 
28 
29 

3C 



M 


12 


M 


13 


M 


14 


M 


15 


H 


16 


M 


17 


H 


18 


M 


19 


M 


20 


00 


21 


13 


22 


05 


23 


10 


24 


06 


25 


00 


25 


00 


27 


00 


28 


00 


29 


00 


30 


00 


31 




TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE (JAN.! - JUNE 26) DATA COLLECTED AT HUUTS. OPENING SITE (DEC.20 - DEC. 311 

•ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION SINCE LAST CBSERVAIION M = MISSING DATA 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
FEB MAR APR 



CLIMATOLOGiCAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



DAILY PRECIPITATION 
MAY JUNE JULY 



YEAR 1963 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.26 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 



9 


.00 


10 


.25 


u 


.05 


12 


.00 


13 


.00 


1*1 


.10 


15 


.00 


16 


.00 


17 


.00 


18 


.20 


19 


.12 


20 


.02 


21 


.03 


11 


.10 


23 


.00 


24 


.00 


25 


.65 


26 


.35 


27 


.00 


28 


.00 


29 


.15 


30 


.08 


31 


.21 


TOT 


2.58 



.50 
.20 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 

.08 
.00 
.00 
.02 
.35 

.00 
.00 
. 15 
.05 
.25 

.00 
.00 
.06 
.02 
.13 

.02 
.19 

.00 



.10 
.12 
.05 

.02 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.09 
.00 
.00 
.33 
.07 

• 02 
.23 

.02 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.05 

.00 
.00 
.37 
.08 
.00 

.00 

1.58 



.00 
.03 
.10 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 



.00 

.00 
.10 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.16 
.31 
.03 

.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 

.05 
.05 
• O* 
.02 
.03 

.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.09 

.00 

.5'. 



.00 
.15 
.30 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.35 
.32 
.05 

.03 
.00 
.00 
.29 
.10 

.75 
.00 
.00 
.12 
.03 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.04 
.00 



.03 
.00 
.03 
.04 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.18 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 

.02 
.12 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.45 
.11 
.17 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 

1.18 



INCHES 




AUG 


SEP 


.09 


.00 


.36 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.15 


.00 


.49 


.10 


.18 


.48 


.00 


.03 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.26 


.00 


.54 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.47 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.18 


.03 


.18 


.25 


.00 


.60 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.53 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 




4.40 


1.21 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.20 

.05 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.18 



.00 
.00 



.22 

.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.20 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.05 
.00 
.03 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.06 
.09 
.18 
.04 

.05 
.08 



.02 


13 


.02 


14 


.03 


15 


.00 


16 


.00 


17 


.00 


18 


.00 


19 


.09 


20 


.11 


21 


.00 


22 


.00 


23 


.00 


24 


.00 


25 


.00 


26 


.20 


27 


.13 


28 


.23 


29 


.00 


30 


.00 


31 


1.33 


TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. OPENING SITE 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 19.72 INCHES 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT 



YEAR 1964 
NOV DEC 



9 
10 

11 

12 
13 
14 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
21 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 

30 



.00 
.23 

.00 
.00 
.00 

.04 
.16 
.04 
.00 
.04 

.00 
.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.04 
.06 
.16 
.00 

.02 
.20 
.08 
.00 
.03 

.07 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 

.10 
.00 
.05 



.00 
. 12 

.01 

.08 
.00 

.00 

.zz 

.05 
.18 
.02 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.35 
.16 

.00 
.28 

.00 
.11 
.10 
.07 
.13 

.00 
.00 

.11 

.03 
.03 

.00 
.00 
.05 
.13 
.00 

.00 
.10 



.15 

.26 
.19 
.00 
.02 
.02 

.00 



.09 
.00 
.12 

.20 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.05 



.20 
.42 

.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.10 
.05 



.00 
.06 



.22 
.22 



.08 
.20 



.03 
.05 

.00 
.00 

.10 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.31 

.00 
.06 
.00 
.00 



.36 
.29 
.22 

.07 



.11 
.02 
.15 

.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.09 
.07 
.00 

.00 
.05 
.06 
.02 

.00 

.13 
.12 

.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.76 
.03 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 



.00 
.00 
.08 
.05 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.04 

.18 
.08 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.21 
.32 

.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.05 
.00 
.20 

.12 

1.33 



.05 
.10 
.07 
.29 

.03 

.05 
.35 
.08 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.10 
.00 
.00 
.29 
.06 

.05 
.00 
.00 
.04 
.29 

.05 
.29 
.13 
.22 

.03 

.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.04 
.05 
.05 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 

.00 
.00 
.26 
. 14 
.02 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.21 

.00 
.03 
.03 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.21 

.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.03 
.10 

.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.08 

.10 

.62 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.10 
.30 
.04 



.04 
.01 
.03 

.00 
.00 
.13 
.00 
.00 



.09 


1 


.10 


2 


.00 


3 


.06 


4 


.00 


5 


.00 


6 


.00 


7 


.00 


8 


.08 


9 


.00 


10 


.26 


11 


.07 


12 


.00 


13 


.00 


14 


.04 


15 


.00 


16 


.11 


17 


.02 


18 


.00 


19 


.00 


20 


.00 


21 


.08 


22 


.63 


23 


.36 


24 


.36 


25 


.05 


26 


.29 


27 


.35 


28 


.14 


29 


.00 


30 


.10 


31 


3.19 


TOT 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 20.68 INCHES 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. OPENING SUE 



HE4D0U4RTERS - ELFV. 9070 FT 
FEB MiR ftPR 



CLlMATnLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORAOn 



DAILY PRECIPITATION 
MAY JUNE JULY 



.10 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

. 15 

.00 
. 10 
.05 
.00 



u 


.25 


12 


.25 


13 


.0'. 


l« 


.03 


15 


.00 


16 


.00 


17 


.00 


18 


.00 


19 


.00 


20 


.00 


21 


.06 


22 


.OB 


23 


.00 


2* 


.23 


25 


.03 


26 


.00 


27 


.20 


28 


.29 


29 


.73 


30 


.35 


31 


.3'. 


TOT 


3.28 



.00 
.00 
.03 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.02 
.02 
.02 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.07 
.10 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.16 
. 13 

.0* 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.02 
.O'. 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.0* 
.20 

.00 
.09 
.18 
.10 
.25 

.00 
.30 
.10 
.00 
.07 

.00 
.38 
.63 
.22 

.00 

.07 
.07 
.04 

.08 
.02 

.00 

2.90 



.13 

.17 
.0', 
.22 
.17 

.00 
.08 
.00 
.35 
.09 

.09 
.00 
.10 
.02 
.00 

.00 
.02 
.22 

.03 

.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.06 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.09 

.06 
.06 
.09 
.07 
.10 

.05 
.00 
.03 
.23 
.08 

.05 
.06 
.00 

.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.2* 
.11 

.03 

.57 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.02 

1.94 



.04 
.10 
.08 
.17 
.31 

.23 
.17 
.13 

.05 
.02 

.06 
.15 
.24 

.12 

.00 

.00 
-32 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.09 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.02 
.18 
.22 
.03 
.01 

.07 
.05 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.23 
.02 
.25 
.03 
.26 

.34 
.36 
.86 
.23 

.04 

.05 
.13 

.00 
.00 
.41 

.49 



INCHES 




AUG 


SEP 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.15 


.25 


.00 


.01 


.02 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.22 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.01 


.64 


.12 



.64 


.12 


.64 


.35 


.03 


.24 


.10 


.06 


.03 


.02 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.25 


.02 


.49 


.05 


.00 


.00 




.90 


2.35 



.01 
.01 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.12 
.10 

.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



YEAR 


1965 


NOV 


DEC 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.21 


.30 


.43 


.01 


.08 


.05 


.01 


.05 


. 17 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.19 


.07 


.01 


.00 


.58 


.01 


.26 


.12 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.33 



8 

9 

10 

II 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. OPENING SITE 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 25.14 INCHES 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 
FEB MAR APR 



DAILY PRECIPITATION 
MAY JUNE JULY 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 

22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 

30 



.10 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.02 
.00 
.01 
.00 
.00 

.20 
.00 
.02 
.15 
. II 

.00 
.00 
.01 
.00 
.05 

.02 
.00 
.02 
.02 
.04 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.03 
.01 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.12 
.24 
.03 
.01 

.01 
.15 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.05 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.03 
.04 
.01 



.00 
.07 
.06 
.00 

.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.09 

.02 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.20 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.29 

.01 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.02 
.08 
.15 
.02 



.00 
.00 
.21 

.21 

.02 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.22 
.20 
.13 
.00 

.00 
.31 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.06 
.10 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.20 
.35 
.26 

.25 
.11 
.04 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.02 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.02 
.10 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.36 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.20 

.11 

.05 
.13 

.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.06 
.19 
.00 
.03 
.13 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.50 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.09 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.29 
.02 
.03 
.02 

.20 
.10 
.07 
.08 
.23 

.13 
.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 



INCHES 
AUG 



.04 
.00 
.50 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.04 
.00 

.00 
.53 
.00 
.05 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.44 
.11 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.29 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 



.02 
.01 
.00 
.00 
.03 



.00 
.03 
.01 



.00 
.31 
.34 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.10 
.33 
.1 7 

.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



YEAR 


1966 


NOV 


DEC 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.30 


.00 


.69 


.00 


.18 


.65 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 



.19 
.00 
.00 
.06 
.01 



14 
15 



17 
18 



21 
22 
23 



.00 


26 


.08 


27 


.02 


28 


.00 


29 


.00 


30 


.13 


31 


1.61 


TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. OPENING SITE 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 16.94 INCHES 



CLIMAT0L0GIC4L SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADOUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG S 



YEAR 1967 



1 


.15 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17 


1 


2 


.1* 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.03 


.57 


.00 


2 


3 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


3 


A 


.03 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.03 


.09 


.00 


.30 


.00 


.00 


4 


5 


.11 


.06 


.15 


.02 


.24 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.03 


5 


6 


.04 


.12 


.00 


.02 


. 10 


.03 


.04 


.33 


.00 


.21 


.00 


.16 


6 


7 


.00 


.04 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.41 


.17 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.07 


7 


8 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.08 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.16 


8 


9 


.02 


.02 


.00 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.19 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


9 


10 


.00 


.26 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.26 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.04 


10 


11 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.19 


.04 


.00 


.50 


.00 


.00 


.11 


11 


12 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.39 


.00 


.00 


.17 


12 


13 


.15 


.00 


.00 


.57 


.05 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


13 


1<> 


.'.8 


.37 


.15 


.00 


.07 


.27 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


14 


15 


-O* 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.38 


.32 


.05 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


15 


16 


.30 


.06 


.00 


.28 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.02 


16 


17 


.02 


.29 


.16 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.04 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.06 


17 


18 


.02 


.10 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.24 


.00 


.00 


.09 


18 


19 


.00 


.36 


.38 


.04 


.33 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.16 


.00 


.00 


.19 


19 


20 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.02 


.46 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.19 


20 


21 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.23 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.38 


.07 


21 


22 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.16 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


22 


23 


.00 


.26 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.19 


.26 


.00 


23 


2'. 


.10 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.04 


.02 


24 


25 


.31 


.00 


.07 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.30 


.00 


.04 


.21 


25 


26 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.31 


.00 


.04 


.17 


.11 


.00 


.39 


26 


27 


.07 


.00 


.14 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.15 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.21 


27 


28 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.12 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.07 


28 


29 


.00 




.19 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.18 


.00 


.00 


29 


30 


.05 




.08 


.30 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


30 


31 


.41 




.00 




.16 




.05 


.03 




.00 




.10 


31 


TOT 


2.62 


2.31 


1.87 


2.06 


1.68 


2.71 


1.61 


1.40 


2.08 


1.34 


1.43 


2.53 


TOT 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 23.74 INCHES 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. OPENING SITE 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



HEADOUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

FEB MAR APR MAY 



DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
JUNE JULY AUG 



YEAR 1968 
NOV DEC 



1 


.04 


.03 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.Oc 


.00 


.03 


1 


2 


.17 


.02 


.00 


.16 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


2 


3 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.27 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.89 


.00 


.00 


.02 


3 


4 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.06 


.04 


.16 


.00 


4 


5 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.24 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


5 


6 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.23 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


6 


7 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


7 


8 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.30 


.00 


.00 


8 


9 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.27 


.00 


.00 


.54 


.00 


9 


10 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.30 


.10 


.05 


.28 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


10 


11 


.04 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.16 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.22 


11 


12 


.00 


.23 


.00 


.00 


.25 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.12 


12 


13 


.00 


.00 


.09 


.14 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.15 


.08 


13 


14 


.00 


.05 


.53 


.02 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.29 


.13 


.00 


.15 


.00 


14 


15 


.00 


.09 


.09 


.00 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.38 


.21 


.02 


.00 


15 


16 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.18 


.06 


.43 


.00 


16 


17 


.00 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.11 


.04 


.10 


17 


18 


.00 


.16 


.03 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


18 


19 


.00 


.02 


.07 


.35 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


19 


20 


.00 


.33 


.07 


.08 


.36 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


20 


21 


.00 


.04 


.02 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


21 


11 


.03 


.17 


.01 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.22 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


22 


23 


.00 


.24 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


23 


24 


.00 


.23 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.10 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


24 


25 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.29 


.14 


.00 


.27 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.16 


.12 


25 


26 


.00 


.00 


.08 


. 14 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.OJ 


26 


27 


.00 


.18 


.02 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.02 


27 


28 


.10 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.00 


28 


29 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


29 


30 


.00 




.02 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.25 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.28 


30 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. OPENING SITE 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 17.88 INCHES 



CLIMAT0L0GIC4L SUMMARY 
FR&SER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG 5 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 
ZZ 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
2B 
29 
30 



.00 
.03 
.00 
.00 
.13 

.00 
.04 
.35 
.02 

.00 

.13 

.00 
.02 
.03 
.00 



.20 
.00 



.04 
. 18 
.25 
.15 
.55 

.05 
.35 



.08 
.12 

.00 



.06 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.02 



.05 
.00 
.05 

.19 

.03 
.00 
.24 
.23 

.08 
.00 
.00 



.12 

.00 
.00 



.17 

.03 
.00 
.00 
.09 

.17 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.28 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.03 
.02 
.05 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.32 

.00 
.08 
.00 



.00 
.08 
.00 
.00 

.00 

.00 
.22 
.00 
.00 
.55 

.08 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.10 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.OS 
.00 
.00 
.08 

1.15 
.65 

.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.12 

.68 
.00 
.00 



.13 
.11 

.10 

.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.06 



.06 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.04 



.10 
.00 
.05 

.55 
.36 

.22 
. 14 
.52 

.19 
.54 
.02 

.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.17 
.75 
.21 

.39 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.10 
.18 
.21 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.03 
.24 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.18 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 



.26 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.02 
.05 
.12 

.00 
.70 

.12 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.28 



.00 

. u 



.00 
.02 



.00 
.27 



.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.21 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.28 



.03 
.24 
.82 
1.02 
.35 

.00 



.02 
.30 
.00 
.00 
.13 

.05 
.00 
.04 
.35 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.14 



YEAR 


1969 


NOV 


DEC 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.19 


.09 


.02 


.22 


.00 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.37 


.00 


.16 


.00 


.40 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.24 


.00 


.24 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.03 



6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



.00 
2.59 



.05 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. OPENING SITE 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 28.29 INCHES 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

DAILY PRECIPITATION - INCHES 
FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG S 



YEAR 1970 
NOV DEC 



.05 

.01 
.04 
.03 
.04 



.09 
.07 
.53 



.00 
.18 
.15 
.00 
.00 



.03 
.18 
.27 
.00 
.00 



.13 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.02 
.03 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.13 

.00 
.00 



.00 
.12 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.02 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.15 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.03 
.00 
.06 
.08 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.12 
.02 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.08 
.17 
.03 



.00 
.10 
.00 
.12 
.25 



.00 
.00 



.19 

.00 



.34 

.06 
.07 
.00 
.00 



. 18 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.10 
.59 
.00 
.13 
1.00 



.00 
.30 
.25 
.00 
.38 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.01 
.26 



11 

12 
13 
14 
15 



.00 
.02 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 

.11 

.12 

.00 
.00 



.04 
.00 
.18 
.13 
.25 



.22 
.10 
.00 
.08 
.01 



.02 
.00 
.00 
.05 
.00 



.16 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.29 
.42 
.00 
.02 

.00 



.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.02 
.03 



.00 
.00 



.03 
.31 
.12 
.00 
.00 



.01 
.03 
.00 
.00 
.16 



II 
12 
13 
14 
15 



16 
17 
IB 
19 

20 



.28 
.23 

.06 
.15 

.30 



.37 

.03 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.13 
.15 
.00 
.00 



.07 
.42 
.31 
.18 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.07 
.00 
.03 
.30 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.37 
.07 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.35 
.00 
.16 



18 
19 
20 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



.14 
.34 
.00 
.17 
.07 



.00 
.00 
.07 
.00 



.06 
.07 
.00 
.62 
.20 



.01 
.10 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.03 
.05 
.00 
.00 



.43 

.06 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.39 
.25 



.07 
.13 



.07 
.29 
.10 
.06 



.00 
.16 
.05 
.12 
.00 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



.00 
.22 
.47 
.02 
.00 



.17 
.00 
.01 
.04 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.24 
.00 
.05 



.02 
.05 
.27 
.17 
.07 



.00 
.00 



.00 



.00 

.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.30 
.06 
.02 
.00 
.05 



.00 
.02 
.10 
.04 
.20 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



.00 



.13 



.02 



.00 



31 

TOT 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. OPENING SITE 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 24.70 INCHES 



CLIMATOLOtlCAL SUMMAKY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 







HEADQUARTERS - ELEV, 


. 9070 FT 












YEAR 


1971 
















DAILY PRECIP ITATION - 


INCHES 














JAN 


Ftp 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




OAY 


























DAY 


I 


.15 


.00 


.O'. 


.n<, 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.53 


.05 


.00 


1 


2 


.O"! 


.01 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.12 


.23 


.00 


2 


3 


.00 


.28 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.07 


3 


't 


.00 


.01 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.C 


.00 


.03 


.36 


.00 


.00 


.05 


4 


5 


.00 


.25 


.28 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.01 


5 


6 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.09 


6 


7 


.07 


.07 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.62 


.00 


.00 


.06 


7 


a 


.10 


.15 


.06 


.00 


.15 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


8 


9 


.21 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.16 


. 16 


.03 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


9 


10 


.00 


.08 


.02 


.00 


• o*. 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


10 


u 


.00 


."VO 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.19 


11 


12 


.03 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


. 18 


12 


13 


.15 


.00 


. 16 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.15 


.21 


13 


1'. 


.15 


.00 


.06 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


14 


15 


.00 


.09 


.09 


. 10 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.15 


15 


lb 


.00 


.05 


. 16 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


16 


17 


.67 


.00 


.18 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.14 


.13 


.20 


.00 


17 


18 


.37 


.',0 


.00 


.05 


. 11 


.27 


.19 


.03 


.02 


.14 


.08 


.00 


18 


IS 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.33 


.0<. 


.00 


.29 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


19 


20 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.65 


.00 


.O-i 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


20 


21 


.00 


.05 


.00 


. 11 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.14 


.08 


.10 


.00 


21 


2? 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.26 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.25 


.00 


22 


23 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.16 


.23 


.00 


.00 


.29 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


23 


2'. 


.0'. 


.00 


.'.5 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


24 


25 


.00 


.29 


.12 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.00 


.on 


.00 


.20 


.06 


25 


26 


.00 


. l*. 


.00 


.33 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.18 


.05 


.37 


26 


27 


.00 


.00 


.15 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.12 


.45 


.29 


27 


28 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.03 


.lil 


.00 


.00 


.85 


.00 


.02 


.03 


.00 


28 


29 


.00 




.00 


.08 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.15 


.00 


.13 


.04 


.13 


29 


30 


.00 




.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.04 


.03 


.04 


.02 


.06 


30 


31 


.00 




.31 




.00 




.03 


.00 




.06 




.00 


31 


TOT 


2.29 


2.'.5 


2.19 


2.63 


1.99 


.73 


.96 


1.90 


1,50 


1.55 


1.91 


2.10 


TOT 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 22.20 INCHES 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. OPENING SITE 



CL IM&TOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.F.F., COLORACO FOOL CK .-H INDTOWER 



7 

e 

9 

IC 

u 

12 
13 
l« 
15 

16 
17 

le 
!<; 

2C 

21 
22 
23 



26 
27 
28 
29 
3C 



ELEV.-10,620 
JAN FEP MAR 



DAILY PRECIPITATION 
JUNE JULY 



INCHES 
AUG 



YE AR 


l<365 




NOV 


DEC 


DAY 


.00 


.00 


1 


.00 


.00 


2 


.00 


.00 


3 


.00 


.00 


<> 


.00 


.00 


5 


.00 


.00 


6 


.00 


.00 


7 


.00 


.00 


8 


.10 


.00 


9 


.00 


.22 


10 


.AO 


.33 


11 


.<.8 


.00 


12 


.17 


.09 


13 


.00 


.01 


1<. 


.20 


.00 


15 


.08 


.00 


16 


.07 


.on 


17 


.00 


.00 


18 


.00 


.06 


19 


.20 


.01 


20 


.15 


.00 


21 


.00 


.00 


22 


.30 


. 19 


23 


.00 


.00 


2* 


.65 


.00 


25 


. 11 


. 15 


26 


.13 


.00 


27 


.00 


.00 


28 


• 00 


.00 


29 


.00 


.33 


30 




.04 


31 


.c 


1.<.3 


TOT 



GAGE FIRST ESTABLISHED IN OCTOBER OF 1965. 



M = MISSING DATA 



CL IMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.E.F., COLORADO FCOL CK.-H INDTOWER 







ELEV.-IO 


620 
















YEAR 


1966 
















DAILY PRECIPITATION - 


INCHES 














JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




AY 


























DAY 




.23 


.CO 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.25 


.00 


.00 


.00 


I 




.05 


.05 


.01 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.05 


.31 


.00 


.00 


2 




.00 


.00 


.09 


. 16 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.05 


.42 


.00 


.00 


3 




.00 


• CO 


.11 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.05 


4 




.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.38 


5 


6 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.75 


6 


7 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.22 


7 


8 


.00 


.38 


.00 


.00 


.29 


.26 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.72 


.05 


8 


S 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.30 


. I 1 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.06 


9 


IC 


.CO 


.C 


.15 


.19 


.27 


.16 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


10 


11 


.18 


. lA 


.04 


.35 


.19 


.00 


.33 


.00 


. 16 


.07 


.00 


.00 


11 


12 


.09 


.00 


.08 


.11 


.25 


.00 


.00 


.2<i 


. 10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


12 


13 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.15 


.00 


.05 


.15 


.00 


.00 


13 


l*. 


.23 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.31 


.64 


.00 


.00 


14 


15 


.11 


.19 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


-CO 


.00 


.21 


.00 


.00 


.00 


15 


16 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


16 


17 


.00 


.00 


.31 


.12 


.00 


. 15 


.'.0 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


17 


18 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.26 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


18 


11 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.I'. 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.'t'l 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


19 


2C 


.05 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


. 10 


.00 


.11 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


20 


21 


.05 


.02 


.31 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.36 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


21 


22 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.27 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


22 


23 


.09 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


23 


2<. 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


24 


25 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.30 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.00 


.00 


25 


26 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.21 


.10 


.00 


• CO 


.00 


.82 


.00 


26 


27 


.00 


.0* 


.00 


.20 


.10 


.00 


.1 1 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


27 


26 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


28 


29 


.00 




.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


29 


30 


.00 




.00 


.00 


.00 


.<>8 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


30 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 20.59 INCHES 



FLEV.-10.620 
FtB f-AR 



CL IMATOLQG ICAL SUMMARY 
, COLORADO FCOL CK .-H 1 NDTGWER 



DAILY I'RECIP ITATION 
JUNE JULY 



INCHES 
AUG 



YEAR 1967 
NOV DEC 



11 
12 
13 
l". 
15 

16 
17 
18 
IS 
2C 

21 
22 
23 
2'i 
25 

26 
27 
28 

2<; 

30 



.12 
.12 
.11 
.00 
.31 

-CO 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.18 



.52 

.00 
.02 

.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.15 
.33 

.00 
.08 
.00 
.00 
.08 



.CO 
.00 
.00 
.08 

. lA 

.09 
.00 



.50 
.32 

. 11 

.38 
. 19 



.00 
.00 



.02 
.25 

.00 
.00 

.no 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.27 
.00 

.00 
.19 
.36 



.00 
.00 
.12 

.00 
.12 
.01 
.25 
.13 

.00 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.02 
. 36 
.00 



.00 
.00 



.09 
. 12 
. OA 
.00 
.16 

.02 
.00 
.00 
.27 
.^19 



.19 
.21 
.U'l 
.00 
.38 

. 16 

.05 
.00 



.02 
.00 
.09 
.16 
.11 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.22 
.06 

.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.05 

. lA 
.16 
. 13 
.02 
.02 



.00 
. 15 



.00 
.21 

.25 
. 16 
.03 
.33 



.03 
.00 
.00 

.09 

.08 
.13 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.08 
.00 

.Ci 
.10 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.16 

.01 
.00 



. 10 
.00 



. u 

.06 
.00 

.00 
.10 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.09 

1.C3 



.00 
.26 
.00 
.00 



.27 
.00 
.32 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 
.06 



.00 
.03 



.00 
.00 



.00 



.00 
.06 



.00 
.OA 



.01 
.03 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.03 
.00 
.02 
.00 



.00 

.00 

.19 

.03 
. 19 
. 17 



.CO 
.00 
.27 

.38 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.35 

.00 



.01 
.00 
.01 
.01 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.32 
.00 
.01 

.23 

.00 
.23 
.19 



.00 
1.7<. 



.07 
.75 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.06 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.32 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 

. 17 
.02 
.18 
.02 
.04 



.O'l 


11 


.28 


12 


.00 


13 


.00 


1'. 


.00 


15 


.09 


16 


.07 


17 


.11 


18 


. 19 


19 


.25 


20 


.13 


21 


.00 


22 


.00 


23 


.00 


2', 


.28 


25 


.50 


26 


.09 


27 


.12 


28 


.10 


29 


.25 


30 


.00 


31 


.28 


TOT 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 28.50 INCHES 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.E.F., COLORADO FOOL CK.-W 1 NDTOWER 







ELEV.-IO, 


,620 
















YEAR 1968 
















DAILY PBECIP 


ITATION - 


■ INCHES 














JAN 


FEB 


f.M) 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




AY 


























DAY 


1 


.13 


.06 


.00 


. 10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.05 


.02 


1 


2 


.26 


.03 


.00 


.20 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


2 


3 


.25 


.00 


.00 


.28 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.96 


.00 


.00 


.04 


3 


'i 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.20 


.00 


4 


5 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.25 


.54 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.00 


5 


t 


.12 


.03 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.CO 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


6 


7 


.00 


• CO 


.05 


.19 


.28 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.02 


.00 


.00 


7 


e 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.42 


.00 


.00 


8 


9 


.00 


.CO 


.04 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.48 


.00 


.00 


.68 


.00 


9 


ic 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.23 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.09 


.00 


10 


1 1 


.0<. 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.24 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.27 


11 


12 


.CO 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


.19 


12 


13 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.20 


. 10 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.08 


13 


I'l 


.CO 


.12 


.82 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.38 


. 10 


.00 


.14 


.00 


14 


15 


.00 


.21 


.11 


.02 


.45 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.46 


.20 


.03 


.00 


15 


16 


.00 


.03 


.04 


.02 


.28 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.17 


.19 


.55 


.00 


16 


17 


.00 


.CO 


. 12 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.02 


.11 


.19 


17 


18 


.00 


.21 


.04 


.02 


.13 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.04 


18 


19 


.00 


.05 


.12 


.40 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.15 


.00 


19 


20 


.00 


.A5 


.07 


.08 


.40 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


20 


21 


.00 


.10 


.02 


.16 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


21 


22 


.00 


.43 


.03 


.07 


.00 


.CO 


.05 


.00 


.CO 


.00 


.00 


.03 


22 


23 


.00 


.29 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.04 


.CO 


.00 


.16 


.00 


23 


24 


.00 


.30 


.00 


.02 


.12 


.14 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.00 


24 


25 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.37 


.00 


.00 


.16 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.22 


.07 


25 


26 


.00 


.CO 


.11 


.20 


.60 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.07 


26 


27 


.00 


.27 


.03 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.28 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


27 


28 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.no 


.00 


.00 


.28 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.11 


.04 


28 


29 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


29 


3C 


.00 




.04 


,00 


.07 


.00 


.34 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.04 


.36 


30 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 23.29 INCHES 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
, COLORADO FOOL CK .-WI NOTOWER 



<; 

IC 

1 1 
12 
13 
lA 
15 





ELtV.-lO 


620 


AN 


FEB 


►lAR 


00 


.12 


.23 


08 


. lA 


.03 


01 


.00 


.00 


03 


.00 


.00 


li 


.CO 


.08 


0? 


.03 


.u 


CO 


.03 


.00 


57 


.01 


.03 


02 


.00 


.01 


00 


.CO 


.00 


10 


.00 


.00 


CO 


.CO 


.02 


00 


.05 


.d 


C 


.C 


.00 



.00 

.1<. 

.03 



.01 

.00 



.00 
.00 
.'i8 



.00 
.01 
.02 
.02 
. 10 

.'•I 

.78 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.03 
.00 
.20 



DAILY PRECIPITATION 
JUNE JULY 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.33 
. 16 



.21 
.21 

.78 



.00 
.00 
.08 
.15 
.26 

.00 
.00 
.CO 
.00 
.00 



.23 
.12 

.05 



INCHES 
AUG 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 



.CO 
.00 
.00 
. 13 

.00 



.00 



.02 

.33 

1.0<) 

1.80 

.16 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.31 

.21 

.17 
.00 
.01 
.30 



YEAR 


1969 


NOV 


DEC 


.36 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.29 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.18 


.12 


.05 


.3? 


.00 


.17 


.00 



.00 
.00 



6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



16 
17 
18 
1? 
2C 



.CO 
.30 



.cu 

.CO 



. 19 
.2'. 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.05 
.00 
.00 

.00 



.76 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.57 

.05 
.00 



.C2 
.00 



.25 
.25 



.07 
.1 I 
.12 
.00 
.82 



.27 
.01 
.00 
.00 
.OA 



.00 
. 10 



.17 
. 16 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.17 



16 
17 
IB 



21 
21 
23 
2'i 
25 



.29 



.C9 
.00 
.00 
.03 



.00 
.00 
.05 



.00 
.05 

.00 



.00 
.15 
.05 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
. 15 



.02 
.00 
.00 
.CO 



.21 
.01 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.01 

.lA 

.01 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.02 
.36 
.22 
.60 
. 12 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



26 
27 
28 
29 

30 



.12 
.01 



.18 

.00 
.00 



.00 

.no 

.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.03 



.00 
.00 



.00 
.CO 
.00 
. 10 
.00 



.00 
.01 
. 15 
.71 
.03 



.00 
.00 
.01 
.00 
.2'. 



.00 
.00 
. 19 
.33 
. 10 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.'.3 
.3'. 

.02 
.00 



26 
27 
28 
29 

30 



.CC 
3.37 



.06 



.C 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 32.79 INCHES 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.E.F., COLORADO FOOL CK.-WI NOTOWER 



.03 
.03 
.05 
.03 
.06 

.00 
.06 
.00 
.03 
.10 



ELEV.-10,620 
FEB MAR 



.06 
. 12 
.11 

.82 
.00 

.00 
• CO 
.00 
.00 
.CO 



.00 
.15 
.16 



.02 
.00 
.00 
.17 
.03 



.03 
.24 
.30 
.00 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



DAILY PRECIPITATION 
JUNE JULY 



.07 .00 .00 

.00 .00 .00 

.00 .00 .02 

.00 .00 .lA 

.00 .00 .05 

.00 .00 .00 

.00 .05 .00 

.11 .00 .16 

.22 .10 .28 

.05 .15 .00 



INCHES 
AUG 



.00 
.03 
.20 
.02 
.05 



.11 

.00 
.00 



. 13 

.03 
.00 
.04 
.19 

. 18 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.02 

.06 
.59 
.00 
. 19 
1.56 



YEAR 


1970 


NOV 


DEC 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.41 


.00 


.42 


.00 


.00 


.02 



16 
17 

18 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



.00 
.00 
.00 

.28 
.30 
.07 
. 15 
.31 

. 19 
.37 



.00 
. 16 
.26 

.00 
.CC 

.CO 
. 37 
.05 



.CO 
.CO 
.00 
.08 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.20 
.16 
.26 

.00 
.26 
.20 
.00 
.00 

.15 
.08 
.00 
.65 
.17 

.11 

.00 
.03 
.08 
.00 

.13 



.00 
. 17 

.00 



.51 

.50 
.29 

.52 
.00 
.06 
.00 
.00 



.25 
.02 
.05 



.00 
.00 
.03 
.00 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.05 
.02 



. 14 

.16 

.03 



.20 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 



.00 
. 12 

.00 



.32 
.04 
.CO 
. 13 
.00 

.00 
.03 
.00 
.22 
.00 

.02 
.04 
.02 
.00 
.02 

.02 
.02 
. 12 

.00 



.00 
1.65 



.00 
.05 
.00 

.02 
.00 
.00 
.04 



.51 

.04 
.00 
.00 
.00 



. 12 

.00 
.00 
.00 

.00 

2.56 



.00 
.24 
.51 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.02 

.55 
.25 

.00 
.55 



.00 
.CO 
.CO 



.02 

.00 
.00 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 

.12 
.15 
.05 
.15 



.15 

.00 
.00 
.00 



.23 

.17 
.00 



.00 
.45 
.12 
.00 



.55 
. 15 

.08 
.00 

.50 
.08 
.00 
.00 



.03 


11 


.04 


12 


.00 


13 


.00 


14 


.22 


15 


.00 


15 


.03 


17 


.40 


18 


.00 


19 


.23 


20 


.00 


21 


.24 


22 


.04 


23 


. 19 


24 


.00 


25 


.00 


26 


.04 


27 


.15 


28 


.02 


29 


.29 


30 


.00 


31 


.56 


TOT 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 31.88 INCHES 



CL IMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
, CflLORAOa FOOL CK .-WINDTOWER 







ELEV.-IO, 


,620 
















YEAR 


1971 
















DAILY PRFCIPITATION - 


- INCHES 














JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




DAY 


























DAY 


1 


. 15 


.00 


.05 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.57 


.07 


.00 


1 


2 


.06 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


.12 


.31 


.00 


2 


3 


.00 


.A2 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.18 


.00 


.00 


.08 


3 


<• 


.00 


.09 


.15 


.08 


.03 


.07 


.00 


.04 


.52 


.00 


.00 


.04 


4 


5 


.00 


.3<. 


.33 


.00 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


.06 


5 


6 


.00 


.10 


.C 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.10 


6 


7 


.02 


.08 


.00 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.59 


.00 


.00 


.02 


7 


8 


.09 


.19 


.13 


.03 


.15 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


B 


9 


.30 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.31 


.16 


.00 


.25 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.08 


9 


10 


.03 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.14 


10 


11 


.00 


.'.5 


.00 


.00 


.11 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.25 


11 


12 


.Oi. 


.01 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.10 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


12 


13 


. 13 


.00 


.2<. 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.21 


.35 


13 


l*. 


.23 


.01 


.1'. 


.00 


.09 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


14 


15 


.00 


.12 


.20 


.11 


.08 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.21 


15 


16 


.00 


. 10 


.26 


.00 


.17 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.01 


16 


17 


.72 


.00 


.25 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.24 


.28 


.25 


.00 


17 


IB 


.51 


.61 


.03 


.03 


.25 


.27 


.18 


.02 


.00 


.18 


.09 


.00 


18 


19 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.43 


.06 


.00 


.27 


.25 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


19 


20 


.«.5 


.01 


.00 


.86 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


20 


21 


.00 


.06 


.02 


.15 


.00 


.00 


.28 


.00 


.12 


.09 


.18 


.00 


21 


22 


.0<. 


.00 


.03 


.21 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.28 


.06 


22 


23 


.07 


• CO 


.09 


.09 


.34 


.00 


.00 


.26 


.00 


.00 


.02 


.00 


23 


ZA 


.00 


.00 


.58 


.23 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.05 


24 


25 


.00 


.35 


.14 


.20 


.00 


.00 


.05 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.28 


.02 


25 


26 


.00 


.20 


.00 


.38 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.34 


.00 


.19 


.08 


.36 


26 


27 


.00 


.05 


.26 


.13 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.09 


.00 


.24 


.58 


.30 


27 


28 


.00 


.02 


.00 


.00 


.24 


.00 


.00 


.57 


.00 


.05 


.05 


.00 


28 


29 


.00 




.00 


.15 


.44 


.00 


.00 


.30 


.00 


.22 


.04 


.18 


29 


30 


.00 




.00 


.00 


.07 


.00 


.00 


.12 


.07 


.03 


.04 


.09 


30 


31 


.00 




.45 




.00 




.00 


.02 




.08 




.00 


31 


TOT 


2.8". 


3.<i8 


3.41 


3.30 


2.79 


.57 


1.07 


2.51 


1.91 


2.05 


2.58 


2.50 


TOT 



TOTAL PRECIPITATION = 29.01 INCHES 



26 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

DAILY TEMPERATURES IF) 

JAN FEB MAR APR HAY JUNE JULY AUG 

DAY MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX HIN 

1 M M M ".Z 31 6? 26 58 33 M M 

2 M M M '.9 21 50 25 62 27 M M 

3 M M M *4 22 58 26 M 26 M M 
I, H H M 51 2<. 60 24 M M M 

5 M M M 43 10 52 25 M M M 

6 M M M 32 -03 <.* 21 M M M 

7 M H M 38 18 59 19 M M M 

8 M M M 52 29 54 24 63M M M 

9 M M M 46 21 63 21 63 29 M M 

10 M M M 38 15 61 24 56 30 M H 

11 M M M 43 07 59 24 65 31 M M 

12 M M M 51 21 51 27 77M H M 

13 M M M 54 17 55 20 74 27 M M 

14 M M M 49 21 51 22 76 32 M M 

15 M M M 39 24 60 24 75 31 M M 

15 M M M 29 14 51 27 78 27 M M 

17 M M H 34 00 55 30 73 27 M M 

18 M M M 48 -03 64 27 53 20 M M 

19 M M M 47 14 67 27 60M M M 

20 M M H 47 17 64 22 58 28 M M 

21 M M M 58 15 59 25 51 27 M M 

22 M M M 50 21 70 27 M M M 

23 M M M 53 23 69 24 M M M 

24 M M M 44 19 55 25 M M M 

25 M M M 47 26 47 34 M H M 

25 M M » 54 23 51 29 M M M 

27 M M M 61 19 59 25 M M M 

28 M M M 53 21 68 28 M M M 

29 M M 50 21 70 30 M M M 

30 M H 55 25 68 32 M M M 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 63 -03 70 19 57 -13 

AVE 48 18 60 26 66 28 53 18 47 26 41 5 

DATA COLLECTED AT SNOW EVAPORATION SITE M = MISSING DATA 

CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1940 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (F) 
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 
DAY MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 











YEAR 1939 






SEPT 


OCl 




NOV 


DEC 




MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


HIN 


MAX 


MIN 


DAY 


n 




53 


24 


51 


18 


30 


24 


1 


M 




M 




47 


19 


43 


10 


2 


M 




M 




M 




45 


08 


3 


M 




M 




M 




47 


12 


4 


M 




50M 




M 




51 


07 


5 


M 




62 


20 


4 3M 




52 


07 


6 


M 




60 


19 


48 


15 


48 


09 


7 


H 




57 


27 


50 


13 


47 


11 


8 


M 




M 


15 


M 




53 


13 


9 


M 




46 


11 


42M 




50 


15 


10 


M 




51 


17 


47 


-02 


57 


13 


11 


M 




54 


19 


49 


07 


38 


04 


12 


M 




56 


19 


50 


09 


44 


03 


13 


M 




57 


19 


48 


11 


43 


04 


14 


M 




54 


20 


52 


07 


44 


06 


15 


M 




54 


21 


51M 




50 


16 


16 


M 




57 


22 


50M 




51 


14 


17 


M 




» 


19 


47M 




41 


22 


18 


M 




M 


15 


45M 




48 


-12 


19 


M 




M 




48M 




51 


01 


20 


M 




M 




48 


06 


39 


-07 


21 


M 




M 




50 


05 


40 


-13 


22 


M 




M 




51 


09 


37 


-06 


23 


54 


32 


M 




51 


07 


47 


-08 


24 


50 


35 


M 




50 


01 


33 


02 


25 


57 


31 


M 




40 


05 


20 


-06 


25 


66 


29 


M 




38 


14 


14 


-02 


27 


52 


28 


47M 




38 


05 


17 


-10 


28 


51 


26 


34 


04 


42 


05 


24 


-07 


29 


62 


21 


43M 




38 


02 


40 


-05 


30 



1 


36 


19 


41 


22 


36 


17 


53 


21 


52 


28 


75 


28 


65 


42 


80 


31 


78 


31 


48 


25 


48 


8 


42 


14 


1 


2 


34 


07 


39 


10 


44 


09 


33 


18 


63 


23 


75 


28 


63 


40 


80 


33 


73 


30 


58 


22 


55 


10 


43 


9 


2 


3 


34 


21 


34 


05 


34 


-03 


42 


18 


66 


22 


59 


31 


59 


35 


77 


34 


53 


37 


62 


22 


48 


15 


51 


4 


3 


4 


35 


15 


30 


05 


44 


-07 


48 


13 


65 


29 


70 


28 


70 


31 


78 


29 


67 


36 


58 


26 


34 


21 


47 


7 


4 


5 


36 


12 


25 


11 


46 


-02 


50 


16 


64 


31 


69 


34 


71 


32 


73 


37 


71 


31 


47 


28 


38 


-10 


47 





5 


6 


23 


11 


29 


11 


31 


08 


M 




64 


29 


51 


30 


78 


33 


57 


34 


68 


32 


47 


23 


45 


2 


40 


5 


6 


7 


19 


-16 


28 


10 


35 


09 


M 




59 


27 


64 


26 


76 


33 


57 


32 


74 


33 


61 


15 


45 


10 


45 


5 


7 


8 


31 


-16 


25 


07 


42 


03 


43M 




51 


28 


53 


25 


80 


33 


73 


29 


75 


35 


60 


21 


43 


12 


53 


4 


8 


9 


32 


02 


21 


13 


41 


17 


41 


25 


53 


25 


53 


22 


80 


33 


80 


29 


64 


41 


49 


30 


38 


19 


50 


22 


9 


10 


32 


19 


33 


15 


44 


17 


35 


18 


65 


26 


62 


22 


76 


34 


77 


36 


64 


34 


54 


23 


24 


7 


38 


5 


10 


U 


33 


-07 


29 


05 


39 


19 


32 


01 


54 


28 


59 


25 


75 


35 


75 


33 


70 


29 


52 


21 


11 


7 


27 


3 


11 


12 


29 


08 


18 


-05 


22 


-05 


47 


-06 


61 


28 


59 


29 


73 


32 


78 


30 


70 


29 


64 


22 


10 


5 


32 


-2 


12 


13 


17 


01 


25 


-05 


23 


-09 


55 


17 


52 


31 


73 


30 


76 


35 


82 


28 


57 


35 


65 


23 


14 


-23 


22 


-9 


13 


14 


21 


-18 


36 


-07 


38 


-05 


56 


19 


58 


24 


75 


30 


78 


32 


84 


32 


62 


30 


58 


24 


30 


-21 


16 


-22 


14 


15 


29 


-21 


23 


01 


46 


-07 


52 


25 


53 


28 


71 


33 


73 


34 


77 


36 


63 


30 


51 


19 


39 


-15 


19 


-17 


15 


16 


35 


-15 


23 


-11 


49 


-02 


41 


18 


60 


33 


72 


31 


75 


40 


74 


34 


65 


29 


64 


22 


46 


-4 


21 


-19 


16 


17 


29 


18 


31 


-18 


37 


08 


42 


19 


49 


32 


80 


31 


72 


43 


78 


31 


63 


35 


65 


21 


47 


5 


28 


14 


17 


18 


22 


-35 


27 


-05 


38 


11 


52 


15 


51 


28 


80 


32 


55 


37 


80 


31 


56 


36 


63 


23 


39 


5 


32 


-3 


18 


19 


20 


-36 


28 


04 


40 


10 


57 


23 


58 


21 


79 


33 


70 


38 


70 


35 


51 


37 


66 


21 


30 


4 


35 


-7 


19 


20 


16 


-01 


29 


01 


40 


22 


55 


24 


54 


27 


80 


34 


77 


45 


68 


39 


64 


34 


65 


20 


32 


-5 


34 


-2 


20 


21 


19 


-31 


35 


-03 


45 


14 


53 


18 


42 


29 


73 


32 


77 


38 


55 


31 


55 


34 


64 


21 


38 


-9 


42 


-3 


21 


22 


20 


-35 


41 


-01 


48 


10 


41 


20 


51 


23 


74 


32 


81 


37 


59 


32 


59 


37 


51 


19 


36 


-9 


48 





22 


23 


27 


-16 


35 


09 


47 


09 


55 


15 


56 


24 


70 


32 


82 


39 


74 


32 


57 


41 


56 


24 


40 


-13 


44 


-1 


23 


24 


26 


07 


38 


15 


49 


12 


45 


25 


58 


29 


72 


25 


83 


37 


66 


39 


58M 




60 


21 


48 


-5 


41 


5 


24 


25 


25 


18 


42 


02 


53 


14 


48 


29 


57 


28 


77 


29 


84 


39 


59 


42 


57 


28 


51 


23 


37 


-1 


33 


8 


25 



28 


38 


-03 


57 


16 


35 


24 


39 


25 


64 


27 


76 


33 


70 


40 


56 


29 


54 


30 


33 


20 


38 


12 


34 


-1 


28 


29 


44 


-03 


54 


a 


38 


25 


40 


28 


62 


30 


79 


29 


73 


35 


71 


30 


56 


32 


47 


11 


46 


18 


31 


2 


29 


30 


41 


00 






51 


19 


79 


23 


68 


27 


59 


39 


75 


34 


73 


29 


47 


28 


35 


18 


36 


21 


32 


17 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 44 -35 57 -18 53 -09 79 -06 74 21 80 22 84 31 84 28 78 28 66 11 55 -23 53 -22 

AVE 29 -2 33 5 41 10 48 19 59 28 71 30 74 35 73 33 63 33 55 22 37 2 36 2 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 84, AVERAGE MAXIMUM < 52, MINIMUM = -36, AVERAGE MINIMUM = IB 

DATA COLLECTED AT SNOW EVAPORATION SITE M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMiTOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 









HEADQUARTERS 


- ELEV 


. 9070 FT 


























YEAR 1941 




























DAILY TEMPERATURES 


(F) 
























JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




DAY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


HIN 


MAX 


MI** 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


ilN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


DAY 


I 


28 


-15 


41 


-8 


53 


-2 


50 


19 


58 


25 


54 


34 


65 


36 


78 


36 


72 


29 


54 


21 


41 


6 


35 


5 


1 


2 


28 


-15 


42 


-10 


36 


12 


35 


23 


59 


28 


62 


24 


59 


30 


79 


32 


76 


28 


58 


22 


33 


12 


48 




2 


3 


28 


-21 


42 


-15 


35 


19 


41 


25 


51 


31 


51 


27 


72 


30 


80 


33 


73 


28 


66 


2b 


45 


23 


49 




3 


<» 


30 


-20 


45 


-8 


44 


-6 


45 


22 


46 


22 


60 


31 


79 


33 


80 


33 


60 


30 


M 


32 


37 


13 


25 


17 


4 


5 


21 


-19 


46 


-6 


38 


-3 


54 


12 


47 


32 


61 


29 


78 


32 


83 


37 


72 


25 


59 


* 


34 


3 


27 


-7 


5 


6 


30 


-2 


44 


-5 


34 


18 


35 


20 


40 


31 


57 


28 


75 


32 


78 


38 


72 


28 


32 


22* 


37 


4 


42 


-13 


6 


7 


30 


-14 


44 


-15 


33 


-1 


38 


20 


45 


25 


60 


33 


77 


32 


74 


38 


57 


37 


50 


12 


42 


9 


38 


-13 


7 


8 


38 


-12 


39 


-13 


43 


-10 


39 


11 


60 


28 


56 


35 


74 


34 


74 


34 


36 


30 


56 


20 


44 


-4 


43 


-8 


8 


9 


'I'l 


-4 


38 


-05 


20 


17 


49 


10 


58 


27 


43 


30 


76 


32 


76 


34 


51 


14 


50 


22 


49 


3 


47 


-8 


9 


10 


't6 


-7 


37 


14 


19 


-12 


49 


16 


65 


26 


48 


31 


73 


34 


70 


35 


68 


24 


60 


15 


50 


3 


40 




10 


11 


<.5 


-8 


46 


-03 


21 


2 


52 


12 


55 


25 


50 


32 


73 


30 


70 


42 


73 


27 


65 


20 


52 


1 


35 




11 


12 


'.2 


-5 


33 


17 


26 


-21 


56 


20 


71 


28 


50 


34 


66 


42 


67 


46 


66 


30 


66 


23 


50 


2 


34 


-3 


12 


13 


<.2 


10 


37 


18 


32 


-6 


36 


24 


59 


29 


62 


29 


59 


31 


72 


37 


55 


27 


M 


35 


47 


4 


29 




13 


14 


36 


-05 


36 


00 


32 


14 


42 


17 


52 


26 


66 


29 


70 


30 


74 


36 


57 


32 


M 




50 


7 


32 


14 


14 


15 


22 


-01 


40 


07 


39 


12 


42 


14 


60 


26 


65 


28 


72 


32 


68 


39 


57 


28 


M 




56 


10 


36 




15 


16 


22 


5 


33 


15 


40 


-7 


50 


9 


50 


24 


61 


30 


73 


31 


65 


43 


59 


25 


M 




58 


11 


46 




15 


17 


21 


6 


41 


-07 


49 


-2 


40 


10 


68 


26 


68 


30 


74 


35 


66 


40 


68 


27 


M 




51 


17 


43 




17 


18 


25 


-12 


40 


-01 


48 


4 


36 


18 


64 


28 


75 


31 


75 


33 


54 


38 


52 


30 


M 




32 


20 


34 




18 


19 


41 


-5 


41 


16 


51 


9 


31 


13 


52 


26 


76 


30 


75 


35 


68 


34 


73 


28 


M 




24 


-2 


43 


-6 


19 


20 


38 


-02 


41 


-06 


48 


" 


39 


11 


52 


24 


76 


29 


68 


42 


65 


35 


71 


27 


65 


* 


23 


-4 


49 


-2 


20 


21 


32 


00 


37 


-08 


48 


20 


45 


-3 


61 


24 


76 


32 


73 


34 


55 


30 


68 


27 


59 


25» 


33 


-14 


40 


-2 


21 


22 


25 


03 


38 


12 


47 


17 


43 


10 


53 


27 


74 


39 


79 


35 


66 


30 


56 


35 


51 


28 


18 


-14 


22 


-12 


22 


23 


25 


08 


42 


-06 


44 


18 


50 


13 


50 


25 


77 


31 


83 


36 


67 


28 


45 


33 


46 


29 


26 


-20 


30 


-11 


23 


2'. 


31 


-13 


39 


11 


45 


16 


47 


13 


52 


27 


72 


32 


80 


34 


68 


28 


45 


30 


57 


21 


35 


-19 


30 


-9 


24 


25 


30 


6 


33 


10 


38 


22 


52 


14 


58 


35 


72 


36 


74 


38 


58 


31 


55 


31 


46 


25 


45 


-13 


18 


8 


25 


26 


32 


-11 


30 


-07 


38 


20 


54 


IB 


50 


30 


72 


29 


75 


37 


70 


36 


63 


22 


38 


27 


45 


1 


23 


-19 


26 


27 


39 


-4 


39 


-19 


44 


4 


42 


30 


59 


30 


73 


31 


58 


43 


73 


30 


51 


35 


45 


14 


50 





24 


-20 


27 


28 


46 


-11 


51 


-8 


48 


10 


44 


32 


61 


29 


66 


30 


75 


36 


76 


28 


52 


24 


35 


15 


49 





36 


-14 


28 


29 


40 


-5 






43 


12 


48 


32 


61 


28 


58 


24 


71 


38 


63 


33 


48 


28 


41 


15 


49 


2 


36 


-3 


29 


30 


38 


10 






40 


24 


55 


23 


56 


30 


71 


26 


74 


32 


70 


31 


57 


23 


34 


25 


48 


3 


33 





30 


31 


37 


18 






54 


6 






65 


32 






77 


32 


74 


28 






39 









34 


-4 


31 


M'iNTHLY 




















































EXTREMES 


46 


-21 


51 


-19 


54 


-21 


56 


-3 


71 


22 


77 


24 


83 


30 


83 


28 


75 


14 


66 





58 


-20 


49 


-20 




AVE 


33 


-5 


40 


-1 


40 


7 


45 


17 


59 


28 


64 


31 


74 


34 


71 


35 


52 


28 


51 


21 


42 


2 


35 


-3 


AV 



-21. AVERAGE MINIMUM = 16 

DATA COLLECTED AT SNOW EVAPORATION SITE ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 8 AM OBSERV . -MAX .TEMP . SET BACK ONE DAY 

•MAXIMUM AND/OR MINIMUM TEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION M = MISSING DATA 

CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 









HEADQUARTERS 


- ELEV 


. 9070 FT 


























YEAR 1942 




























DAILY TEMPERATURES 


IF) 
























JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




Y 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


DAY 


1 


15 


-1 


24 


-20 


35 


-10 


50 


-4 


50 


19 


71 


24 


63 


27 


74 


36 


70 


35 


71 


22 


43 


28 


30 


8 


1 


2 


17 


-22 


40 


-11 


45 


-10 


52 


17 


40 


27 


71 


26 


54 


28 


71 


38 


74 


29 


65 


24 


50 


30 


30 


9 


2 


3 


11 


-1 


44 


-4 


41 


-5 


56 


10 


47 


24 


72 


32 


72 


27 


74 


35 


80 


27 


50 


20 


58 


19 


15 


8 


3 


4 


4 


-28 


39 


1 


31 


-7 


53 


20 


55 


21 


54 


30 


75 


30 


77 


29 


62 


34 


60 


19 


34 


19 


25 


-10 


4 


5 


7 


-27 


24 


17 


44 


-9 


45 


20 


43 


22 


68 


27 


79 


30 


73 


32 


62 


30 


70 


19 


42 


-4 


21 


-10 


5 


6 


30 


-25 


32 


-8 


31 


22 


46 


14 


51 


10 


71 


28 


79 


33 


73 


34 


65 


28 


70 


20 


44 


6 


23 


-13 


6 


7 


34 


12 


32 


21 


20 


23 


42 


22 


56 


16 


55 


30 


78 


36 


75 


30 


69 


25 


68 


21 


52 


8 


23 


-19 


7 


8 


28 


15 


32 


11 


36 


7 


49 


8 


58 


21 


65 


30 


78 


34 


76 


30 


71 


24 


69 


24 


54 


10 


31 


-B 


8 


9 


24 


15 


29 





40 


9 


52 


17 


62 


22 


59 


30 


77 


40 


77 


34 


74 


27 


70 


21 


31 


19 


23 


-9 


9 





25 


14 


31 


-13 


35 


24 


57 


15 


61 


25 


72 


29 


69 


34 


78 


33 


63 


29 


70 


22 


38 


-8 


26 


15 


10 



13 


45 


-9 


23 -13 


42 


7 


55 


20 


40 


22 


51 


28 


82 


34 


72 


33 


53 


27 


53 


32 


52 


-1 


42 


-8 


13 


14 


43 


-14 


33 -2 


26 


10 


62 


20 


43 


19 


56 


27 


80 


40 


72 


31 


63 


24 


51 


25 


52 


2 


40 


-4 


14 


15 


42 


-16 


18 -11 


39 


-9 


52 


20 


52 


18 


51 


28 


74 


34 


71 


30 


69 


25 


40 


28 


57 


13 


36 


2 


15 


16 


39 


-12 


13 -26 


28 


13 


55 


16 


46 


25 


68 


32 


71 


34 


74 


28 


71 


25 


42 


29 


23 


16 


43 


2 


16 


17 


25 


-5 


2 -6 


26 


2 


52 


28 


41 


23 


74 


30 


70 


36 


74 


28 


68 


32 


44 


29 


42 


-2 


51 


3 


17 


18 


33 


3 


M-42 


29 


2 


34 


30 


50 


20 


71 


34 


68 


41 


72 


28 


55 


35 


60 


15 


59 


11 


44 


2 


18 


19 


34 


-15 


28 -34* 


30 


20 


45 


27 


47 


23 


72 


34 


70 


34 


73 


28 


50 


14 


64 


14 


54 


10 


42 


4 


19 


20 


37 


-18 


37 -20 


22 


-06 


55 


14 


54 


30 


68 


29 


70 


32 


68 


32 


65 


14 


57 


15 


38 


14 


46 


2 


20 


21 


44 


-15 


40 -14 


38 


-17 


55 


17 


60 


29 


68 


25 


72 


30 


74 


29 


52 


18 


57 


17 


31 


-2 


26 





21 


22 


44 


-14 


30 -2 


49 


-15 


50 


20 


56 


25 


68 


25 


75 


30 


71 


33 


52 


22 


45 


37 


38 


-8 


37 


-10 


22 


23 


33 


-5 


22 4 


48 


-2 


49 


30 


65 


28 


73 


26 


72 


30 


76 


32 


64 


23 


35 


25 


42 


6 


30 


6 


23 


24 


31 


-8 


34 -23 


44 


7 


42 


22 


56 


25 


72 


27 


70 


32 


65 


37 


65 


21 


42 


5 


50 


8 


40 


6 


24 


25 


37 


-2 


30 -8 


34 


23 


43 


22 


72 


27 


79 


26 


73 


30 


68 


40 


62 


30 


48 


8 


23 


12 


28 


2 


25 



28 


43 





29 


36 


7 


30 


25 


2 



36 


-14 


53 


18 


58 


23 


61 


27 


76 


37 


74 


28 


71 


24 


50 


20 


28 


19 


40 





28 


38 


-9 


51 


18 


55 


26 


70 


25 


72 


40 


78 


31 


72 


25 


38 


25 


31 


-11 


35 


14 


29 


41 


-9 


37 


25 


65 


24 


62 


31 


78 


33 


75 


29 


71 


24 


25 


13 


28 





37 


-15 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 46 -28 44 -42 49 -17 62 -4 76 10 79 24 82 27 80 28 80 13 71 5 59 -16 51 -19 

AVE 31 -5 29 -9 35 2 50 19 56 24 67 29 74 33 73 32 66 26 55 20 41 7 33 AVE 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 82, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 51, MINIMUM = -42, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 15 

DATA COLLECTED AT SNOW EVAPORATION SITE (JAN.l - OCT. 18) DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE (OCT. 19 - DEC. 31) 

ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 8 AM OBSERV .-MAX. TEMP. SET BACK ONE DAY *MAXIMUM AND/OR MINIMUM TEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 
M = MISSING DATA 

28 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 









HEAD0UART6RS 


- ELEV 


. 9070 FT 


























YEAR 1943 
























DAILY TEMPERATURES 


IF) 




















JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


AY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX MIN 


1 


<.3 


-2 


35 


-18 


28 


7 


53 


7 


66 


26 


64 


29 


73 


33 


74 


38 


72 


25 


54 


25 


36 


13 


32 -6 


2 


43 


-2 


38 


-10 


15 


-14 


59 


16 


66 


26 


44 


32 


71 


29 


66 


44 


74 


26 


66 


24 


44 


-6 


32 13 


3 


26 


8 


19 


10 


38 


-30 


60 


15 


68 


24 


43 


19 


69 


32 


74 


37 


55 


30 


58 


22 


50 


00 


25 -7 


'. 


34 


-16 


24 


-21 


32 


-8 


61 


17 


53 


28 


61 


28 


71 


28 


73 


34 


70 


21 


69 


21 


45 


14 


45 -7 


5 


38 


-13 


15 


10 


31 


17 


64 


18 


42 


29 


62 


28 


75 


30 


77 


35 


56 


25 


59 


21 


48 


18 


43 00 


6 


21 


9 


38 


-14 


28 


-28 


57 


22 


38 


30 


67 


25 


79 


30 


78 


39 


65 


25 


59 


18 


24 


8 


38 8 


7 


27 


-14 


49 


-5 


34 


1 


47 


28 


42 


25 


58 


24 


75 


33 


74 


35 


70 


24 


55 


14 


18 


10 


32 21 


8 


31 


-9 


50 


-1 


40 


16 


47 


28 


47 


19 


69 


25 


76 


35 


63 


36 


57 


23 


56 


14 


33 


-11 


30 10 


9 


31 


-5 


32 


16 


32 


27 


53 


13 


46 


16 


73 


25 


76 


30 


75 


35 


65 


21 


67 


15 


46 


3 


M 6 


10 


40 


-7 


17 


-2 


42 


-14 


45 


16 


55 


16 


55 


26 


80 


30 


77 


36 


71 


25 


64 


17 


49 


1 


M 


11 


38 


-9 


29 


-1 


42 


1 


42 


2 


52 


24 


52 


30 


82 


31 


70 


39 


72 


25 


55 


22 


54 


10 


M 


12 


33 


-14 


34 


U 


44 


-1 


51 


15 


50 


24 


62 


27 


82 


31 


72 


38 


75 


26 


37 


28 


52 


12 


M 


13 


38 


-7 


44 


-1 


51 


00 


52 


17 


50 


20 


65 


29 


75 


32 


80 


34 


74 


26 


51 


10 


49 


13 


M 


l-. 


34 


25 


49 


-3 


48 


17 


55 


16 


55 


24 


57 


25 


76 


32 


82 


36 


72 


25 


51 


27 


48 


10 


M 


15 


43 


28 


48 


-7 


IB 


16 


58 


15 


46 


27 


56 


28 


74 


43 


80 


36 


73 


25 


59 


15 


44 


9 


M 


16 


32 


10 


49 


-5 


18 


02 


56 


21 


52 


15 


51 


25 


72 


29 


51 


44 


74 


23 


52 


18 


48 


6 


M 


17 


19 


7 


52 


-6 


27 


11 


54 


20 


44 


14 


72 


24 


76 


28 


58 


40 


70 


28 


67 


22 


52 


5 


M 


18 


-2 


-11 


51 


-7 


28 


15 


52 


22 


48 


24 


76 


25 


78 


28 


63 


43 


70 


28 


57 


20 


37 


15 


M 


19 


26 


-35 


48 


-4 


26 


-20 


60 


17 


44 


26 


76 


25 


80 


32 


68 


38 


60 


27 


46 


25 


51 


13 


M 


20 


39 


3 


44 


25 


30 


-7 


56 


22 


56 


16 


79 


30 


78 


34 


74 


32 


68 


21 


31 


15 


47 


14 


M 


21 


49 


20 


54 


00 


38 


-24 


62 


25 


50 


24 


82 


30 


79 


38 


78 


32 


70 


24 


43 


4 


51 


10 


M 


22 


44 


31 


42 


10 


43 


-8 


57 


26 


60 


24 


81 


34 


73 


38 


75 


34 


71 


25 


40 


15 


52 


20 


M 


23 


38 


14 


40 


13 


46 


15 


64 


24 


48 


30 


80 


31 


79 


36 


78 


36 


74 


26 


37 


11 


44 


19 


M 


24 


27 


18 


42 


12 


50 


4 


53 


24 


53 


30 


80 


34 


79 


37 


73 


36 


72 


26 


49 


7 


39 


20 


M 


25 


26 


-10 


37 


17 


37 


2 


50 


29 


58 


23 


80 


38 


82 


34 


68 


39 


72 


24 


57 


14 


32 


20 


M 


26 


31 


-21 


42 


-14 


51 


1 


51 


24 


52 


26 


75 


33 


86 


34 


73 


35 


71 


26 


61 


19 


27 


-12 


M 


27 


27 


-14 


45 


-10 


51 


24 


58 


16 


69 


25 


76 


34 


84 


36 


76 


32 


71 


26 


59 


17 


39 


-13 


M 


28 


25 


-4 


38 


-4 


60 


14 


65 


24 


72 


28 


75 


32 


84 


35 


78 


31 


68 


25 


55 


22 


32 


-5 


H 


29 


21 


8 






64 


18 


62 


26 


59 


34 


70 


32 


90 


42 


73 


35 


60 


28 


45 


24 


42 


-10 


M 


30 


28 


4 






57 


18 


59 


31 


59 


35 


69 


35 


81 


44 


55 


37 


55 


28 


38 


24 


44 


-8 


M 



11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



54 -21 64 -30 59 2 72 14 82 19 85 28 82 28 75 21 59 4 54 -13 

39 -0 38 2 56 20 55 25 68 29 78 34 73 36 59 25 55 18 43 7 35 4 AVE 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 86, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 55, MINIMUM = -35, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 18 

DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 8 AM OBSERV. -MAX . TEMP . SET BACK ONE DAY 
H = HISSING DATA 

CLIMATQLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 

HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1944 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (Fl 

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

DAY MAX MIN MAX MIM MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 

1 M M H M M 64 28» 80 30 81 30» 76 26 M M M 1 

2 M M M M M 58 28 72 33 82 33 72 24 M M M 2 

3 M M M M M 50 30 73 36 81 33 78 24 M M M 3 

4 M M M M M 43 31 78 35 82 25 72 25 57 23* M M 4 

5 M M M M M 57 34 75 32 78 28 72 25 19» M M 5 

5 H H M M M 66 27 74 32 78 35 76 24 M M M 5 

7 M M M M M 50 30 76 28 84 30 74 24 M M M 7 

8 M M M M M 66 32 77 31 88 34 74 24 M M M 8 

9 M M M M M 72 29 78 34 74 44 70 25 M M M 9 

10 M M M M M 73 27 76 40 80 34 64 28 67 » 56 04» M 10 

11 M M M M M 69 29 72 31 79 27 70 18 18« 54 08 M 11 

12 M M M M M 60 26 72 30 79 28 72 20 M M 07 M 12 

13 M M M 56 » M 58 25 76 28 80 26 71 25 M 54 • M 13 

14 M M M -11» M 70 25 78 30 83 31 74 25 M 13» M 14 



MONTHLY 






EXTREMES 


49 


-35 


AVE 


32 


-1 



54 


08 


M 


07 


54 


• 




13» 


34 


* 


42 


-03« 


M 


05 



15 M M M M M 76 25 58 31 75 39 62 31 M 34 • M 15 

16 M M M M M 74 24 75 31 72 30 72 14 M 42 -03« M 15 

17 M M M M M 64 33 79 30 82 29 76 24 M M 05 M 17 

18 M M M M M 71 22 79 31 73 35 74 25 55 • M M 18 

19 M M M H M 78 25 71 34 55 37 57 26 13* M M 19 

20 M M M M M 90 26 56 34 73 36 69 24 M M M 20 

21 M H 50 -24» M M 73 28 72 30 74 30 79 23 M M M 21 

22 M M 32 -05» M M 73 26 74 29 74 31 71 34 50 • M M 22 

23 H M M M M 90 24 75 33 80 32 70 20 55 12» M M 23 

24 M M M M M 79 30 64 42 76 42 70 21 M 16 M M 24 

25 M M M M M 78 32 69 30 70 38 68 22 M M M 25 

26 M M H M M 62 34 75 28 58 27 70 28 54 » M M 26 

27 M M 43 -12* M M 55 25 74 28 72 25 59 22 60 14» M M 27 

28 M M M 55 00* 70 » 77 34 79 27 75 26 M 20 M 14 M M 28 

29 M M 26 • M -04« 76 30 75 30 58 32 M M M M 29 

30 M 17* M M 78 30 81 32 56 25 M M M M 30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 

AVE 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 88 

DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 8 AM OBSERV . -MAX . T EMP . SET BACK DNE DAY 

♦MAXIMUM AND/OR MINIMUM TEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION M = HISSING DATA 



80 


22 


81 


27 


88 


24 


79 


14 


59 


28 


75 


32 


75 


32 


72 


24 



M 


11 


M 


12 


H 


13 


M 


14 


M 


15 


M 


16 


M 


17 


H 


18 


M 


19 


K 


20 


M 


21 


H 


22 


M 


23 


M 


2', 


M 


25 


M 


26 


M 


27 


H 


28 


M 


29 


M 


30 



CLIMATOLO&ICAL SUMMARY 

FR4SER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO NO TEMPERATURE DATA COLLECTED IS^S, igllt 

HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1947 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (F) 

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

BAY MAX MINI MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX HIN MAX MIN DAY 

1 M M M M 52 31 52 27 70 2b 74 35 76 35 M M M 1 

2 M M M M 64 26 58 26 74 32 75 36 76 31 M M M 2 

3 H M M M 66 28 58 26 74 35 76 33 69 36 M M M 3 
t, M M H 33M 67 26 50 27 72 34 69 38 74 33 M M M 4 

5 M M M 24 09 61 26 54 26 74 32 64 38 70 32 M M M 5 

6 M M M 36 -1 58 27 60 29 74 33 73 36 66 34 M H M 6 

7 H M M 37 05 62 26 72 27 69 36 74 36 70 30 M M M 7 

8 M M M 47 -2 65 28 69 31 71 36 70 38 61 34 M M M 8 

9 M M M 50 23 62 26 60 26 64 39 74 41 58 37 M H M 9 
10 M M H 35 21 52 30 51 23 68 34 66 43 47 31 M M M 10 

n H M M 33 21 42 27 42 28 79 33 66 39 40 26 M M 

12 M M M 39 03 44 28 36 26 78 30 64 36 54 22 M M 

13 M M M 50 05 55 26 54 13 76 35 67 36 64 25 M M 
1/, M H M 55 12 58 22 60 22 70 35 64 34 54 22 M M 

15 H M M 44 20 48 29 65 26 74 38 64 32 60 17 M M 

16 M H M 40 08 48 28 68 26 56 41 50 34 66 26 M M 

17 M M M 51 08 49 25 68 28 65 38 58 38 67 28 M M 

18 M M M 44 24 55 25 57 33 68 34 57 36 67 32 H M 

19 M M M 43 20 52 25 69 28 73 31 68 33 65 30 M M 

20 M M M 56 14 52 27 68 36 70 33 68 34 60 26 M M 

21 M M M 57 20 53 26 46 31 61 34 66 36 67 21 M M 

22 M M M 55 18 61 30 44 30 58 35 52 38 70 28 M M 

23 M H M 42 20 53 26 54 30 58 40 66 35 69 27 M M 

24 M M M 45 17 49 24 58 27 73 31 57 36 58 28 M M 

25 M M M 44 09 56 26 52 27 75 32 56 30 65 26 M H 

26 M M M 51 08 50 26 64 30 77 34 59 30 68 28 M M 

27 M M M 42 20 57 25 70 34 76 36 69 33 56 28 M M 

28 M H M 40 18 38 27 72 28 78 37 70 35 66 24 M M 

29 M M 45 23 44 25 70 29 75 37 70 33 61 26 M H 

30 M M 47 22 60 23 55 29 74 36 70 38 M M M 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 57 -2 67 22 72 13 79 25 76 30 75 17 

AVE 44 14 54 26 59 28 71 35 58 35 54 28 AV( 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 79 

DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 

CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 

ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 

HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1948 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (Fl 

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

DAY MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX HIN MAX HIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 

1 M M M M 45 21 67 29 72 34 74 32 74 34 55 27 M M 1 

2 M M M 50 -3 41 19 72 31 66 35 75 33 77 31 60 23 H M 2 

3 M M M 50 15 43 19 66 28 66 33 71 30 77 31 66M M M 3 

4 H M M 37 14 46 17 58 25 74 34 58 35 80 29 M M M 4 

5 M M M 49 11 40 17 70 25 73 37 51 45 74 32 n M M 5 

5 M M M 45 14 56 11 72 27 71 35 52 36 65 28 M M M 5 

7 M M M 30 20 61 23 72 34 72 34 69 32 59 24 M M M 7 

8 M M M 45 8 55 25 66 34 74 31 57 33 64 19 M M M 8 

9 M M M 50 19 31 13 69 33 75 30 68 32 56 23 H M M 9 

10 M M M 49 21 42 6 74 31 70 35 73 32 59 22 M M M 10 

11 M M M 25 15 40 15 62 39 74 31 73 32 71 23 M M M U 

12 M M M 31 8 40 17 68 40 78 34 74 32 74 25 M M M 12 

13 M M M 44-5 60 18 72 32 78 34 69 36 77 25 M M M 13 

14 M M H 50 11 52 25 74 28 72 34 73 28 76 26 M M M 14 

15 M M M 51 24 51 24 72 29 72 30 75 29 73 28 M M M 15 

16 M M M 56 20 65 22 78 28 71 30 77 34 65 32 H M M 16 

17 M M M 51 22 69 24 72 28 75 32 78 34 57 31 M M M 17 

18 M M M 59 23 67 28 74 25 69 34 75 35 71 30 M M M 18 

19 M M M 44 25 53 30 66 32 73 34 74 35 59 38 M M M 19 

20 M M M M 59 28 57 33 70 37 78 35 56 26 M M M 20 

21 M H M 54M 68 27 52 35 64 34 78 30 70 25 M M M 21 

22 M M M 56M 58 25 47 35 72 31 76 36 59 26 M M M 22 

23 M M M 47M 64 24 52 34 78 32 71 34 71 23 M M M 23 

24 M H M 30 25 62 27 58 31 58 41 74 31 78 25 M M M 24 

25 M M M 36 19 58 27 62 31 M 39 60 40 74 26 M M M 25 

26 H M M 38H 58 24 54 36 73 34 61 33 57 35 M M M 26 

27 M M M 60 21 58 27 56 31 74 36 73 29 64 31 M M H 27 

28 M M M 54 22 58 29 63 30 62 40 77 30 67 30 M M M 28 

29 M M M 63 25 64 28 55 30 64 35 80 32 57 27 M M M 29 
50 M M 54 21 69 25 70 29 70 31 79 31 46 32 M M M 30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 6<, 

AVE ..7 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 80 
DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 



69 


6 


78 


25 


78 


30 


80 


28 


80 


19 


57 


22 


65 


31 


71 


34 


72 


33 


69 


28 



30 



JAN 
MAX MIN 



CLIMATOLD&ICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



HEAUOUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 



FEB 
MAX MIN 



MAR 
MAX MTN 



APR 
MAX MIN 



MAY 

MAX MIN 



DAILY TEMPERATURES (Fl 
JUNE JULY AUG 
MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



SEPT 
MAX MIN 



OCT 

MAX MIN 



YEAR 19<.9 



NOV 
MAX MIN 



DEC 

MAX MIN 



*0 0* 
27 09 
29 02 
37 -06 
42 0* 



10 
20 
24 



25 
25 
28 
34 
30 



74 
74 
74 
68 



74 
76 



30 
33 
33 
28 

30 



46 
53 

37 
40 
33 



38 
43 

44 
54 
56 



34 
32 
35 
38 
31 



70 
61 
68 
72 
61 



74 
76 
71 
56 



73 
70 
70 
63 



11 
12 
13 



49 
53 
34 
30 
42 



04 
12 
19 
08 
01 



50 
54 
43 
59 

60 



26 

30 
29 
25 
35 



28 
37 
34 
30 
28 



38 
36 
37 
38 
36 



69 
67 
67 
72 



62 
62 
57 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



18 
19 

20 



06 
16 
17 
14 
19 



32 
28 
26 
24 
22 



71 
71 
55 

70 
70 



43 

40 



72 
64 
67 
72 
72 



72 
67 



74 
70 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



46 23 

50 24 

60 21 

M 21 

57 22 



31 
27 
29 
27 
26 



72 
73 



72 
76 
71 
69 
68 



75 
78 
74 

73 
70 



27 
25 
28 
33 
28 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



49 28 



27 

28 
29 

30 



61 -32» 
31 05 
25 04 



50 
56 
57 
32 



54 
57 
63 
63 



37 
32 

30 



73 

74 
72 
75 



72 
68 
70 
70 



66 27 

67 27 
M 35 



27 
28 
29 
30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



50 -06 
45 15 



55 10 
53 25 



75 25 
62 32 



75 32 

71 38 



78 26 
70 34 



74 22 
67 30 



YEARLY MAXIMUM = 78 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 
M = MISSING DATA 



•MAXIMUM AND/OR MINIMUM lEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 

30 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



DAILY TEMPERATURES (Fl 



YEAR 1950 



MAX MIN MAX MIN 



MAfl 




APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX MIN 


M 




48 


24 


57 


13 


69 


21 


75 


30 


74 


28 


82 


30 


60 


25 


41 23 


M 




43 


30 


58 


28 


69 


24 


74 


35 


M 




83 


28 


50 


15 


32 12 


M 




30 


02 


62 


27 


36 


25 


73 


30 


M 




79 


29 


63 


18 


31 -12 


M 




26 


-04 


53 


17 


55 


19 


73 


30 


75 


28 


83 


29 


55 


19 


43 15 


M 




52 


-14 


31 


15 


70 


25 


74 


31 


73 


31 


82 


25 


69 


21 


51 08 


M 




54 


22 


47 


05 


72 


25 


74 


30 


58 


31 


80 


31 


54 


26 


45 27 


M 




58 


21 


54 


22 


58 


27 


67 


37 


77 


28 


80 


31 


51 


21 


41 29 


M 




55 


26 


50 


16 


51 


20 


66 


39 


75 


30 


77 


29 


70 


15 


39 15 


M 




53 


15 


45 


12 


63 


18 


72 


39 


80 


28 


62 


33 


69 


24 


16 -24 


M 




37 


09 


47 


18 


75 


26 


77 


35 


75 


29 


60 


29 


67 


22 


13 -30 


M 




47 


03 


55 


15 


79 


25 


74 


38 


67 


34 


60 


30 


72 


24 


30 03 


M 




52 


08 


53 


19 


78 


25 


73 


32 


70 


30 


51 


30 


72 


24 


32 -01 


M 




55 


13 


53 


21 


77 


27 


74 


27 


70 


27 


50 


28 


57 


23 


44 04 


M 




58 


19 


58 


21 


78 


25 


74 


27 


74 


25 


55 


25 


71 


19 


43 08 


M 




35 


21 


55 


28 


80 


26 


73 


31 


76 


25 


53 


29 


54 


25 


21 -10 


M 




50 


26 


57 


27 


76 


35 


72 


31 


75 


29 


57 


26 


60 


22 


35 -14 


M 




54 


19 


66 


24 


79 


33 


58 


29 


78 


29 


55 


24 


57 


26 


M 


M 




41 


23 


51 


27 


73 


23 


63 


30 


80 


25 


65 


27 


60 


25 


M 


M 




41 


18 


53 


19 


72 


29 


70 


28 


75 


27 


50 


30 


62 


22 


M 


M 




54 


19 


54 


27 


69 


29 


71 


35 


75 


28 


45 


31 


59 


23 


M 


M 




61 


25 


63 


21 


73 


27 


76 


30 


74 


30 


57 


29 


57 


22 


M 


M 




53 


22 


67 


23 


66 


26 


73 


29 


75 


28 


58 


29 


64 


23 


M 


M 




56 


26 


67 


25 


77 


29 


72 


31 


80 


28 


52 


28 


64 


21 


M 


42 


09 


33 


01 


60 


30 


79 


30 


70 


29 


77 


31 


53 


26 


54 


20 


M 


48 


24 


45 


-02 


34 


21 


69 


31 


73 


27 


65 


32 


57 


23 


54 


23 


M 


18 


11 


45 


25 


44 


21 


77 


26 


74 


29 


58 


32 


55 


25 


57 


22 


M 


22 


U 


49 


18 


49 


27 


74 


30 


71 


29 


71 


29 


65 


27 


63 


16 


M 


17 


10 


55 


24 


58 


28 


74 


27 


74 


35 


57 


28 


62 


24 


58 


21 


M 


32 - 


02 


35 


10 


53 


27 


70 


30 


73 


32 


71 


25 


73 


26 


69 


20 


M 


50 - 


09 


45 


03 


65 


25 


77 


31 


70 


30 


80 


28 


72 


27 


58 


21 


M 



12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



53 


-14 


67 


05 


80 


18 


77 


24 


81 


25 


83 


23 


72 


15 


48 


15 


54 


22 


71 


27 


72 


31 


74 


29 


65 


28 


64 


22 



YEARLY MAXIMUM = 83 
DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE 



M = MISSING DATA 



M 


42 


-2 


40 


17 


49 


32 


72 


25 


77 


34 


72 


27 


52 


26 


M 


»1 


46 


00 


43 


05 


45 


25 


72 


29 


70 


43 


72 


24 


50 


25 


M 


M 


50 


04 


54 


18 


45 


18 


75 


28 


76 


45 


71 


25 


43 


27 


H 


M 


47 


16 


62 


14 


55 


16 


81 


29 


70 


38 


72 


25 


48 


26 


M 


M 


46 


25 


64 


20 


62 


21 


79 


29 


69 


42 


70 


25 


37 


25 


48 


M 


46 


24 


50 


23 


64 


23 


82 


28 


72 


35 


74 


25 


H 


24 


27 -20 


M 


44 


10 


62 


20 


64 


24 


80 


34 


76 


34 


69 


26 


47 


14* 


30 08 


M 


40 


24 


55 


18 


M 


21 


75 


40 


71 


29 


70 


24 


55 


18 


42 -04 


H 


43 


06 


48 


26 


H 




75 


26 


69 


30 


57 


22 


50 


16 


M 08 


M 


25 


1 1 


54 


18 


59 


« 


74 


31 


70 


28 


58 


20 


61 


18 


M 


M 


24 


-7 


60 


16 


52 


26» 


78 


33 


76 


25 


72 


24 


50 


Zl 


Kt 


M 


35 


5 


63 


IZ 


60 


23 


74 


30 


77 


30 


49 


20 


M 


21 


M 


M 


52 


-2 


47 


20 


64 


25 


78 


26 


78 


27 


60 


19 


M 




M 


M 


53 


25 


49 


17 


63 


28 


82 


30 


77 


29 


55 


20 


50 


14» 


M 


M 


55 


25 


58 


30 


63 


25 


81 


32 


74 


24 


54 


20 


55 


16 


M 


M 


47 


04 


59 


26 


M 


28 


72 


36 


78 


27 


64 


14 


48 


23 


M 


M 


51 


U 


54 


28 


73 


* 


74 


36 


77 


29 


56 


17 


50 


24 


M 


M 


50 


26 


48 


28 


68 


28» 


79 


34 


81 


29 


68 


21 


54 


IB 


H 


M 


54 


25 


42 


27 


70 


28 


83 


38 


75 


32 


62 


28 


H 


18 


M 


M 


49 


22 


43 


25 


62 


30 


80 


43 


54 


39 


65 


32 


M 




M 


M 


52 


16 


M 


26 


59 


34 


68 


37 


68 


36 


40 


30 


30 


• 


M 


M 


49 


18 


60 


* 


M 


25 


55 


33 


59 


35 


50 


15 


35 


-1* 


H 


M 


61 


25 


58 


25» 


M 




71 


29 


71 


30 


56 


25 


32 


13 


M 


M 


52 


25 


56 


26 


72 


* 


75 


30 


51 


33 


52 


28 


53 


07 


H 


M 


M 


25 


61 


26 


73 


28» 


79 


30 


59 


27 


57 


23 


49 


14 


M 


51 


51 


* 


58 


25 


72 


27 


77 


33 


70 


25 


53 


30 


46 


22 


M 


35 18 




20* 


69 


26 


72 


27 


75 


42 


74 


25 


55 


18 


34 


24 


M 


30 -04 


60 


* 


74 


27 


71 


28 


74 


39 


56 


31 


56 


IZ 


38 


22 


M 


38 -10 


56 


19« 


68 


25 


70 


29 


75 


35 


72 


32 


55 


37 


M 


12 


M 


'.b -I 


42 


19 


72 


26 


57 


25 


78 


37 


55 


40 


60 


25 


M 




M 



M 


11 


M 


12 


M 


13 


H 


14 


M 


15 


H 


16 


M 


17 


M 


18 


H 


19 


M 


20 


M 


21 


M 


22 


M 


23 


M 


24 


M 


25 


H 


26 


M 


27 


M 


28 


M 


29 


M 


30 



CLIM&TOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERlflENTAL FnREST, COLORADO 
HEADUUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1951 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (F) 
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 
MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX HIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX HIN DAY 

1 M M M 42 -2 40 17 49 32 72 25 77 34 72 27 52 26 M M 1 

2 M M M 46 00 43 05 45 25 72 29 70 43 72 24 50 25 M M 2 

3 M M M 50 04 54 18 45 18 75 28 76 46 71 25 43 27 M H 3 

M 4 

M 5 

M 6 
M 7 

M e 

M M M 43 06 48 25 M 75 25 59 30 57 22 50 16 M 08 M 
M M M 25 11 54 18 59 » 74 31 70 28 68 20 61 18 M M 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

15 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 
11 
23 
24 
25 

25 
27 
28 
29 

30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 51 -7 74 05 73 15 83 25 81 24 74 14 52 -1 

AVE 47 15 57 23 63 26 75 33 72 32 64 24 48 19 AVE 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 83 

DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 8 AM OBSERV .-MAX .TEMP. SET BACK ONE DAY 

♦MAXIMUM AND/OR MINIMUM TEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION H = MISSING DATA 

CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 

FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEAOCUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1952 

DAILY TEMPERATURES IF) 

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC ' 

DAY MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 

1 M M M M 55 29 62 32 78 33 71 37 55 29 68 26 M M 1 

2 M M M M 55 26 64 29 76 33 72 38 66 25 57 27 M M 2 

3 M H M M 70 25 51 33 80 31 70 36 72 29 67 29 M M 3 

4 M H M M 65 28 52 32 75 33 69 32 75 32 55 28 M M 4 

5 M M M M 61 25 70 30 72 40 7? 32 73 35 55 28 M M 5 

5 M M M M 60 25 70 30 56 38 70 33 77 35 47 19 M M 6 

7 M M M 62M 64 25 74 32 62 32 54 40 74 38 53 15 M M 7 

8 H M M 56 22 54 26 74 28 73 28 55 35 74 35 59 21 M M 8 

9 M M M 47 17 45 28 80 29 75 30 65 32 74 34 69 22 M M 9 

10 M M M 50 14 45 19 80 35 73 35 61 34 73 35 66 25 M M 10 

11 M M M 48 25 55 20 80 34 69 34 67 29 77 33 54 26 M M 11 

12 M M M 41 23 50 25 81 32 74 30 70 34 71 34 54 25 M M 12 

13 M M M 44 19 54 25 82 31 72 29 59 34 58 31 M M M 13 

14 M M M 54 10 52 25 82 33 72 31 55 34 59 29 M H M 14 

15 M M M 45 21 51 25 81 38 69 30 59 34 74 29 M M M 15 

15 M M M 45 22 45 25 71 27 75 30 72 31 50 34 M M M 16 

17 M M M 54 15 44 24 76 28 78 32 70 31' 65 32 M M M 17 

18 M M M 55 17 48 25 75 28 78 34 74 32 71 31 M M M 18 
l' M M M 58 17 44 32 78 38 78 34 72 34 74 32 M M M 19 

20 M M M 55 22 51 30 75 35 78 33 63 40 68 32 M M M 20 

21 M M M 42 28 40 25 78 30 79 30 59 38 58 31 M M M 21 

22 M M H 45 26 45 25 76 30 80 33 55 34 55 26 M M M 22 

23 M M M 53 18 42 30 58 34 82 34 58 35 58 25 M M M 23 

24 M M M 58 17 53 28 72 32 80 37 54 32 70 25 M M M 24 

25 M M M 52 20 60 25 53 35 78 45 73 30 72 25 M H M 25 

25 M M M 58 22 52 28 58 30 74 41 70 37 72 27 M M M 25 

27 M M M 50 24 55 28 58 29 73 40 54 37 71 26 M M M 27 

28 M M M 56 24 51 25 72 27 57 47 67 37 53 35 M M M 28 

29 M M M 47 32 52 27 74 33 55 35 63 36 58 31 M M M 29 

30 M M 48 32 58 29 77 32 65 35 32 54 59 29 M M M 30 

31 M M 52 27 69 40 64 39 M M 31 

MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 

AVE 52 21 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 82 

DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE H > MISSING DATA 



70 


19 


82 


27 


82 


28 


74 


29 


77 


25 


55 


26 


73 


32 


74 


34 


57 


35 


59 


31 



CLIMATOLOGICaL SUMMARY 

FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 

HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1953 

DAILY TEMPERATURES IF) 

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

DAY MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX WIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 

1 M M M M 36 O* 68 29 Bl 38 66 <.8 76 37 M M M I 

2 M M M M 36 05 6'. 2'i 83 35 56 38 68 32 M M M 2 

3 M M M M ii. 20 65 19 81 32 70 35 61 27 M M H 3 
<^ M M M M 41 19 62 22 83 36 7". 37 65 27 M M M A 

5 M M M M 50 13 60 26 72 37 73 33 69 2'. M M H 5 

6 M M M M 59 15 50 25 80 35 76 31 75 25 M M M 6 

7 H M M M 58 21 53 27 79 32 77 31 72 26 M M M 7 
e M M M M 51 19 72 27 82 32 78 3'. 72 29 M M M 8 
9 M M M M i."! 22 80 27 81 37 75 3<. 57 27 M M M 9 

10 H M M M 36 11 80 28 7'. <. 1 58 38 67 33 M M M 10 

U M M MM 40 05 78 37 66 37 57 32 76 29 M M M 11 

12 H M M M 37 11 78 39 T, 32 7<. 30 75 27 M M M 12 

13 M M H M 46 07 79 38 80 34 78 28 74 27 M M M 13 

14 M M M M 48 24 78 36 78 36 64 36 71 29 M M M 14 

15 M M M 44 02 54 21 78 32 74 36 66 35 72 32 M M M 15 

16 M M M 42 08 47 30 82 32 57 40 57 33 70 29 M M M 16 

17 M M M 48 18 53 26 78 33 65 35 71 33 71 28 M M M 17 

18 M H M 36 19 50 26 74 38 72 37 68 30 64 31 M M M 18 

19 M M H 48 08 54 28 44 37 74 33 66 28 57 26 M M M 19 

20 M M M 55 07 44 31 64 30 77 33 73 27 70 27 M M M 20 

21 M H M 60 22 55 28 70 28 78 34 71 28 73 24 M M H 21 

22 M M M 61 24 65 24 75 30 74 37 61 31 74 29 M M M 22 

23 M M M 45 26 70 25 77 28 80 36 64 32 66 24 M M M 23 

24 M M M 45 24 54 27 74 29 80 33 78 29 55 20 M M M 24 

25 M M M 50 22 71 25 68 25 80 38 79 32 70 20 M M M 25 

25 M M M 59 17 72 26 77 27 82 39 76 34 70 24 M M M 26 

27 M M M 53 22 68 32 75 34 75 43 54 40 75 20 M M M 27 

28 M M M 45 27 57 31 80 31 75 40 55 36 68 27 M M M 28 

29 M M 31 18 54 26 84 27 58 47 69 31 M M M M 29 

30 M M 45 14 65 31 80 39 69 42 74 35 M M M M 30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 73 04 84 19 83 32 79 27 76 20 

AVE 49 17 54 21 72 30 76 37 71 33 70 27 AVE 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 84 

DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 

CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 

ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1954 

DAILY TEMPERATURES IF) 

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

DAY MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 

1 M M M M 40 21 60 23 76 31 80 37 82 35 70 26 M M 1 

2 M M M M 35 15 43 18 75 40 83 29 77 41 66 26 M M 2 

3 M M M M 54 11 66 17 79 33 84 30 63 37 64 30 H M 3 

4 M M M M 57 27 75 24 80 35 74 44 66 33 54 33 M M 4 

5 M M M M 59 24 77 25 77 35 55 44 52 29 56 32 M M 5 

6 M M M M 60 27 57 22 75 38 56 37 68 30 69 32 M M 6 

7 M M M 43M 58 24 50 24 82 35 70 32 70 28 70 35 M M 7 

8 M M M 58 08 67 26 58 20 75 35 77 28 50 29 55 35 M M 8 

9 M M M 54 18 70 28 72 24 79 34 78 28 55 26 68 30 M M 9 

10 M M M 53 17 59 36 67 25 85 35 75 31 79 27 59 32 M M 10 

11 M M M 51 25 55 28 64 23 91 36 59 33 72 29 58 29 M M 11 

12 M M M 53 25 63 25 78 25 88 39 55 28 64 38 52 35 M M 12 

13 M M M 56 21 60 25 72 28 82 38 67 31 54 31 53 24 M M 13 

14 M H M 48 20 58 25 56 30 76 47 73 27 72 26 38 14 M M 14 

15 M M M 39 09 65 25 52 30 75 40 56 34 75 30 53 13 M M 15 

15 M M M 57 07 56 24 71 27 79 38 70 29 78 29 60 18 M M 15 

17 M M M 50 22 68 25 80 28 58 39 76 30 80 29 64 21 M M 17 

18 M M M 58 28 59 25 82 31 73 36 72 28 75 30 M M M IB 

19 M M M 58 31 74 24 85 30 75 38 76 23 74 25 M M M 19 

20 M M M 59 26 78 27 78 31 78 36 74 28 55 25 M M M 20 

21 M M M 52 19 70 28 80 29 80 39 64 32 74 20 M M M 21 

22 H M M 58 18 54 30 88 29 51 38 62 30 76 25 M M M 22 

23 H M M 66 20 48 32 90 35 72 33 74 26 60 34 M M M 23 

24 H M M 55 27 62 25 85 39 76 31 76 33 58 38 M M M 24 

25 M M M 55 23 53 25 77 35 71 40 78 33 54 35 M M M 25 

26 M M M 49 25 58 25 78 40 80 36 80 32 59 34 M M M 26 

27 M M M 55 25 59 23 54 34 72 42 81 29 48 34 H M M 27 

28 M M M 60 25 50 15 74 32 80 37 81 31 63 30 M M M 28 

29 M M 45 22 54 18 77 29 82 37 80 34 62 30 M M M 29 

30 M M <,<, 19 66 28 78 30 81 42 84 33 64 25 M M M 30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 

AVE 54 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 91 
DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE M - MISSING DATA 



78 


11 


90 


17 


91 


31 


84 


23 


82 


20 


51 


25 


72 


28 


77 


37 


74 


32 


58 


30 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 

FR4SER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 

HEAOOUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1955 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (F) 

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

BAY MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX M[N MAX MIN MAX Ml N MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 

1 M f. M M 64 22 66 28 75 23 78 43 77 27 68 20 27 11 28 II 1 

2 M M M M 58 22 60 22 81 26 73 38 73 29 66 20 28 -02 38 13 2 

3 H M M M 41 23 48 24 79 30 77 38 77 25 64 25 46 -05 16 00 3 

4 M M M M 57 22 45 27 78 27 76 37 72 30 66 23 53 08 17 -20 4 

5 M M M M 62 22 46 28 78 32 76 43 75 30 52 33 45 25 17 -24 5 

6 M M M M 64 25 54 36 82 33 62 38 76 28 37 18 39 12 24 -06 6 

7 M M M M 66 24 68 28 78 24 68 36 76 29 56 13 27 -06 24 09 7 

8 M M M H 42 27 66 30 60 23 74 39 73 29 64 17 34 -10 19 -10 8 

9 M M M M 52 23 47 24 84 28 75 37 73 30 64 18 33 09 27 -08 9 

10 M M M M 54 25 51 25 80 31 71 37 68 26 66 Z2 41 26 22 -13 10 

11 M M M M 60 23 65 24 72 34 76 36 72 24 58 26 39 20 12 -16 11 

12 M M M M 62 23 69 30 75 31 74 37 73 25 56 23 37 17 35 10 12 

13 M H M M 64 22 68 26 80 32 75 39 76 30 61 19 31 06 35 19 13 

14 M M M M 68 27 54 30 83 32 58 44 74 29 65 18 43 06 30 03 14 

15 M H M M 67 23 57 30 80 35 75 40 71 31 51 22 17 13 31 -10 15 

16 M M M M 54 15 56 27 81 32 74 35 76 28 62 20 14 -32 32 21 15 

17 M M M H 50 12 55 30 82 24 62 39 60 28 63 20 27 -29 25 -03 17 

18 M M M M 43 31 53 27 81 29 59 37 74 27 53 21 29 15 34 19 18 

19 M M M M 49 26 59 27 81 30 72 39 70 29 61 22 42 06 45 12 19 

20 M M M M 70 19 72 27 79 24 72 40 52 34 53 25 48 10 41 05 20 

21 M M M 55 12 54 25 76 28 79 33 75 37 66 20 57 22 49 11 43 11 21 

22 M M M 53 18 57 27 77 30 75 39 74 34 66 19 61 24 27 -09 41 19 22 

23 M M M 39 19 62 26 79 31 75 38 74 31 65 20 30 07 27 -13 45 18 23 

24 M M M 54 23 53 30 78 28 71 38 70 35 55 22 50 02 25 -08 48 22 24 

25 M M M 63 20 59 25 77 32 70 38 70 37 60 26 56 10 35 -12 42 12 25 

26 M H M 52 21 50 33 76 28 58 43 73 38 50 24 50 13 42 -08 41 13 26 

27 M M K 31 15 42 21 70 29 55 28 70 37 66 18 30 19 36 30 41 08 27 

28 M M M 

29 M M 

30 M M 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 

AVE 5 3 17 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 84 
DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 



48 


00 


48 


21 


76 


25 


70 


35 


68 


32 


55 


19 


26 


05 


33 


02 


38 


05 


28 


52 


15 


64 


18 


75 


26 


75 


35 


67 


30 


62 


23 


26 


10 


37 


-03 


37 


07 


29 


63 


23 


70 


23 


69 


26 


76 


33 


72 


25 


63 


19 


44 


15 


34 


12 


41 


10 


30 



70 


12 


79 


22 


84 


23 


78 


26 


77 


18 


58 


02 


53 


-32 


48 


-24 


58 


24 


65 


28 


77 


32 


72 


37 


69 


26 


54 


18 


35 


3 


33 


5 



CL IMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 









HEADQUARTERS 


- ELEV 


. 9070 FT 


























YEAR 1 


956 




























DAILY TEMPERATURES 


IFI 
























JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




AY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


DAY 


1 


26 


-02 


14 


-17 


26 


08 


52 


13 


48 


21 


74 


29 


67 


37 


60 


38 


69 


20 


58 


22 


30 


09 


44 


00 


1 


2 


28 


-05 


13 


-34 


28 


06 


31 


13 


58 


17 


72 


30 


70 


33 


54 


35 


74 


25 


62 


20 


14 


07 


40 


00 


2 


3 


28 


-13 


23 


-32 


39 


06 


27 


08 


59 


28 


76 


26 


70 


29 


70 


33 


73 


30 


62 


23 


19 


-09 


41 


-04 


3 


4 


45 


-06 


32 


-18 


42 


19 


37 


10 


65 


26 


71 


33 


69 


27 


72 


31 


73 


26 


54 


21 


19 


-13 


38 


02 


4 


5 


48 


10 


41 


-10 


45 


28 


41 


10 


62 


31 


58 


31 


79 


25 


76 


25 


71 


24 


64 


24 


26 


-01 


36 


01 


5 


t 


42 


C9 


35 


-07 


19 


-05 


28 


-05 


63 


26 


53 


26 


76 


33 


78 


29 


73 


21 


66 


22 


35 


25 


36 


15 


5 


7 


41 


06 


23 


03 


16 


-16 


4h 


-09 


68 


25 


74 


24 


75 


29 


76 


29 


75 


23 


64 


22 


30 


-03 


23 


08 


7 


8 


45 


06 


26 


-14 


35 


-10 


35 


16 


66 


25 


73 


29 


RO 


29 


75 


26 


70 


31 


60 


27 


34 


-09 


09 


-25 


8 


<) 


41 


-03 


21 


-21 


44 


-09 


40 


10 


62 


27 


67 


31 


80 


29 


80 


27 


70 


29 


65 


24 


41 


12 


19 


-26 


9 


IC 


44 


05 


26 


-21 


28 


-03 


52 


02 


46 


24 


76 


28 


79 


29 


79 


26 


75 


29 


63 


19 


48 


04 


31 


-1 I 


10 


11 


41 


02 


18 


12 


18 


-08 


46 


15 


62 


18 


75 


31 


77 


31 


77 


26 


78 


31 


54 


21 


49 


10 


28 


20 


11 


12 


41 


01 


25 


16 


29 


-25 


50 


13 


63 


27 


83 


28 


59 


35 


73 


37 


76 


32 


62 


21 


48 


09 


28 


14 


12 


13 


36 


08 


28 


02 


31 


-18 


52 


13 


39 


23 


83 


28 


70 


30 


78 


30 


75 


31 


48 


19 


47 


04 


33 


01 


13 


14 


31 


19 


22 


13 


20 


03 


35 


13 


45 


20 


79 


30 


70 


33 


76 


36 


74 


29 


55 


16 


21 


01 


22 


01 


14 


15 


34 


22 


35 


11 


20 


-10 


46 


08 


49 


15 


80 


33 


72 


34 


73 


35 


72 


25 


57 


15 


13 


-15 


22 


-04 


15 


16 


32 


13 


27 


-08 


36 


06 


49 


22 


61 


23 


78 


25 


75 


30 


54 


33 


73 


23 


52 


15 


20 


-18 


25 


-01 


16 


17 


28 


05 


20 


-09 


43 


-04 


43 


23 


68 


23 


78 


34 


78 


29 


52 


35 


75 


23 


51 


17 


M 




M 




17 


18 


23 


08 


21 


-04 


45 


-01 


45 


20 


70 


26 


75 


35 


74 


28 


56 


30 


76 


23 


59 


21 


M 




M 




18 


19 


27 


08 


26 


-17 


52 


-07 


47 


15 


58 


30 


73 


30 


73 


32 


58 


38 


75 


23 


45 


13 


M 




M 




19 


20 


22 


10 


32 


-17 


36 


08 


54 


08 


67 


32 


72 


25 


78 


27 


62 


37 


77 


24 


51 


09 


M 




H 




20 


21 


28 


-03 


42 


-7 


46 


13 


54 


14 


65 


31 


72 


27 


81 


28 


68 


27 


57 


30 


58 


15 


M 




M 




21 


22 


28 


-03 


46 


-10 


50 


07 


50 


18 


61 


30 


71 


24 


57 


32 


72 


29 


58 


19 


51 


16 


40 


02 


21 


-17 


22 


23 


25 


00 


43 


09 


50 


10 


42 


25 


63 


34 


76 


25 


76 


29 


71 


29 


66 


14 


60 


25 


33 


00 


17 


-22 


23 


24 


16 


-14 


31 


-03 


58 


11 


53 


26 


60 


31 


80 


30 


79 


32 


70 


28 


69 


17 


41 


21 


35 


-05 


21 


-09 


24 


25 


26 


-16 


20 


-08 


56 


16 


54 


24 


65 


29 


75 


34 


78 


34 


58 


29 


69 


19 


32 


16 


40 


00 


27 


-05 


25 


26 


38 


16 


32 


05 


53 


08 


57 


25 


63 


31 


78 


30 


75 


34 


68 


31 


69 


21 


47 


10 


39 


-02 


32 


-08 


25 


27 


32 


13 


20 


04 


23 


10 


54 


25 


52 


29 


80 


29 


75 


35 


72 


25 


70 


25 


55 


15 


37 


-06 


33 


-05 


27 


28 


22 


03 


34 


-16 


32 


09 


44 


22 


69 


25 


78 


31 


78 


37 


66 


25 


61 


39 


52 


15 


25 


-04 


33 


-04 


28 


29 


?1 


04 


41 


-14 


45 


-06 


44 


18 


69 


27 


81 


29 


79 


40 


64 


30 


53 


24 


52 


14 


33 


02 


34 


-06 


29 


3C 


20 


03 






50 


15 


50 


26 


72 


27 


68 


38 


70 


40 


62 


35 


54 


21 


38 


12 


39 


-0 3 


35 


-07 


30 



rONTHL Y 

Extremes 48 -16 45 -34 58 -25 57 -09 75 15 83 24 81 25 80 23 78 14 55 08 49 -I8 44 -26 

AVE 32 4 28 -7 38 2 45 15 61 26 75 29 73 32 70 31 71 25 56 18 33 -0 29 -4 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 83, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 52, MINIMUM = -34, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 15 

DATA COLLECTED AT HOQTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 



CL IMATOLOGICAL SUMMAHY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 









HEADOUAR lERS 


- ELFV 


. 9070 FT 


























YEAR 1957 


























DAILY TEMPERATURES 


(F I 




















JAN 


FES 


MAR 


APK 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




AY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


"IIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


1IN 


MAX 


1IN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


DAY 


I 


31 


-01 


M 




38 


-11 


A8 


17 


58 


18 


61 


26 


81 


33 


80 


37 


60 


29 


M 




3A 18 


M 


1 


2 


26 


-06 


M 




A3 


-07 


28 


00 


61 


20 


68 


26 


83 


3A 


81 


37 


66 


27 


M 




39 1 7 


M 


2 


3 


30 


02 


M 




36 


13 


31 


-0 2 


59 


2A 


70 


28 


79 


35 


81 


35 


68 


27 


M 




A9 lA 


M 


3 


<, 


26 


00 


f 




M 




2A 


11 


61 


23 


71 


28 


7A 


32 


7A 


AO 


68 


27 


65M 




A6 15 


M 


A 


5 


22 


-03 


M 




M 




38 


12 


59 


2A 


73 


29 


79 


26 


71 


AO 


68 


2R 


52 


28 


M 


M 


5 


6 


2*. 


-08 


M 




M 




3A 


18 


61 


23 


69 


31 


83 


28 


f 6 


AA 


6A 


28 


63 


23 


M 


M 


6 


7 


25 


-03 


39 


-08 


M 




23 


00 


57 


23 


69 


29 


78 


Al 


73 


AO 


66 


27 


59 


2A 


M 


M 


7 


e 


28 


18 


32 


16 


39 


19 


AO 


-OA 


50 


32 


70 


30 


69 


AO 


72 


A2 


73 


28 


57 


22 


M 


M 


8 


s 


23 


-21 


29 


-03 


56 


OS 


AA 


03 


52 


31 


69 


27 


75 


36 


7A 


35 


62 


2A 


57 


20 


M 


M 


9 


ic 


M 




35 


09 


Al 


16 


A7 


19 


56 


29 


66 


27 


75 


37 


77 


36 


59 


22 


58 


19 


M 


M 


10 


u 


33 


-01 


36 


01 


30 


lA 


AO 


26 


53 


29 


56 


3A 


72 


35 


75 


36 


58 


21 


58 


20 


M 


M 


1 1 


12 


33 


10 


A6 


01 


A6 


05 


38 


28 


AA 


23 


61 


37 


67 


35 


70 


35 


66 


21 


60 


21 


M 


M 


12 


13 


33 


27 


AS 


00 


26 


-02 


A5 


22 


Al 


28 


60 


30 


71 


35 


73 


32 


58 


25 


59 


25 


M 


M 


13 


1« 


36 


17 


^q 


15 


26 


-06 


57 


13 


A7 


2A 


5A 


29 


71 


37 


77 


32 


AB 


26 


M 




M 


M 


lA 


15 


22 


13 


ki 


05 


A2 


-10 


A5 


29 


38 


20 


A5 


31 


78 


3A 


72 


39 


66 


2A 


A6M 




M 


M 


15 


U 


IS 


-0'. 


',', 


-05 


A6 


-02 


A7 


Z2 


35 


23 


AO 


26 


80 


36 


69 


37 


66 


26 


AA 


25 


M 


M 


16 


17 


21 


-1<? 


A2 


03 


33 


-03 


52 


23 


AA 


25 


51 


26 


75 


36 


73 


35 


6A 


29 


A2 


25 


M 


M 


17 


18 


M 




<.'! 


10 


AO 


01 


50 


19 


52 


26 


67 


2A 


6A 


Al 


75 


31 


60 


26 


A8 


25 


M 


M 


18 


l? 


26 


-21 


AO 


08 


Al 


01 


39 


17 


52 


28 


72 


27 


62 


A3 


75 


33 


61 


22 


Al 


26 


M 


M 


19 


2C 


3R 


-1'. 


AO 


04 


A9 


03 


52 


10 


38 


20 


7A 


28 


60 


39 


59 


AO 


5A 


25 


AA 


22 


M 


M 


20 


21 


25 


-01 


38 


22 


A8 


10 


59 


19 


A2 


21 


52 


27 


72 


35 


67 


AO 


AO 


21 


A6 


23 


M 


M 


21 


21 


15 


-17 


<.2 


11 


27 


06 


53 


21 


A2 


17 


57 


A 


7A 


3A 


68 


3A 


57 


15 


33 


20 


M 


M 


22 


23 


2A 


-16 


AS 


05 


21 


05 


36 


17 


A8 


17 


6A 


28 


6A 


36 


69 


AO 


65 


20 


37 


19 


M 


M 


23 


2'. 


20 


-OA 


AS 


lA 


28 


-11 


AA 


lA 


50 


2A 


71 


26 


63 


36 


7A 


30 


66 


22 


33 


16 


M 


M 


2A 


25 


U 


03 


36 


lA 


38 


-08 


36 


05 


52 


25 


70 


35 


60 


A2 


72 


36 


66 


23 


33 


10 


M 


M 


25 


26 


21 


06 


AO 


13 


33 


10 


36 


17 


53 


21 


70 


3A 


62 


A5 


66 


AO 


M 




AO 


OA 


M 


M 


26 


27 


30 


12 


35 


07 


35 


-01 


37 


OA 


S6 


22 


69 


3S 


6A 


AO 


65 


33 


M 




A3 


09 


M 


M 


27 


28 


2<i 


-OR 


33 


01 


A6 


12 


A9 


01 


63 


23 


76 


29 


76 


39 


68 


33 


M 




32 


2A 


M 


M 


28 


2<3 


11 


-2'. 






A6 


18 


55 


18 


65 


2A 


76 


36 


72 


A5 


62 


31 


M 




A2 


15 


H 


M 


29 


3C 


c 








A5 


18 


58 


18 


6A 


25 


67 


39 


73 


39 


60 


3A 


M 




50 


lA 


M 


M 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 38 -2A A9 -OR 56 -11 59 -OA 

AVE 25 -3 AO 7 39 A A3 lA 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 83 

DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 



17 
2A 



76 
65 



26 
37 



15 
25 



16 
17 
18 
19 
2C 

21 
22 
23 
2A 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 



JAN 
MAX MIN 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 



MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



65 OA 

AS 20 A2 16 



FEB 

MAX MIN 



MAR 
MAX MlN 



-31» 

08 



52 


* 


29 


-17« 


30 


-15 



APR MAY 
MAX MIN MAX MIN 























YEAR 


1958 


DAILY TEMPERATURES 


(F 1 
















JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


MAX 


N-IN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


M 




81 


29 


M 




77 


9 


59 


15 


M 


H 


M 




75 


30 


M 




78 


26* 


53 


26 


M 


M 


M 




M 


3A 


8A 


* 


7A 


32 


M 


18 


M 


M 


M 




M 




79 


32* 


73 


3l 


M 




M 


M 


77 


♦ 


M 




81 


38 


M 


37 


71 


• 


M 


M 




22" 


73 


t 


80 


3A 


M 




6A 


22' 


M 


H 


M 




72 


27» 


81 


29 


76 


« 


63 


22 


M 


M 


M 




78 


33 


M 


30 


72 


27* 


M 


21 


M 


H 


M 




M 


31 


M 




69 


35 


62 


* 


M 


M 


76 


* 


8A 


• 


85 


« 


75 


31 




15* 


M 


M 


7A 


25« 




31» 


79 


35* 


75 


31 


M 




M 


M 


M 


25 


M 




03 


37 


83 


31 


66 


• 


M 


M 


M 




69 


« 


81 


38 


71 


A3 


62 


20* 


M 


M 


M 




6A 


29* 


83 


35 


55 


32 


67 


20 


M 


M 


76 


* 


78 


33 


H 


36 


5A 


22 


68 


19 


M 


M 


76 


25* 


75 


33 


M 




59 


19 


62 


21 


M 


M 


71 


28 


77 


37 


81 


» 


M 


22 


M 


17 


M 


M 


M 


31 


M 


Al 


72 


35* 


69 


* 


M 




M 


M 


M 




M 




69 


38 




25* 


68 


* 


M 


M 


M 




75 


* 


75 


3A 


M 




29 


16* 


M 


M 


M 




70 


30* 


75 


33 


75 


• 


37 


15 


M 


M 


75 


• 


7A 


31 


M 


AA 




22* 


A5 


12 


M 


M 


73 


30* 


80 


29 


M 




75 


* 


52 


05 


M 


M 


77 


37 


75 


38 


65 


* 


52 


27* 


M 


11 


M 


M 


6A 


31 


M 


35 


70 


51* 


56 


26 


M 




M 


M 


69 


29 


M 




75 


30 


M 


19 


57 


• 


M 


M 


M 


29 


70 


• 


7A 


33 


M 






16* 


M 


H 


M 




77 


28» 


M 


35 


68 


* 


A7 


♦ 


M 


M 


82 


« 


81 


32 


H 




62 


22* 


35 


18* 


M 


M 


79 


30» 


71 


36 


M 




53 


33 


A2 


16 


M 


M 



11 

12 

13 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
2A 
25 

26 
27 
28 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



YEARLY MAXIMUM = 85 

DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 

•MAXIMUM AND/OR MINIMUM TEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



8A 27 85 29 83 19 71 05 
7S 32 77 36 68 28 55 17 



ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 8 AM OB SE R V. -MAX . TEMP. SE T BACK ONE DAY 
M = MISSING DATA 



11 

12 
13 
I'l 
15 

U 
17 

18 
IS 
20 

21 
22 
23 
2^ 
25 

26 
27 
2P 
29 

3C 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. "7070 FT 



JAN FtB 

MAX MIN MAX KIN 



MAR 
IX MIN 



<il t ".g • 

-21,0 -15< 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



DAILY TEMPERATURES IFI 
JUNE JULY AUG 



YEAR 1959 



MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 





02» 


62 


22* 


73 


2'. 


66 


'.6 


69 


32 


44 


15 


M 




65 


23 


72 


27 


70 


AO 


68 


24 


36 


28 


M 




67 


2A 


M 


30 


68 


^13 


74 


25 


46 


14 


M 




69 


2A 


73 


« 


6'. 


37 


79 


25 


47 


30 


M 




M 


2A 


75 


27» 


70 


'iS 


76 


30 


55 


17 


M 




M 




76 


27 


56 


39 


78 


30 


54 


22 


6<t 


« 


80 


» 


77 


33 


72 


'i3 


80 


34 


41 


24 




15« 


78 


26» 


T, 


26 


77 


32 


77 


31 


45 


16 


M 




80 


30 


76 


26 


76 


36 


77 


2B 


48 


25 


M 




77 


26 


T, 


28 


75 


34 


80 


25 


M 


34 


M 




7? 


27 


77 


26 


82 


33 


79 


35 


M 




M 




76 


29 


77 


29 


66 


38 


SO 


31 


49 


« 


M 




78 


29 


79 


3*^ 


73 


39 


77 


29 


43 


27* 


69 


* 


75 


36 


80 


32 


bb 


37 


73 


26 


51 


19 




2'i« 


75 


31 


78 


35 


bi. 


32 


65 


28 


M 


22 


M 




75 


36 


72 


35 


76 


30 


54 


34 


M 




M 




75 


36 


76 


31 


79 


33 


50 


29 


M 




M 




77 


30 


M 


32 


78 


32 


69 


29 


55 


« 


M 




73 


36 


76 


» 


70 


1,1 


69 


30 


60 


ll» 


M 




M 


37 


75 


32» 


69 


37 


60 


27 


55 


22 


68 


21» 


69 


♦ 


79 


30 


72 


38 


67 


25 


50 


17 


M 




7<. 


3A» 


80 


38 


7*1 


32 


57 


28 


M 


18 


M 




76 


33 


8A 


31 


71 


34 


57 


29 


M 




65 


6 


75 


35 


8'. 


32 


76 


38 


36 


28 


M 






2'.* 


7* 


35 


80 


<.o 


67 


42 


47 


25 


M 




56 


• 


71 


31 


83 


'il 


66 


32 


4C 


28 


M 




63 


2A» 


67 


32 


75 


36 


70 


30 


47 


30 


M 




66 


2'. 


69 


30 


82 


35 


77 


32 


38 


14 


M 




69 


23 


71 


31 


78 


'.2 


78 


32 


33 


18 


M 






24 


60 


38 


77 


37 


7'. 


42 


4(1 


06 


M 





11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 



21 
ZZ 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



80 22 
73 31 



84 24 
77 33 



82 25 80 06 
72 36 63 27 



YEARLY MAXIMUM 



JATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 

♦MAXIMUM AND/OR MINIMUM TEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 8 AM OBSERV. -MAX. TEMP. SET BACK ONE DAY 
M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADOUAKTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1960 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (F) 
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 
DAY MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 



M 



M 



M 



M 



1 I 
12 
13 
14 

15 

U 
17 
18 
19 
2C 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

2t 
27 
28 

29 
3C 



52 12» 

M 32 



-03» 63 



69 


32 


M 


31 


81 


37 


77 


36* 


67 


* 


M 


27 


80 


* 


84 


34 


M 


37 


62 


23* 


M 




71 


29* 


81 


38 


M 




52 


26 


M 




58 


30 


M 


38 


80 


* 


(■ 


24 


76 


4 


70 


33 


M 




76 


35* 


65 


* 


67 


27» 


67 


33 


81 


« 


59 


45 


67 


21* 


58 


40 


M 


30 


80 


30» 


71 


31 


M 


26 


62 


30 


M 




77 


35 


67 


35 


69 


« 


57 


29 


77 


* 


74 


30 


M 


25 


51 


25* 


H 


32 


59 


32* 


M 


34 


72 


* 


50 


26 


64 


4 


70 


35 


M 




70 


26* 


53 


25 


70 


25» 


70 


33 


SO 


* 


57 


25 


51 


18 


73 


30 


76 


32 


74 


33« 


55 


30 


M 


27 


59 


31 


M 


32 


80 


31 


64 


32 


M 




68 


42 


M 




79 


38 


63 


27 


53 


* 


M 


35 


81 


* 


56 


27 


M 


34 


48 


16* 


M 




77 


30* 


72 


27 


50 


« 


42 


26 


80 


* 


80 


30 


M 


28 


57 


27* 


51 


16 


80 


32» 


M 


31 


H 




63 


29 


45 


24 


71 


25 


85 


♦ 


84 


* 


M 


28 


M 


22 


76 


27 




35» 


80 


28* 


58 


* 


M 




74 


28 


M 


35 


67 


35 


53 


29* 


60 


* 


M 


30 


S3 


« 


71 


31 


M 


24 


53 


22* 


M 




80 


31* 


55 


3S 


56 


• 


55 


18 


77 


♦ 


84 


33 


M 


28 




25* 


59 


IS 


77 


27» 


M 


36 


M 




59 


* 


52 


20 


83 


29 


85 


♦ 


79 


« 


65 


24* 


M 


23 


84 


30 




38» 


73 


25* 


67 


26 


M 




79 


32 


77 


• 


80 


25 


M 


23 


M 





9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 

15 

15 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



YEARLY MAXIMUM = 85 



84 25 
72 30 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE 

*MAX|MUM AND/OR MINIMUM TEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



85 29 84 25 
77 33 76 32 
MINIMUM = -29 



82 23 

58 30 



ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 8 AM 08 SERV. -MAX. TEMP. SET BACK ONE OAY 
M = MISSING DATA 



^AX MIN 



CL 1 MATOLOGICAL SUfHAKY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, CULOHADO 



HEAOgUARTERS - ELEV. 907(1 FT 



FEB 
WAX MIN 



MAR 

MAX MIN 



APR 
MAX MI N 



MAY 

MAX MIN 



DAILY TEMPERATURES (Fl 
JUNE JULY AUG 
MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



SEPT 

MAX MIN 



YEAR 1961 



OCT NOV DEC 
MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 



7^ 27 
M 31 



60 
62 



26« 



S 37 

2 38 

A <(<. 

9 35 

1 35 



32 
36 

27 
2fl 
3? 



33 25 
«.5 01 
56 10 
60 12 
M 19 



60 28 75 

69 28 M 

72 2R M 

M 29 76 

M 7A 



82 
81 
72 



25 
27 

3U 



M 



29 -11» 

21 -02* 



II 
12 
13 

15 



29« 
31 
28 
26 



71 

68 



70 
68 



33 
38 
36 



65 
62 
68 



32 
27 
23 

26 
25 



It 
17 

le 
1"; 

2C 

21 
22 
23 
2'. 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
3C 



M 26 80 

M 79 



M 

55 « 
S", -23» 
55 08 
M IS 

M 



M 08 

M 

H 



75 


« 


76 


AO 


7^. 


T, 


28« 


78 


32 


76 


12 


30 


65 


36 


75 


79 


31 


50 


37 


69 


77 


35 


67 


27 


72 


M 


30 


76 


28 


76 


M 




79M 




75 


79 


* 


7<. 


37» 


69 



7 35 
3 32 

M 35 



30 
32 
33 



35 


A2 


30 


33 


38 


10 


35 


36 


27 


'.3 


'iS 


10 


AS 


5<. 


20 


36 


57 


22 


3'. 


60 


21 



17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
2'. 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



80 26 
72 3 



82 
72 



7'. to 
55 27 



YEARLY MAXIMUM = 82 



DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 

•MAXIMUM AND/OR MINIMUM TEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 
M = MISSING DATA 



AM OBSERV. -MAX .TEMP. SET BACK ONE DAY 



HEADQUARTERS 



JAN FEB MAR 

MAX MIN MAX M|N MAX MIN 



CLIMATDLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
ELEV. 9070 FT 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (Fl 
APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT 
MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



M 



M 



M 



M 





YEAR 


1962 




OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




MAX Ml N 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


DAY 


M 


M 


M 


I 


M 


M 


M 


2 


M 


M 


M 


3 



16 
17 
18 
I? 

20 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



21 
22 
21 
2'i 
25 



21 

22 
23 
2'i 
25 



2t 
27 
28 
29 
3C 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 

•MAXIMUM AND/OR MINIMUM TEMPERATURES SINCE LAST OBSERVATION 



ABOVE DATA ARE ADJUSTED 8 AM OBSFRV. -MAX . TEMP . SET BACK ONE DAY 
M = MISSING DATA 



37 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEAOQUAKTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1963 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (Fl 
MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 
MAX MIN MAX MI N MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 

MM M H M M 





JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


lY 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


I 


H 


M 


M 


M 


2 


M 


M 


M 


M 


3 


H 


M 


M 


M 



IIM M M M M n M n n n 

12MMM MMM MMM M 

13MMM MMM MMM M 

1/,MMM MMM MMM H 

15 MMM MMM MMM M 

16 MMM MMM MMM M 

17 MMM MMM MMM M 

18 MMM MMM MMM M 

19 MMM MMM MMM M 
20MI', M MMM MMM M 

21 MMM MMM MMM M 

22 MMM MMM MMM M 

23 MMM MMM MMM M 
2<,MMM MMM MMM M 

25 MMM MMM MMM H 

26 MMM MMM MMM M 

27 MMM MMM MMM M 

28 MMM MMM MMM M 

29 M MMHMMMMH 

30 M MMHMMMMM 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES '»'' -13 *3 -17 

AVE 3T 5 29 -3 

DATA COLLECTED AT HPOTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 

CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASfR EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



35M 




38 


-1 


1 


37 


4 


34 


-8 


2 


<,', 


15 


37 


-7 


3 


M 




29 


-3 


4 


37 


8 


42 


-2 


5 


',9 


16 


38 


-I 


6 


48 


16 


12 


5 


7 


48 


12 


22 


-17 


e 


43 


24 


37 


2 


9 


<>8 


19 


20 


-2 


10 


47 


IS 


12 


-10 


11 


46 


10 


10 


-12 


12 


47 


10 


14 


-12 


13 


49 


29 


29 


-6 


14 


13 


4 


28 


6 


15 


33 


11 


31 


1 


16 


20 


-10 


37 


17 


17 


30 


-12 


36 


8 


18 


31 


-5 


35 


-1 


19 


34 





30 


-6 


20 


39 





29 


-2 


21 


20 


-12 


18 


-14 


22 


31 


-13 


28 


-12 


23 


23 


-05 


40 


-3 


24 


24 


-3 


43 


-3 


25 


32 


-11 


31 


-2 


26 


47 


U 


25 


9 


27 


38 





27 


14 


28 


42 


-5 


23 


-10 


29 


42 


1 


24 


-11 


30 









HEADQUARTERS 


- ELEV 


. 9070 FT 


























YEAR 1964 




























OAKY TEMPERATURES 


(Fl 
























JAN 


FER 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


OEC 




lAY 


MAX 1 


"IN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


DAY 


1 


37 


-3 


37 


-14 


43 


-12 


46 


IS 


54 


22 


49 


28 


75 


25 


65 


35 


70 


29 


63 


19 


44 


9 


33 


17 


1 


2 


36 


2 


IB 


-16 


40 


2 


34 


18 


49 


20 


56 


28 


79 


27 


64 


33 


72 


27 


68 


12 


45 


11 


27 


-3 


2 


3 


21 ■ 


-17 


22 


-23 


26 


-8 


26 


-3 


38 


14 


59 


27 


84 


26 


58 


36 


71 


23 


65 


23 


32 


10 


20 


14 


3 


4 


23 - 


-20 


34 


-14 


20 


-15 


43 


-5 


55 


4 


59 


27 


78 


29 


71 


38 


72 


26 


59 


18 


47 


3 


19 


-5 


4 


5 


14 ■ 


-18 


33 


-12 


27 


8 


36 


13 


47 


23 


59 


25 


81 


31 


57 


34 


69 


24 


55 


12 


55 


8 


16 


-11 


5 


6 


15 


-6 


18 


-18 


18 


-13 


34 


5 


45 


IB 


66 


26 


83 


31 


68 


31 


65 


24 


58 


13 


48 


10 


13 


-22 


6 


7 


18 


-3 


19 


-19 


24 


-11 


33 


6 


56 


15 


75 


17 


83 


29 


71 


29 


52 


27 


61 


16 


50 


8 


18 


-24 


7 


e 


7 - 


-10 


25 


11 


20 


-21 


41 


13 


41 


19 


50 


30 


87 


31 


71 


31 


53 


24 


52 


17 


52 


13 


23 


-21 


8 


1 


14 ■ 


-28 


30 


24 


29 


-22 


47 


4 


47 


16 


69 


24 


81 


31 


74 


31 


61 


2B 


64 


22 


48 


11 


22 


9 


9 


10 


18 





42 


4 


16 


-8 


48 


5 


56 


18 


73 


27 


69 


35 


75 


30 


57 


28 


59 


23 


40 


17 


16 


12 


10 


11 


7 - 


-10 


49 


-1 


38 


-22 


56 


25 


42 


16 


61 


25 


75 


30 


76 


29 


66 


22 


43 


17 


25 


10 


27 


4 


11 


12 


7 • 


-26 


26 


-9 


51 


-9 


34 


14 


58 


9 


68 


22 


76 


30 


72 


30 


68 


21 


53 


12 


27 





12 


-28 


12 


13 


M- 


-36 


31 


-18 


26 


-1 


25 


13 


70 


18 


65 


23 


75 


29 


69 


35 


67 


19 


62 


14 


33 


10 


9 


-24 


13 


14 


M 




19 


-2 


26 


-I 


50 


19 


72 


21 


57 


27 


76 


29 


73 


32 


63 


24 


61 


18 


18 


10 


20 


-21 


14 


15 


M 




23 


-22 


35 


3 


59 


11 


73 


25 


76 


32 


75 


34 


74 


28 


51 


25 


61 


19 


27 


4 


24 


4 


15 


It 


M 




22 


-17 


43 


-3 


64 


16 


73 


26 


73 


26 


75 


37 


65 


28 


62 


25 


62 


21 


41 


5 


25 


7 


16 


17 


M 




IB 


-18 


52 


-7 


57 


21 


65 


25 


79 


24 


72 


36 


73 


26 


68 


22 


51 


18 


28 


5 


5 


-25 


17 


le 


27 


13 


16 


7 


46 


2 


54 


26 


72 


26 


54 


23 


81 


31 


79 


28 


68 


23 


43 


8 


29 


7 


22 


-27 


18 


19 


26 


7 


25 


-3 


26 


-4 


60 


25 


72 


27 


6R 


20 


82 


36 


65 


38 


45 


28 


46 


6 


19 


4 


24 


-3 


19 


20 


44 


5 


19 


-14 


31 


-18 


37 


23 


64 


28 


63 


22 


82 


30 


53 


24 


53 


22 


54 


10 


22 


-4 


27 


-10 


20 


21 


43 


-2 


17 


-19 


40 


-12 


47 


18 


71 


24 


68 


22 


P4 


34 


51 


23 


43 


21 


55 


12 


28 


-5 


40 





21 


22 


29 


17 


22 


-7 


44 


6 


46 


18 


69 


23 


43 


23 


85 


35 


50 


23 


58 


20 


54 


15 


34 


-5 


45 


19 


22 


23 


19 


-4 


21 


-21 


33 


5 


62 


13 


64 


21 


67 


19 


84 


40 


59 


26 


59 


21 


46 


16 


24 


-3 


42 


23 


23 


24 


9 


-6 


33 


-16 


31 


16 


61 


15 


74 


20 


74 


22 


73 


46 


74 


32 


68 


28 


37 


13 


29 


-6 


30 


21 


24 


25 


25 


2 


17 


-24 


20 


9 


35 


7 


76 


24 


78 


25 


81 


32 


68 


25 


67 


25 


46 


9 


34 


15 


23 


-4 


25 



28 


41 


-14 


35 


-27 


41 


10 


51 


21 


62 


23 


70 


31 


80 


34 


67 


20 


58 


19 


52 


15 


23 


8 


24 


5 


28 


29 


38 


-15 


37 


-14 


51 


-6 


56 


13 


57 


26 


57 


27 


80 


40 


54 


22 


58 


23 


58 


17 


33 


19 


8 


-25 


29 


3C 


34 


-16 






55 


5 


58 


25 


47 


18 


67 


26 


73 


31 


61 


21 


51 


22 


42 


19 


40 


10 


13 


-27 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 44 -36 49 -27 57 -22 64 -5 75 4 79 17 87 25 79 20 72 16 58 5 55 -6 45 -28 

AVE 25 -7 26 -11 34 -3 45 14 59 21 65 25 79 32 67 29 62 24 54 15 34 7 22 -5 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 87, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 48, MINIMUM = -35, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 12 

DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMSTOLDGICAL SUHM4RY 
FR4SER FXPFRIMENT/IL FOREST, COLnROOO 









HEADQUAKTEHS 


- ELEV 


. 9070 FT 


























YEAR 1965 




























DAILY TEMPERATURES 


IF) 
























JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


Aun 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




JAY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


Mrj 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


M IN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


CAY 


I 


22 


-12 


3', 


2 


16 


-15 


60 


15 


67 


25 


56 


26 


76 


30 


69 


29 


70 


22 


51 


15 


56 


19 


31 





1 


2 


16 


-19 


29 


-lA 


9 


-26 


'.9 


20 


66 


27 


64 


26 


74 


32 


73 


34 


63 


29 


66 


20 


53 


16 


28 


-7 


2 


3 


2S 


-15 


37 


21 


12 


-29 


'.2 


14 


64 


26 


62 


27 


75 


28 


66 


39 


59 


33 


67 


23 


52 


17 


41 


-1 


3 


i, 


29 


3 


<<•> 


5 


26 


-9 


"18 


14 


65 


23 


52 


24 


77 


28 


68 


34 


65 


30 


65 


24 


51 


15 


39 


6 


4 


5 


33 


1 


-^3 


-02 


39 


-10 


33 


13 


50 


30 


44 


27 


78 


33 


68 


32 


61 


28 


61 


22 


50 


18 


42 


6 


5 


6 


38 





36 


1 


<.! 


-6 


45 


13 


52 


27 


62 


27 


76 


30 


70 


29 


67 


30 


56 


23 


46 


16 


41 


1 


6 


7 


',0 


-15 


29 


7 


'.5 


-10 


'.7 


10 


47 


20 


57 


28 


78 


30 


70 


31 


62 


36 


61 


26 


52 


18 


41 


3 


7 


8 


28 


1 


25 


7 


43 


-10 


53 


12 


36 


23 


69 


26 


69 


33 


75 


28 


62 


32 


63 


23 


52 


13 


38 


4 


8 


S 


22 





22 


-1 


35 


-2 


53 


17 


41 


22 


62 


34 


72 


29 


76 


30 


62 


28 


69 


22 


45 


22 


40 


19 


9 


IC 


27 


-1 


23 


-7 


3'. 


-1 


36 


16 


50 


19 


59 


34 


76 


32 


81 


29 


67 


25 


67 


23 


43 


17 


42 


20 


10 


u 


28 


u 


11 


-20 


38 





37 


14 


52 


19 


53 


33 


76 


38 


84 


34 


61 


27 


62 


23 


40 


11 


33 


24 


11 


12 


2b 


8 


9 


-22 


35 


2 


52 


3 


57 


20 


62 


32 


72 


42 


82 


36 


63 


29 


59 


22 


32 


21 


32 


7 


12 


n 


21 


12 


16 


-19 


37 


13 


<.6 


14 


51 


30 


68 


32 


75 


36 


79 


36 


67 


26 


62 


IS 


33 


12 


28 


1 


13 


i*. 


33 


20 


25 


3 


38 


11 


".2 


8 


38 


28 


73 


31 


78 


32 


73 


33 


62 


26 


64 


23 


39 


10 


23 


-7 


14 


i; 


37 


27 


18 


-19 


".l 


16 


"iS 


25 


48 


25 


76 


32 


78 


34 


70 


33 


62 


23 


64 


23 


35 


16 


20 


-9 


15 


16 


33 


5 


25 


-20 


"i*. 





52 


15 


61 


20 


67 


37 


78 


36 


72 


36 


67 


27 


59 


30 


37 


23 


20 


-7 


16 


17 


39 


-3 


38 


-8 


27 


9 


51 


24 


63 


26 


75 


38 


76 


36 


65 


38 


68 


20 


61 


27 


37 


30 


21 


-13 


17 


18 


36 


-5 


-,2 


-7 


11 


-19 


AR 


28 


55 


25 


70 


34 


74 


41 


63 


45 


52 


32 


44 


30 


42 


18 


18 


-19 


18 


19 


35 


5 


^<i 


-', 


10 


-18 


51, 


31 


63 


28 


69 


30 


74 


41 


52 


42 


37 


29 


43 


30 


42 


13 


25 


-13 


19 


?C 


37 


-'t 


37 





30 


-7 


b2 


28 


66 


28 


73 


28 


78 


40 


61 


32 


36 


21 


45 


19 


32 


10 


30 


-9 


20 


21 


27 





','• 


-3 


30 


12 


6'i 


24 


70 


26 


72 


28 


75 


38 


65 


26 


34 


21 


52 


15 


27 


-2 


32 


-11 


21 


22 


16 


-1* 


36 


10 


'.0 


25 


68 


23 


72 


29 


73 


28 


74 


48 


70 


31 


44 


28 


56 


19 


31 


-5 


39 


6 


22 


23 


22 


-16 


20 


-9 


31 


20 


68 


27 


59 


28 


73 


33 


72 


41 


68 


32 


48 


26 


59 


21 


36 


14 


32 


9 


23 


2'. 


30 


12 


19 


-13 


30 


11 


<.7 


20 


48 


22 


66 


40 


68 


45 


69 


29 


58 


23 


5 9 


20 


39 


21 


21 


-7 


24 


25 


17 


-3 


38 


-15 


33 





'.9 


19 


38 


20 


71 


30 


68 


44 


77 


27 


56 


27 


59 


18 


32 


18 


40 


-8 


25 


26 


9 





<i6 


-5 


29 


7 


'lO 


28 


38 


24 


70 


29 


71 


40 


75 


35 


65 


28 


57 


16 


17 


-4 


25 


7 


26 


27 


37 


4 


'.S 


-1 


"iS 


26 


50 


26 


43 


25 


68 


29 


64 


41 


76 


28 


67 


25 


56 


15 


21 


-4 


26 


-5 


27 


28 


22 


K 


28 


6 


'.O 


20 


54 


15 


57 


20 


76 


27 


78 


35 


76 


28 


58 


28 


50 


21 


18 


-13 


36 


2 


28 


29 


28 


21 






<t8 


M 


61 


20 


65 


27 


79 


28 


76 


36 


63 


36 


34 


31 


52 


16 


23 


-16 


47 


10 


29 


3C 


31 


26 






5'. 


9 


6<. 


21 


68 


26 


75 


31 


74 


38 


67 


31 


37 


18 


54 


18 


30 


-13 


38 


11 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 40 -19 46 -22 56 -29 68 3 72 19 79 24 78 28 84 27 70 18 69 15 56 -16 

AVE 29 3 31 -5 34 1 51 19 55 25 67 30 74 36 71 33 57 27 58 21 38 II 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 64, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 50, MINIMUM = -29, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 17 

DATA CCLLECTEO AT HOQTS. CLIMATIC SITE 



47 -19 
32 1 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

DAILY TEMPERATURES IF) 



YEAR 1966 





JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




AY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


1IN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


M IN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


Ml N 


MAX 


MI N 


DAY 


1 


21 


-15 


23 


-03 


45 


-02 


56 


29 


58 


20 


65 


27 


70 


38 


74 


43 


64 


31 


61 


13 


28 


02 


40 


1 1 


1 


2 


08 


-24 


17 


-07 


M 


03 


53 


25 


65 


20 


72 


24 


76 


32 


77 


42 


60 


32 


62 


24 


46 


04 


40 


23 


2 


3 


19 


-22 


22 


-15 


45H 




30 


17 


67 


25 


72 


24 


79 


31 


70 


43 


57 


28 


35 


28 


47 


13 


41 


20 


3 


4 


28 


-17 


35 


-11 


M 




27 


09 


70 


27 


70 


24 


83 


32 


67 


44 


70 


26 


45 


22 


39 


12 


33 


15 


4 


5 


33 


-08 


36 


-04 


M 




36 


-06 


71 


26 


57 


24 


83 


35 


73 


36 


70 


26 


57 


20 


49 


09 


34 


12 


5 


6 


40 


00 


36 


-02 


M 




49 


23 


70 


23 


62 


20 


81 


31 


75 


34 


64 


26 


56 


25 


49 


21 


32 


20 


6 


7 


38 


12 


29 


07 


M 




52 


16 


69 


24 


66 


29 


83 


32 


75 


32 


62 


29 


53 


26 


47 


21 


24 


08 


7 


e 


45 


07 


32 


05 


M 




54 


15 


57 


26 


54 


29 


79 


35 


73 


31 


68 


26 


56 


22 


37 


18 


16 


-02 


8 


9 


34 


01 


18 


-05 


50 


14 


58 


25 


47 


26 


61 


28 


85 


32 


73 


32 


71 


28 


54 


21 


22 


10 


08 


-16 


9 


10 


40 


-02 


13 


-18 


48 


10 


55 


25 


47 


28 


61 


30 


83 


37 


76 


31 


69 


27 


62 


17 


32 


14 


19 


-22 


10 


11 


42 


04 


16 


- 14 


42 


08 


42 


22 


40 


22 


61 


29 


71 


38 


78 


33 


68 


28 


57 


23 


35 


09 


26 


00 


11 


12 


20 


02 


22 


-07 


50 


-01 


45 


20 


38 


20 


62 


24 


76 


42 


54 


33 


53 


29 


56 


24 


39 


14 


25 


-04 


12 


13 


23 


-06 


12 


-02 


48 


09 


44 


17 


45 


20 


65 


21 


74 


37 


74 


28 


60 


26 


54 


23 


42 


10 


31 


-0 1 


13 


14 


27 


13 


12 


-10 


50 


18 


51 


12 


61 


23 


71 


25 


78 


40 


74 


32 


67 


28 


28 


07 


45 


08 


28 


00 


14 


15 


21 


-01 


11 


-14 


52 


12 


57 


17 


58 


28 


70 


28 


83 


37 


76 


32 


55 


27 


42 


00 


50 


10 


24 


-05 


15 


16 


18 


-16 


19 


-24 


59 


13 


57 


20 


64 


26 


66 


31 


83 


37 


83 


30 


53 


33 


46 


08 


46 


17 


29 


-10 


16 


n 


18 


-18 


27 


01 


35 


09 


46 


27 


59 


26 


64 


36 


84 


39 


79 


36 


58 


32 


40 


14 


45 


17 


34 


-04 


17 


le 


27 


-19 


37 


00 


42 


-05 


52 


27 


55 


23 


66 


29 


75 


43 


79 


31 


68 


25 


32 


10 


46 


19 


32 


-06 


18 


19 


25 


-05 


39 


-09 


55 


06 


29 


14 


63 


20 


74 


28 


75 


40 


74 


38 


73 


26 


52 


06 


45 


13 


33 


03 


19 


2C 


20 


-14 


30 


02 


57 


22 


32 


01 


65 


24 


69 


29 


80 


38 


60 


35 


7C 


28 


57 


15 


47 


13 


36 


-01 


20 


21 


9 


-27 


32 


02 


45 


14 


49 


02 


71 


24 


70 


32 


77 


41 


62 


25 


74 


30 


44 


16 


47 


18 


34 


-04 


21 


22 


21 


-06 


28 


-02 


20 


-07 


42 


26 


62 


28 


73 


32 


74 


45 


69 


24 


73 


30 


45 


10 


47 


16 


19 


03 


22 


23 


17 


-08 


32 


-16 


34 


-10 


46 


24 


56 


21 


72 


35 


69 


40 


68 


28 


75 


29 


36 


19 


42 


12 


18 


-16 


23 


24 


14 


-11 


42 


06 


50 


-04 


55 


18 


66 


17 


76 


30 


73 


41 


71 


25 


69 


28 


48 


18 


39 


09 


25 


-18 


24 


25 


11 


-10 


40 


08 


52 


08 


62 


21 


71 


23 


61 


27 


74 


37 


78 


25 


63 


30 


57 


15 


37 


06 


23 


-05 


25 


26 


26 


-11 


32 


01 


52 


10 


64 


23 


63 


25 


74 


32 


78 


37 


80 


27 


58 


29 


60 


18 


28 


15 


2eM 




26 


27 


32 


-10 


31 


07 


53 


14 


34 


14 


54 


28 


79 


28 


80 


41 


77 


34 


60 


26 


56 


19 


27 


-07 


M 




27 


28 


27 


-12 


39 


12 


56 


16 


56 


06 


64 


26 


82 


30 


81 


38 


77 


26 


62 


28 


56 


18 


40 


05 


M 


-06 


28 


29 


30 


-03 






52 


17 


55 


27 


68 


24 


76 


35 


83 


36 


78 


28 


66 


25 


56 


19 


33 


17 


13 


-24 


29 


3C 


34 


-08 






57 


16 


57 


21 


74 


26 


72 


41 


86 


37 


74 


32 


49 


18 


53 


16 


39 


15 


22 


-05 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 45 -27 42 -24 59 -10 64 -06 74 17 82 20 86 31 83 24 75 18 62 00 50 -07 

AVE 25 -8 27 -4 48 9 48 18 60 24 69 29 79 38 73 33 64 28 50 17 41 12 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 86, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 51, MINIMUM = -27, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 16 

DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 



41 -24 
27 -2 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 









HEADQUARTERS 


- ELEV 


. 9070 FT 


























YEAR 1967 




























DAI 


LY TEMPERATURES 


(F 1 
























JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 




NOV 


DEC 




AY 


MAX f 


MN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


KIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX MIN 


DAY 


1 


2'. 


02 


38 


-05 


52 


06 


55 


12 


29 


08 


49 


24 


74 


35 


75 


38 


66 


29 


67 


28 


42 


15 


32 - 


-02 


1 


2 


13 


-04 


28 


-10 


47 


15 


52 


13 


39 


05 


66 


26 


75 


31 


72 


38 


73 


30 


68 


28 


31 


-02 


H- 


-15 


2 


3 


21 • 


-17 


32 


-10 


50 


15 


59 


14 


41 


05 


63 


26 


75 


31 


55 


37 


75 


36 


65 


29 


23 


-10 


M 




3 


A 


M 




38 


-05 


46 


22 


47 


24 


44 


06 


60 


31 


71 


35 


60 


32 


76 


30 


59 


30 


32 


-01 


M 




4 


5 


2', 


10 


28 


-04 


19 


-12 


52 


25 


51 


21 


64 


27 


73 


35 


63 


35 


76 


28 


62 


29 


33 


-03 


30 


12 


5 


6 


10 


-OB 


24 


-12 


27 


-18 


47 


24 


43 


26 


66 


26 


76 


30 


64 


35 


76 


29 


40 


30 


37 


-07 


12 


-12 


6 


7 


M 




20 


-14 


18 


-08 


58 


13 


56 


25 


63 


25 


67 


37 


66 


36 


75 


34 


48 


23 


42 


-03 


27 ■ 


-14 


7 


8 


M 




24 


-21 


32 


-09 


55 


15 


61 


27 


65 


25 


62 


36 


68 


38 


68 


32 


54 


20 


42 


05 


19 


-01 


8 


q 


M 




29 


-09 


50 


-04 


42 


16 


64 


24 


62 


26 


69 


32 


65 


41 


63 


35 


58 


24 


47 


08 


M- 


-10 


9 


10 


M 




25 


14 


50 


00 


51 


09 


52 


25 


64 


25 


71 


29 


70 


33 


61 


28 


50 


27 


36 


22 


M 




10 


11 


33 


11 


24 


04 


50 


12 


56 


23 


55 


21 


54 


31 


69 


34 


72 


32 


63 


30 


60 


23 


47 


15 


M 




11 


1? 


29 


10 


36 


-04 


50 


06 


53 


18 


54 


27 


59 


30 


69 


36 


73 


33 


59 


31 


60 


25 


54 


18 


M- 


-06 


12 


1 3 


25 


-02 


41 


-08 


49 


15 


30 


27 


41 


24 


55 


29 


77 


29 


73 


34 


52 


23 


59 


18 


50 


21 


09 • 


-15 


13 


l'< 


25 


21 


43 


20 


42 


18 


49 


21 


17 


18 


51 


28 


76 


34 


65 


31 


56 


29 


56 


28 


50 


24 


23 


-12 


14 


IS 


30 


00 


16 


05 


43 


00 


57 


17 


44 


25 


53 


32 


58 


41 


68 


28 


60 


24 


38 


15 


53 


20 


38 


02 


15 


16 


29 


-02 


17 


05 


54 


07 


34 


04 


57 


29 


69 


29 


64 


33 


73 


28 


49 


27 


49 


12 


49 


20 


29 


07 


16 


17 


15 


-09 


19 


07 


54 


30 


57 


00 


64 


24 


67 


27 


59 


42 


72 


30 


58 


28 


57 


16 


46 


17 


14 


04 


17 


18 


16 


-10 


36 


17 


50 


26 


59 


15 


61 


25 


68 


28 


67 


42 


70 


29 


50 


26 


M 


17 


47 


13 


13 


-14 


18 


IS 


34 


-04 


24 


10 


43 


24 


57 


19 


61 


25 


64 


32 


72 


31 


72 


28 


54 


32 


M 




41 


16 


32 


08 


19 


20 


39 


-06 


25 


-14 


46 


11 


39 


15 


53 


29 


63 


38 


72 


33 


73 


27 


58 


26 


M 




39 


17 


20 


15 


20 


21 


38 


06 


33 


-21 


42 


15 


32 


09 


62 


25 


50 


36 


79 


33 


70 


27 


70 


27 


61M 




38 


22 


04 


-01 


21 


22 


11 


-04 


27 


07 


52 


06 


46 


04 


67 


26 


60 


33 


77 


33 


69 


26 


69 


28 


M 




27 


07 


17 


-04 


22 


23 


42 


12 


26 


17 


55 


12 


4? 


17 


73 


27 


71 


31 


66 


42 


79 


27 


67 


33 


M 




26 


13 


36 


10 


23 


ZA 


26 


16 


44 


06 


59 


19 


44 


12 


74 


28 


67 


26 


68 


38 


78 


31 


68 


29 


40 


17 


30 


10 


32 


20 


24 


25 


26 


13 


47 


08 


41 


14 


39 


14 


69 


31 


66 


27 


74 


37 


79 


32 


62 


29 


53 


18 


30 


03 


27 


20 


25 


26 


23 


-02 


34 


10 


48 


10 


49 


06 


46 


30 


65 


31 


79 


33 


77 


31 


49 


32 


35 


10 


22 


-11 


31 


14 


26 


27 


35 


09 


40 


-01 


36 


20 


60 


15 


54 


28 


67 


30 


76 


33 


76 


33 


58 


25 


44 


07 


25 


-13 


20 


-10 


27 


28 


40 


04 


49 


-02 


55 


21 


62 


20 


58 


28 


61 


31 


74 


29 


69 


34 


67 


25 


52 


24 


31 


-08 


26 


-02 


28 


29 


39 


09 






56 


29 


60 


23 


54 


27 


70 


34 


80 


30 


65 


35 


69 


27 


26 


10 


29 


05 


20 


-04 


29 


30 


38 


11 






29 


01 


28 


15 


54 


25 


75 


34 


82 


35 


62 


30 


67 


27 


29 


07 


32 


-01 


18 


03 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 42 -17 49 -21 59 -18 62 00 74 05 75 24 82 29 T9 26 76 23 68 07 54 -13 38 -18 

AVE 29 3 31 -0 45 10 49 15 54 23 63 29 72 35 70 32 64 29 51 20 38 8 23 -1 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 82, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 50, MINIMUM = -21, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 18 

DATA CCLLbCTEO AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 

CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 
HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT YEAR 1968 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (F) 
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



lAY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


DAY 


1 


22 


01 


22 


-09 


46 


-02 


52 


21 


62 


20 


67 


24 


71 


23 


72 


35 


70 


25 


50 


25 


26 


38 


21 


00 


1 


2 


20 


01 


36 


-15 


44 


00 


46 


17 


60 


22 


72 


26 


74 


26 


68 


41 


64 


28 


55 


24 


37 


20 


13 


05 


2 


3 


16 


02 


27 


-02 


42 


-05 


24 


07 


60 


22 


75 


29 


77 


27 


60 


19 


48 


31 


64 


30 


43 


12 


22 


02 


3 


4 


22 


-13 


32 


15 


45 


-06 


35 


06 


59 


20 


70 


29 


71 


28 


74 


34 


47 


30 


5? 


22 


35 


20 


36 


-01 


4 


5 


23 


-15 


37 


-08 


56 


-04 


47 


00 


53 


22 


73 


29 


63 


35 


64 


36 


60 


26 


51 


24 


31 


15 


34 


04 


5 


6 


17 


-17 


39 


-04 


49 


02 


50 


17 


52 


17 


69 


29 


71 


29 


76 


39 


66 


25 


57 


20 


28 


05 


30 


-05 


6 


7 


25 


-19 


37 


-07 


44 


12 


24 


13 


42 


16 


62 


31 


79 


29 


74 


41 


68 


25 


52 


25 


31 


-04 


29 


-08 


7 


8 


27 


-15 


37 


01 


37 


12 


30 


00 


52 


17 


65 


27 


72 


33 


73 


42 


66 


26 


36 


23 


32 


-06 


40 


01 


8 


9 


31 


-04 


39 


-03 


36 


08 


46 


-03 


53 


30 


54 


22 


77 


30 


68 


45 


74 


26 


42 


14 


M 




36 


-02 


9 


10 


31 


-02 


39 


-08 


31 


00 


54 


07 


46 


26 


52 


25 


75 


36 


58 


39 


73 


29 


53 


18 


M 




38 


03 


10 


U 


23 


-16 


40 


-06 


32 


-04 


56 


12 


54 


19 


60 


30 


70 


34 


67 


41 


73 


29 


54 


28 


M 




42 


14 


U 


12 


16 


-24 


28 


08 


44 


-1 1 


57 


16 


52 


22 


76 


26 


75 


33 


69 


33 


65 


28 


55 


25 


M 




12 


08 


12 


13 


32 


-16 


35 


-02 


46 


02 


46 


04 


47 


25 


70 


26 


80 


34 


69 


31 


64 


28 


62 


23 


34 


22 


14 


-11 


13 


14 


37 


-04 


32 


-02 


29 


15 


48 


-03 


55 


18 


67 


31 


77 


37 


53 


29 


66 


27 


65 


24 


25 


-02 


27 


-11 


14 


15 


39 


-04 


27 


13 


38 


00 


55 


11 


46 


24 


68 


31 


75 


39 


60 


28 


58 


27 


55 


23 


M 




36 


04 


15 


16 


40 


03 


31 


04 


48 


-05 


48 


24 


38 


19 


71 


27 


80 


31 


68 


27 


37 


25 


31 


17 


M 




32 


00 


15 


17 


26 


-11 


33 


00 


48 


10 


46 


23 


47 


16 


74 


25 


82 


33 


73 


30 


37 


25 


28 


01 


M 




20 


03 


17 


18 


23 


-14 


35 


22 


32 


-02 


48 


24 


48 


23 


77 


31 


83 


36 


65 


33 


60 


28 


M 




M 




06 


-04 


18 


19 


35 


-08 


38 


25 


30 


-09 


30 


20 


54 


16 


82 


33 


83 


34 


74 


28 


66 


25 


M 




35 


05 


M 




19 


20 


36 


-01 


37 


26 


30 


-07 


45 


17 


44 


30 


81 


32 


79 


33 


74 


32 


70 


26 


M 




38 - 


-01 


H 




20 


21 


36 


-02 


38 


25 


25 


-14 


45 


13 


68 


29 


80 


33 


83 


32 


73 


36 


61 


26 


M 




39 


00 


17 


-18 


21 


22 


34 


00 


31 


22 


40 


07 


35 


13 


61 


28 


81 


32 


75 


31 


74 


31 


50 


22 


M 




39 ■ 


-02 


M 




22 


23 


34 


02 


33 


21 


54 


03 


42 


-02 


53 


26 


83 


34 


71 


39 


54 


24 


52 


18 


41 


28 


28 - 


-03 


M 




23 


24 


40 


08 


37 


22 


45 


11 


47 


03 


51 


27 


71 


31 


78 


34 


75 


IZ 


60 


20 


50 


23 


35 ■ 


-05 


40 


05 


24 


25 


41 


06 


38 


-01 


54 


to 


42 


23 


52 


28 


60 


31 


75 


36 


73 


21 


53 


19 


58 


17 


27 ■ 


-04 


32 


13 


25 



28 


40 


07 


27 


10 


55 


06 


46 


03 


64 


25 


77 


33 


29 


33 


-02 


40 


10 


57 


14 


60 


14 


69 


27 


78 


35 


30 


34 


-10 






59 


16 


50 


18 


68 


27 


64 


27 



66 


35 


55 


25 


54 


16 


20 


-04 


22 


15 


28 


58 


31 


62 


25 


•>1 


17 


15 


-21 


26 


12 


29 


65 


25 


62 


27 


55 


18 


23 


-19 


16 


00 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 41 -24 40 -15 59 -14 60 -03 69 16 83 22 83 23 76 22 74 18 66 01 43 -21 42 -18 

AVE 30 -5 34 5 43 3 45 12 54 23 71 29 75 34 68 33 61 25 51 21 30 2 26 1 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 83, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 50, MINIMUM = -24, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 15 

DATA COLLECTED AT HOOTS. CLIMATIC SITE M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOCICAI SUMMARV 
FRASFR 6XPERIMEMTAL FOREST, COLORAOO 



10 



26 



JAN 

MAX MIN 

}8 0? 

T. 10 

Z', -05 

21 -10 

36 20 



".R 



31 
17 
19 02 
17 -19 
2'> -07 



11 31 -on 

12 3<) I'. 

13 ".O 07 
l^i ',2 19 

15 35 02 

16 3'. -02 

17 25 -05 
IB 29 -08 
IS) 36 -07 

20 AO 16 

21 38 06 

22 32 19 

23 19 -02 
2'i 12 -19 
2 5 31 04 



40 19 



28 28 03 

29 23 -08 

30 21 -18 



HEAOOIJARTERS - ELFV. 9070 FT 



FEB 
MAX MIN 

19 -16 
06 -U 
22 -23 
36 -17 
35 -06 



30 
25 



01 
05 
29 -09 
37 -12 
37 -0 



41 
39 
<.! 
36 



3 7 -04 

36 12 

31 -04 
40-11 

43 01 
25 12 

27 -01 
31 -09 
33 -09 
36 -01 

44 03 

47 06 



MAR 

MAX MIN 

41 -09 
38 -09 

37 -09 

38 02 
24 -09 

32 -08 
20 -09 

20 -19 

21 -10 

33 -21 

28 -13 
27 -20 
21 -14 
37 -20 

42 -17 

48 -15 

49 02 
47 12 

29 13 

40 -08 



50 
49 
29 
29 



APR 
MAX MIN 

39 23 

54 10 

53 15 

46 20 

59 14 



60 
33 
42 



64 
62 
65 



19 
19 
20 
17 
15 

17 
27 
25 
22 
22 

17 
16 

10 
20 
18 

21 
22 
24 



MAY 
MAX MIN 



61 
63 
61 
50 

50 



41 

51 



61 
59 



57 
51 



62 
63 
68 
73 



27 
28 
29 
28 



DAILY TEMPERATURES (Fl 
JUNE JULY AUG 

MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



72 
79 



56 
65 



45 
53 
57 
51 
51 



70 
58 
57 
57 



23 

17 



27 
30 

28 
33 
29 
33 
31 



38 
33 
31 

30 

27 
33 
38 
31 



77 



29 

82 32 

80 36 

71 36 

68 32 

73 32 

74 28 

75 30 
77 34 
77 33 



81 
78 
81 



81 
82 



68 
59 



24 


53 


06 


74 


30 


77 


29 


82 


14 


55 


17 


70 


27 


74 


28 


72 


U 


55 


21 


70 


26 


74 


27 


72 



43 
42 
45 
43 

37 
36 
37 



79 
82 
74 
81 



72 
73 
75 
77 



31 81 38 

40 68 38 

37 73 38 

38 76 38 
37 78 31 



78 34 

73 36 

71 39 

67 35 

65 36 



41 

43 









YEAR 1969 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


Ml N 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


72 30 


54 


26 


?0 12 


41 03 


74 32 


62 


24 


27 04 


40 02 


65 40 


32 


26 


37 -06 


40 02 


61 36 


29 


21 


42 14 


36 18 


77 36 


46 


14 


47 09 


24 04 



52 
53 



56 

50 



33 
34 
31 

31 
32 
32 



29 
28 
26 
25 
26 



27 
25 

28 



52 

50 



14 44 11 19-10 

08 48 09 18-11 

13 37 08 20 -09 

29 39 07 21 -14 

22 40 18 18 06 



04 



06 



19 
20 
16 



39 
35 
32 
33 

40 



34 15 



02 

18 18 -02 

24 30-17 

11 '25 05 

06 35 00 



38 00 

25 -12 

32 -10 

34 -06 

38 01 



24 
35 

40 



38 
41 
31 



43 -01 42 

37 12 40 

34 -02 34 

40 -03 32 

36 -05 21 



9 

10 



04 U 
09 12 
06 13 
08 14 

05 15 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



14 -18 28 
10 -25 29 
12 -10 30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 48 -19 47 -23 57 -21 65 06 78 21 79 17 82 28 

AVE 31 3 33 -3 37 -3 49 18 61 26 61 29 76 37 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 86, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 49, MINIMUM 

DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE 



86 31 77 25 62 02 
76 37 59 32 42 15 
-25, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 17 



43 -25 

30 2 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
ERASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 



HEADQUARTERS - ELEV. 9070 FT 

FEB MAR APR MAY 



DAILY TEMPERATURES IF) 
JUNE JULY AUG 



YEAR 1970 
NOV DEC 



MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



1 


10 


-08 


20 


-06 


44 


09 


28 


04 


38 


08 


50 


21 


78 


29 


85 


34 


70 


34 


60 


22 


28 


04 


33 


04 


1 


2 


03 


-09 


15 


-03 


45 


19 


39 


17 


50 


06 


61 


23 


80 


33 


82 


35 


70 


30 


52 


22 


25 


04 


38 


-02 


2 


3 


12 


-21 


27 


12 


36 


16 


27 


-06 


56 


17 


53 


24 


84 


34 


80 


38 


70 


27 


63 


21 


27 


07 


27 


-02 


3 


4 


18 


-23 


27 


-04 


38 


-01 


40 


-16 


61 


18 


53 


26 


82 


34 


73 


41 


58 


25 


50 


23 


38 


-07 


37 


-04 


4 


S 


08 


-25 


36 


-10 


36 


06 


46 


03 


60 


20 


55 


21 


75 


35 


78 


38 


50 


2B 


56 


23 


41 


05 


32 


02 


5 


6 


11 


-30 


40 


12 


42 


06 


57 


U 


62 


17 


66 


25 


74 


34 


76 


45 


52 


35 


45 


24 


43 


24 


36 


00 


6 


7 


12 


-19 


42 


06 


46 


00 


54 


16 


60 


16 


63 


27 


61 


40 


66 


44 


50 


30 


40 


14 


42 


21 


37 


00 


7 


B 


21 


-23 


40 


-05 


51 


06 


44 


14 


46 


09 


62 


35 


74 


35 


73 


40 


70 


27 


25 


02 


28 


16 


42 


OB 


a 


9 


27 


-13 


43 


-03 


35 


16 


55 


14 


50 


22 


59 


28 


71 


37 


77 


35 


64 


26 


34 


09 


31 


01 


45 


09 


9 


10 


29 


07 


45 


-02 


37 


05 


53 


15 


60 


22 


50 


30 


73 


35 


80 


30 


70 


22 


35 


23 


40 


07 


28 


11 


10 


11 


30 


06 


46 


12 


31 


03 


44 


21 


63 


30 


40 


32 


73 


35 


81 


28 


70 


31 


38 


12 


29 


00 


24 


02 


11 


12 


31 


02 


38 


10 


35 


-08 


30 


03 


62 


24 


50 


31 


64 


35 


82 


30 


65 


34 


50 


08 


35 


15 


22 


-10 


12 


13 


33 


-02 


36 


20 


35 


18 


48 


-03 


58 


27 


71 


26 


76 


32 


81 


33 


58 


37 


47 


21 


31 


13 


26 


-12 


13 


14 


32 


-01 


32 


13 


44 


22 


51 


19 


43 


20 


69 


27 


79 


34 


75 


34 


62 


26 


39 


10 


27 


-02 


30 


-07 


14 


15 


32 


05 


37 


06 


40 


12 


45 


11 


53 


14 


66 


26 


80 


35 


66 


38 


61 


21 


42 


01 


31 


-11 


21 


-05 


15 


16 


31 


02 


48 


-02 


36 


02 


49 


01 


65 


23 


70 


24 


80 


30 


78 


30 


59 


25 


46 


08 


39 


02 


29 


-09 


15 


17 


34 


20 


50 


04 


42 


10 


50 


20 


57 


26 


74 


26 


78 


37 


73 


32 


65 


21 


42 


05 


32 


14 


38 


15 


17 


18 


30 


15 


24 


-08 


22 


-05 


32 


21 


59 


27 


72 


32 


80 


37 


74 


33 


71 


23 


45 


02 


25 


12 


24 


09 


18 


19 


31 


17 


29 


-12 


27 


-17 


34 


20 


59 


29 


70 


29 


75 


35 


70 


34 


69 


25 


42 


09 


20 


06 


20 


-07 


19 


20 


34 


21 


40 


-16 


36 


-15 


35 


17 


69 


31 


70 


30 


75 


33 


55 


45 


55 


26 


46 


12 


32 


-01 


27 


01 


20 


21 


37 


25 


44 


-03 


36 


-08 


44 


-02 


59 


26 


73 


32 


80 


31 


62 


34 


45 


24 


39 


21 


36 


14 


24 


-03 


21 


22 


37 


27 


49 


12 


32 


02 


38 


05 


55 


27 


78 


34 


73 


42 


63 


29 


44 


27 


38 


20 


33 


23 


22 


02 


22 


23 


46 


16 


43 


06 


45 


-04 


37 


01 


64 


25 


70 


34 


69 


38 


68 


31 


53 


20 


40 


22 


34 


23 


14 


-15 


23 


24 


47 


16 


36 


12 


48 


20 


48 


-02 


67 


25 


78 


33 


74 


34 


71 


30 


53 


25 


42 


13 


43 


30 


IB 


-15 


24 


25 


32 


17 


36 


07 


24 


-09 


56 


09 


61 


25 


58 


36 


73 


33 


77 


30 


37 


11 


32 


09 


52 


33 


22 


-11 


25 



28 


27 


07 


29 


15 


-15 


30 


27 


-21 



43 


-11 


40 


20 


55 


27 


84 


38 


75 


33 


74 


35 


62 


21 


28 


02 


30 


02 


23 


-07 


28 


34 


10 


40 


08 


53 


25 


75 


38 


75 


33 


77 


33 


54 


28 


34 


17 


37 


04 


28 


-13 


29 


35 


05 


39 


10 


62 


30 


75 


33 


77 


33 


70 


42 


52 


25 


40 


14 


31 


17 


15 


02 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 47 -30 50 -15 51 -17 63 -16 59 06 87 21 84 29 

AVE 28 1 37 2 37 3 44 10 59 22 68 30 75 34 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 87, AVERAGE MAXIMUM - 49, 'MNIHUM 

DATA COLLECTED AT HDQTS. CLIMATIC SITE 



B5 28 71 05 53 -07 
74 35 61 25 42 13 

-30, AVERAGE MINIMUM - 15 



45 -15 

28 -2 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
FRASER EXPERIMENTAL FOREST, COLORADO 









HEADQUARTERS 


- ELEV 


. 9070 FT 


























YEAR 1971 




























DAILY TEMPERATURES 


IF) 
























JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




AY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


DAY 


I 


25 


16 


"VS 


20 


20 


-18 


29 


-4 


58 


17 


64 


26 


73 


29 


70 


29 


74 


34 


35 


21 


28 


14 


24 


-07 


1 


2 


21^ 


0? 


<i0 


17 


18 


-21 


44 


-10 


62 


18 


68 


31 


74 


32 


74 


31 


71 


35 


32 


22 


24 


-05 


21 


07 


2 


3 


02 


-16 


26 


10 


33 


-22 


38 


17 


65 


23 


70 


27 


70 


32 


76 


29 


55 


33 


44 


20 


47 


-05 


26 


-01 


3 


•^ 


-2 


-21 


18 


02 


32 


20 


34 


00 


61 


22 


49 


26 


70 


33 


69 


34 


41 


28 


52 


15 


50 


04 


20 


-02 


4 


5 


-5 


-31 


16 


05 


23 


04 


42 


-5 


41 


2b 


65 


23 


75 


32 


75 


34 


50 


28 


56 


20 


37 


08 


19 


-11 


5 


5 


-03 


-3? 


12 


-8 


13 


-19 


56 


-4 


47 


21 


61 


27 


74 


34 


76 


30 


74 


25 


54 


24 


37 


-04 


26 


03 


5 


7 


OA 


-37 


06 


-12 


37 


-22 


54 


12 


50 


22 


67 


27 


68 


41 


74 


24 


70 


33 


53 


24 


45 


00 


23 


01 


7 


8 


21 


-6 


33 


06 


<il 


-9 


46 


19 


45 


26 


67 


27 


74 


34 


76 


27 


59 


31 


55 


24 


40 


09 


22 


-09 


e 


9 


30 


16 


30 


-9 


37 


-02 


54 


12 


44 


28 


61 


28 


77 


39 


72 


34 


68 


28 


58 


20 


45 


08 


26 


-11 


9 


10 


33 


12 


38 


-2 


38 


-1 


59 


17 


41 


31 


56 


26 


81 


33 


73 


30 


70 


30 


63 


22 


50 


12 


13 


-04 


10 


11 


38 


02 


32 


22 


39 


01 


61 


21 


47 


24 


66 


25 


82 


30 


80 


29 


72 


30 


53 


22 


51 


18 


17 


-02 


11 


12 


38 


-2 


39 


04 


'16 


09 


56 


18 


59 


20 


60 


26 


84 


34 


69 


32 


74 


35 


57 


24 


50 


18 


15 


-15 


12 


13 


23 


09 


AS 


06 


39 


17 


56 


18 


62 


24 


62 


27 


84 


39 


77 


30 


74 


28 


58 


18 


30 


08 


22 


00 


13 


I'i 


20 


07 


^13 


09 


23 


09 


58 


17 


49 


27 


68 


26 


81 


38 


78 


28 


68 


28 


66 


24 


35 


04 


17 


-02 


14 


15 


35 


-1 


1,1 


02 


27 


13 


55 


25 


56 


26 


72 


28 


80 


35 


78 


27 


59 


22 


57 


27 


35 


08 


16 


02 


15 


16 


<.3 


27 


33 


01 


3'. 


05 


55 


24 


64 


26 


77 


31 


84 


35 


76 


29 


54 


22 


55 


24 


39 


13 


10 


-13 


16 


17 


38 


29 


<i5 


-02 


38 


08 


57 


27 


35 


21 


79 


32 


85 


39 


82 


35 


31 


15 


53 


25 


25 


11 


20 


-17 


17 


18 


36 


30 


32 


20 


18 


-12 


55 


18 


39 


21 


79 


32 


75 


43 


71 


38 


34 


15 


31 


24 


16 


00 


27 


-05 


IB 


19 


39 


18 


36 


08 


33 


-17 


42 


24 


40 


24 


75 


33 


62 


38 


75 


38 


43 


09 


38 


14 


20 


-16 


27 


-05 


19 


20 


'.'■ 


10 


25 


-«. 


AS 


-12 


33 


23 


52 


19 


81 


33 


75 


32 


71 


38 


50 


17 


49 


12 


35 


-03 


28 


-06 


20 


21 


30 


02 


16 


-16 


49 


-2 


43 


23 


65 


24 


82 


35 


64 


40 


78 


35 


44 


28 


49 


20 


38 


05 


29 


-01 


21 


12 


22 


-6 


28 


-2'. 


43 


26 


46 


25 


62 


24 


82 


35 


52 


40 


78 


37 


45 


22 


46 


22 


26 


20 


34 


00 


22 


23 


25 


01 


29 


-11 


«.'. 


29 


54 


16 


40 


24 


82 


34 


74 


38 


75 


36 


61 


18 


53 


17 


25 


02 


44 


23 


23 


2A 


29 


02 


3;. 


-15 


".0 


23 


50 


22 


50 


21 


83 


35 


69 


33 


70 


40 


59 


21 


52 


20 


38 


00 


39 


20 


24 


25 


31 


15 


35 


-10 


36 


22 


55 


18 


58 


23 


82 


32 


67 


33 


72 


36 


65 


22 


54 


25 


40 


06 


41 


19 


25 


26 


38 


16 


I'. 


00 


64 


24 


38 


18 


64 


24 


81 


36 


56 


31 


72 


44 


55 


26 


41 


21 


28 


05 


37 


18 


26 


27 


38 


12 


15 


-23 


50 


28 


43 


20 


71 


27 


77 


33 


70 


33 


70 


41 


67 


23 


44 


19 


32 


18 


21 


-04 


27 


28 


38 


0<i 


20 


-28 


40 


12 


44 


14 


71 


27 


78 


35 


73 


34 


72 


38 


57 


21 


42 


15 


25 


11 


22 


-09 


28 


29 


39 


00 






48 


06 


46 


18 


57 


31 


68 


33 


71 


30 


60 


40 


62 


24 


34 


12 


26 


01 


20 


-06 


29 


30 


A', 


27 






58 


11 


54 


16 


43 


27 


60 


31 


73 


25 


64 


36 


60 


34 


22 


01 


28 


-01 


15 


-05 


30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 44 -37 



47 -28 64 -22 
AVE 28 4 30 -1 37 4 
YEARLY MAXIMUM 
DATA COLLECTED AT HDOTS. CLIMATIC SITE 



51 -10 71 17 83 23 85 25 
49 15 53 24 71 30 74 35 
85, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 49, MINIMUM 



82 24 74 09 55 01 51 -15 44 -17 
73 34 60 25 49 19 35 6 24 -2 
-37, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 16 



42 



CLIf'ATOLOGICAL SUMM4RY 
.E.F., CCLOR/SDO FCOL CK .-W INOTOWFR 



ELEV.-1U,620 





JAN 


FfcB 


MAR 


AY 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX Ml N 


1 


H 


M 


M 


2 


M 


M 


M 


3 


K 


f 


M 


4 


H 


M 


M 


5 


M 


>■ 


M 


t 


M 


M 


M 


7 


M 


M 


M 


8 


H 


M 


M 


9 


H 


M 


M 


IC 


M 


M 


M 


11 


M 


M 


M 


12 


M 


M 


M 


13 


H 


M 


M 


1* 


M 


M 


M 


15 


N 


M 


H 


16 


M 


M 


M 


17 


M 


f 


M 


18 


H 


M 


M 


IS 


M 


^ 


M 


2C 


M 


f 


M 


21 


H 


M 


M 


22 


M 


M 


H 


23 


H 


M 


M 


2* 


H 


M 


M 


25 


M 


M 


M 


2e 


M 


M 


M 


27 


M 


M 


M 


28 


H 


H 


M 


29 


M 




M 


30 


M 




M 



APR MAV 

MAX MIN MAX MIN 



DAILY TEMPERATURES (Fl 
JUNE JULY AUG 
MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



36 


21 


37 


18 


31 


16 


',^ 


17 


50 


?7 


SO 


30 


52 


33 


',') 


26 



M 




39 


20 


M 




51 


2'< 


M 




55 


33 


M 




51 


31 


A3 


31 


5 9 


29 


<.8 


2'. 


6'. 


35 


',2 


31 


65 


3^1 


<,S 


30 


59 


30 


50 


30 


63 


T, 


52 


31 


51 


30 


'.2 


26 


60 


30 


<i9 


29 


52 


29 


5<i 


28 


56 


29 


'i3 


30 


65 


'il 


<.7 


33 


69 


'.6 


iiS 


33 


66 


35 


57 


39 


68 


38 


61 


37 


62 


35 


55 


32 


61 


36 







YEAR 


1951 




SEPT 


nr. T 


NOV 


DEC 




MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


DAY 


M 


M 


M 


M 


1 


M 


M 


M 


M 


2 


M 


M 


M 


M 


3 



7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
!<• 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
2'. 
25 

26 
27 
28 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



69 16 
50 32 54 30 



M = MISSING DATA 



JAN 

MAX MIN 



ELEV.-10,620 



FEb 

MAX MIN 



MAR 
MAX MIN 



APR 

MAX MIN 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.E.F., COLORADO FOOL CK .-W IND TO WER 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (F) 
MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT 
MAX MIN MAX M[N MAX MIN MAX MIN KAX MIN 



'.5 
54 



53 

51 



53 

50 



31 

28 
'.9 29 
57 33 





YEAR 


1952 




OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


DAY 


M 


M 


M 


1 


M 


M 


M 


2 


M 


M 


M 


3 



7 


M 


e 


M 


9 


M 


10 


M 


11 


M 


12 


M 


13 


M 


lA 


N 


15 


M 


U 


M 


17 


M 


18 


M 


19 


M 


2C 


M 


21 


M 


22 


M 


23 


M 


2A 


M 


25 


M 


Zt 


H 


27 


H 


28 


M 


29 


H 


3C 


h 



A7 
51 



37 
Al 



51 

49 



39 
42 



47 
56 



52 
51 

51 



40 
37 
42 
42 
41 

35 

41 
37 



25 
24 



35 
32 

30 

24 
23 
27 
29 
31 

27 
26 
28 
28 
32 

25 
24 
27 
32 



62 39 

61 38 

62 33 
64 35 
62 38 



67 
75 
73 
75 
71 

63 
71 
67 
70 



70 
52 



42 
36 
39 
31 



17 
18 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



56 23 75 21 
46 30 64 36 



M = MISSING DATA 



ELEV.-10.620 





JftN 


FEB 


^•AR 


APR 


MAY 


Y 


M4X MlN 


MAX MINI 


MAX MIN 


MAX Ml N 


MAX MIN 


I 


M 


f 


M 


M 


M 


2 


H 


M 


M 


M 


M 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
. COLORADO FOOL CK .-W INDTOHER 



tlAILY TEMPERATURES I F I 

JUNE JULY AUG 
MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



37 
27 
23 
2B 
26 



70 
72 



60 
65 



39 
'.O 
38 



SEPT 

MAX MIN 



69 
63 
59 



OCT 
MAX MIN 



YFAR 1953 



NOV 
MAX MIN 



DEC 
MAX MIN 



9 
IC 

1 1 

12 
13 
!<• 
15 



10 
21 
21 



52 
6fl 
72 



M 



1^0 



Al 
39 



A2 

'tl 



61 
71 
72 
52 
59 



61 32 

65 37 

70 3<. 

71 35 

71 3B 



65 



36 



11 
12 
13 

l* 
15 



17 
18 
19 
2C 



<.5 
45 
39 



72 



36 
38 
63 36 
39 34 
62 36 



61 
59 



63 
68 



56 35 

62 33 
59 3A 

63 30 
67 36 



17 
18 
19 
20 



21 

27 
23 

2A 
25 

26 

27 
28 
29 
3C 



4'. 


32 


M 




53 


27 


M 




37 


21 


M 




36 


18 


M 




45 


IS 


M 




50 


26 


M 




50 


28 


54 


34 


34 


25 


57 


31 


M 




42 


26 


M 




59 


31 



69 37 



41 

39 



41 
43 

40 



71 

72 



70 
56 



62 
67 



67 36 

66 40 

62 32 

63 28 
66 36 



67 
69 
58 



35 



21 
22 
21 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 

30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



79 37 
69 41 



72 31 71 28 
65 37 65 34 



M = MISSING DATA 



YEARLY MAXIMUM 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.E.F., COLORADO FCOL C K . -W I NO TOWER 



II 
12 
1 3 
14 
15 

It 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
3C 





ELEV.-IO 


.620 




























YEAR 


1954 
















DAILY TEMPERATURES 


IF 1 














JAN 


Ft8 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


"IN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


1IN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


M 


M 


M 


M 




35 


19 


53 


19 


74 


46 


72 


41 


75 


46 


M 


M 


H 


M 


M 


M 


M 




31 


13 


44 


18 


68 


41 


76 


42 


65 


45 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


y 




50 


17 


64 


27 


69 


41 


75 


47 


60 


40 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 




48 


25 


69 


41 


72 


41 


66 


42 


58 


41 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 




51 


28 


66 


36 


69 


41 


59 


42 


58 


42 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 




55 


28 


53 


21 


72 


41 


65 


40 


67 


38 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 




51 


30 


48 


22 


70 


44 


62 


40 


62 


37 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 




62 


32 


65 


33 


66 


43 


73 


41 


46 


31 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 




65 


31 


64 


34 


77 


43 


70 


45 


63 


33 


M 


M 


M 


M 


V 


M 


47 


19 


46 


30 


62 


35 


76 


46 


66 


43 


65 


39 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


39 


21 


48 


31 


61 


31 


81 


46 


54 


41 


65 


39 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


42 


22 


57 


30 


69 


35 


73 


45 


64 


41 


52 


37 


H 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


46 


21 


47 


32 


59 


35 


76 


43 


60 


37 


60 


37 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


3R 


20 


60 


32 


52 


31 


70 


44 


66 


37 


66 


37 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


30 


14 


54 


36 


60 


33 


75 


46 


60 


42 


65 


41 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


47 


17 


56 


34 


68 


38 


72 


41 


M 




68 


39 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


49 


26 


60 


31 


78 


41 


63 


42 


M 




69 


41 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


47 


27 


60 


35 


77 


45 


67 


41 


M 




65 


36 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


44 


23 


68 


35 


77 


49 


66 


43 


M 




62 


34 


H 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


45 


25 


69 


36 


74 


46 


72 


43 


M 




62 


36 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


45 


17 


59 


33 


79 


43 


68 


48 


M 




68 


34 


M 


M 


M 


H 


M 


M 


49 


21 


48 


31 


83 


44 


50 


41 


M 




68 


38 


M 


M 


M 


H 


M 


M 


43 


31 


39 


31 


86 


46 


68 


42 


M 




51 


34 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


55 


31 


55 


27 


67 


43 


67 


43 


M 




48 


35 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


46 


24 


59 


34 


73 


42 


64 


41 


M 




M 




M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


51 


25 


52 


32 


66 


43 


70 


41 


M 




K 




M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


54 


29 


54 


19 


58 


39 


60 


41 


M 




M 




M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


52 


31 


50 


15 


67 


36 


72 


42 


M 




M 




M 


M 


M 


M 




M 


40 


22 


54 


29 


62 


36 


76 


48 


M 




M 




M 


M 


M 


M 




M 


42 


18 


63 


23 


66 


4 1 


74 


43 


M 




M 




M 


M 


M 



9 

10 

U 
12 
13 



16 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 

30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



69 13 86 18 81 41 

53 28 66 36 70 43 67 42 62 38 



YEARLY MAXIMUM 



MISSING DATA 



CL IMATOLOCICSL SU^'^•ARY 
, COLORAOO FCDL CK . -W I NDTOWER 



JAN FEB 

MAX MIN MAX HIN 



s 


M 


M 


10 


H 


f 


11 


H 


M 


12 


H 


n 


13 


M 


M 


l^i 


M 


M 


15 


M 


H 


16 


H 


M 


17 


M 


M 


13 


M 


M 


IS 


M 


H 


2C 


H 


M 


21 


H 


M 


2Z 


M 


M 


23 


M 


M 


2^ 


H 


M 


25 


M 


f 


26 


H 


H 


27 


H 


f 


28 


M 


M 


29 


M 




30 


M 





620 


























YEAR 1955 












DAILY TEMPERATURES 


(F 1 






















MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 




UEC 




KAX flu 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX Ml N 


MAX h 


IN 


MAX MIN 


DAY 


M 


M 


M 


M 




M 




M 




73 


39 


59 


29 


24 


12 


M 




1 


M 


M 


M 


50 


25 


M 




70 


44 


6H 


42 


57 


31 


25 


05 


M 




2 


M 


M 


M 


45 


25 


M 




73 


44 


72 


41 


54 


31 


45 


14 


M 




3 


M 


M 


M 


AU 


21 


M 




69 


45 


61 


43 


53 


25 


44 


26 


M 




4 


M 


M 


M 


40 


30 


M 




61 


45 


72 


43 


35 


15 


36 


18 


M 




5 


M 


M 


M 


51 


35 


73 


46 


55 


44 


58 


42 


31 


13 


33 


10 


M 




6 


M 


M 


M 


64 


39 


70 


40 


64 


43 


70 


41 


51 


23 


M 




M 




7 


M 


M 


M 


63 


27 


74 


40 


M 




69 


44 


59 


31 


M 




M 




a 


M 


M 


M 


J"* 


20 


76 


46 


M 




63 


41 


52 


28 


M 




M 




9 


f 


M 


M 


48 


27 


77 


48 


M 




64 


37 


60 


32 


M 




M 




10 


M 


M 


M 


60 


30 


62 


37 


M 




68 


36 


47 


32 


M 




M 




u 


M 


M 


M 


b2 


33 


72 


45 


M 




68 


45 


52 


24 


M 




M 




12 


M 


M 


M 


60 


34 


78 


45 


M 




65 


39 


58 


27 


M 




28 


11 


13 


M 


M 


M 


48 


32 


78 


44 


M 




67 


43 


61 


32 


M 




22 


05 


14 


M 


M 


H 


53 


33 


73 


44 


M 




61 


41 


56 


30 


M 




26 


02 


15 


M 


M 


M 


63 


32 


70 


42 


M 




69 


39 


M 




M 




25 


15 


16 


M 


M 


M 


51 


3\ 


72 


45 


M 




51 


40 


M 




M 




17 


12 


17 


M 


M 


M 


60 


36 


K 




M 




59 


37 


M 




M 




27 


16 


18 


M 


M 


M 


64 


38 


M 




M 




55 


36 


M 




M 




35 


22 


19 


M 


M 


M 


65 


40 


M 




M 




41 


30 


M 




M 




36 


20 


20 


M 


M 


M 


71 


39 


M 




M 




61 


31 


M 




M 




37 


17 


21 


M 


M 


M 


68 


39 


M 




M 




59 


32 


M 




22 


-1 


39 


25 


22 


M 


M 


M 


72 


42 


M 




M 




59 


33 


M 




21 


-2 


40 


26 


23 


M 


M 


M 


66 


44 


M 




M 




55 


29 


M 




17 


4 


39 


26 


24 


M 


M 


M 


64 


41 


M 




M 




50 


28 


46 


25 


28 


04 


32 


18 


25 


M 


M 


M 


68 


41 


M 




M 




42 


24 


43 


25 


34 


12 


32 


16 


26 


M 


u 


M 


M 


41 


M 




M 




57 


21 


30 


13 


25 


21 


36 


22 


27 


M 


M 


M 


72 


41 


M 




M 




57 


28 


23 


09 


M 




31 


15 


28 


M 


M 


M 


71 


36 


M 




68 


36 


52 


26 


20 


16 


H 




29 


15 


29 


H 


M 


M 


65 


29 


M 




72 


42 


54 


23 


42 


20 


M 




35 


19 


30 



MONTHLY 
EXTREMES 



72 20 
59 34 



73 44 67 43 



73 21 

61 36 



MISSING DATA 



ELEV.-10,620 





JAN 


FEB 


MAP 




APR 


MAY 


AY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX MIN 


1 


20 


04 


04 - 


13 


M 




41 


21 


46 27 


2 


20 


03 


12 - 


13 


M 




25 


13 


49 27 


3 


28 


02 


20 


-3 


M 




27 


09 


50 32 


4 


40 


17 


21 


01 


M 




37 


09 


53 37 


5 


37 


25 


30 


09 


M 




42 


11 


51 32 


6 


33 


16 


30 


04 


M 




25 


06 


53 33 


7 


29 


16 


14 


05 


M 




44 


15 


55 31 


8 


32 


14 


16 


-4 


M 




29 


16 


53 32 


9 


41 


13 


16 


-6 


H 




36 


10 


50 29 


IC 


35 


19 


24 


-4 


M 




47 


13 


37 22 


11 


32 


18 


13 


08 


M 




44 


24 


52 22 


12 


32 


18 


18 


12 


M 




42 


19 


51 24 


13 


26 


19 


M 




M 




43 


22 


34 ^8 


14 


21 


12 


M 




M 




28 


13 


M 


15 


25 


20 


M 




M 




33 


09 


M 


16 


28 


13 


M 




M 




37 


22 


M 


17 


19 


OB 


M 




M 




35 


20 


M 


18 


15 


08 


M 




M 




38 


IB 


M 


19 


17 


08 


M 




M 




37 


23 


M 


2C 


15 


06 


M 




29 


08 


47 


16 


M 


21 


19 


05 


M 




40 


17 


46 


21 


H 


22 


19 


07 


36 


12 


43 


17 


44 


24 


M 


23 


22 


01 


31 


15 


45 


19 


31 


24 


M 


24 


06 


-I 


23 


•2 


48 


18 


44 


25 


M 


25 


23 


02 


13 


-1 


45 


21 


45 


24 


M 


26 


25 


19 


22 


03 


42 


18 


47 


27 


M 


27 


25 


07 


f 




17 





46 


21 


M 


28 


13 


03 


H 




24 


5 


36 


19 


H 


29 


13 





M 




44 


6 


38 


20 


M 


30 


09 









45 


24 


45 


25 


M 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.E.F., COLORADO FOOL CK.-W I NDTOWER 



JUNE 
MAX MIN 



















YEAR 


956 




ERATURES 


(F 1 


















JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




AX MIN 


MAX 


1IN 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX PIN 


CAY 


62 


35 


55 


44 


69 


34 


48 


33 


M 


M 


1 


70 


36 


60 


42 


70 


36 


56 


30 


M 


M 


2 


69 


35 


70 


44 


66 


42 


58 


32 


M 


M 


3 


67 


3B 


66 


40 


M 




60 


39 


M 


M 


4 


75 


41 


69 


42 


M 




59 


37 


M 


M 


5 


73 


47 


74 


44 


M 




64 


36 


H 


M 


6 


73 


41 


74 


44 


M 




62 


39 


M 


M 


7 


76 


41 


73 


40 


M 




53 


35 


M 


M 


8 


M 




75 


47 


H 




56 


36 


M 


M 


9 


M 




74 


46 


M 




57 


32 


M 


M 


10 


M 




75 


42 


M 




57 


37 


M 


M 


11 


M 




65 


42 


M 




51 


25 


M 


M 


12 


M 




M 




M 




42 


23 


M 


M 


13 


H 




M 




M 




50 


24 


M 


M 


14 


M 




M 




M 




49 


23 


M 


M 


15 


M 




M 




M 




54 


34 


M 


M 


16 


M 




M 




71 


47 


50 


34 


M 


M 


17 


M 




M 




72 


42 


56 


31 


M 


M 


18 


M 




M 




70 


45 


40 


18 


M 


M 


19 


M 




M 




69 


44 


48 


16 


M 


M 


20 


M 




66 


36 


48 


32 


55 


27 


M 


M 


21 


M 




67 


39 


50 


29 


56 


33 


M 


M 


22 


M 




66 


41 


60 


26 


48 


34 


M 


M 


23 


M 




67 


41 


63 


34 


36 


18 


M 


M 


24 



76 


40 


70 


47 


63 


35 


53 


32 


76 


45 


70 


42 


59 


34 


58 


27 


61 


37 


66 


44 


55 


31 


57 


32 



26 
27 
28 
29 

30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 4l -3 



47 06 
39 IB 



M = MISSING DATA 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
, COLORADO FOOL CK .-W INDTO WER NO TEMPERATURE DATA COLLECTED 1957-1965 





ELEV. -10.620 






JAN 


FEB fAR 


APR 


MAY 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 



YEAR 1966 



DAILY TEMPfRATURES (F) 
JUNE JULY AUG 

MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 




DEC 




MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


DAY 


M 


M 


M 




35 


19 


1 


H 


H 


M 




33 


25 


2 


M 


M 


M 




36 


20 


3 


M 


M 


M 




29 


16 


<^ 


M 


M 


M 




31 


16 


5 


M 


M 


M 




3<i 


16 


6 


M 


M 


M 




30 


08 


7 


M 


M 


M 




15 


01 


8 


M 


M 


K 




06 


-09 


9 


M 


M 


M 




22 


-07 


10 


M 


M 


M 




21 


07 


11 


M 


M 


M 




26 


O'j 


12 


M 


M 


M 




30 


18 


13 


M 


M 


M 




25 


OA 


14 


M 


M 


M 




19 


0<. 


15 


M 


M 


M 




29 


u 


16 


M 


M 


M 




32 


16 


17 


M 


M 


M 




28 


11 


18 


M 


M 


M 




33 


-11 


19 


M 


M 


M 




33 


18 


20 


M 


M 


M 




32 


C 


21 


M 


M 


M 




l-i 


00 


22 


M 


M 


28 


11 


lb 


-06 


23 


M 


M 


2<. 


06 


2'. 


08 


2* 


M 


M 


21 


01 


17 


03 


25 



8MMM MMM MM 

9MMM MMM MM 

ICMMM MMM MM 

UM M M M M M M M 

l^M M M M M M M M 

13 MMM MMM MM 

14 MMM MMM MM 

15 MMM MMM MM 

16 MMM MMM MM 
I7M M M M M M M M 
18M M M M M M M M 
19 MMM MMM MM 
2CMMM MMM MM 

21 MMM MMM MM 

22 MMM MMM MM 

23 MMM MMM MM 
2^1 MMM MMM MM 

25 MMM MMM MM 

26 MMM MMM MMM M12 -03 20 06 26 

27 MMM MMM MMM M18 -08 10 -07 27 

28 M M M M M M M M M H 32 07 O'l -10 28 

29 M M MMM MMM M 38 14 06 -10 29 
3C M M MMM MMM M 38 21 13 -02 30 

31 M M M MM M 10 -01 31 

MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 36 -11 

AVE 23 6 AVE 

GAGE REESTABLISHED IN NQVEMRER M = MISSING DATA 

CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.E.F., COLORADO FOOL CK .- W INOTO WER 









ELEV 


.-10 


620 
































YEAR 1957 




























DAILY TEMPERATURES 


IF) 
























JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 




AY 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


DAY 


1 


16 


01 


21 


08 


47 


19 


43 


21 


21 


2 


52 


28 


71 


42 


70 


44 


58 


35 


62 


35 


35 


22 


27 


-02 


1 


2 


06 


-10 


24 


06 


39 


26 


44 


18 


27 


7 


56 


37 


71 


41 


67 


44 


63 


38 


64 


38 


24 


-1 


17 


-05 


2 


3 


M 




29 


08 


4 1 


27 


51 


23 


35 


10 


56 


36 


72 


42 


54 


42 


66 


42 


64 


39 


18 


-4 


36 


10 


3 


4 


30 


07 


35 


11 


40 


17 


43 


28 


40 


15 


50 


37 


64 


38 


67 


41 


53 


41 


55 


35 


24 


07 


25 


12 


4 


5 


30 


08 


25 


-02 


20 


-06 


43 


24 


42 


21 


56 


34 


65 


41 


68 


46 


65 


40 


52 


34 


28 


08 


28 


08 


5 


6 


14 


-02 


19 


-04 


18 


-07 


41 


19 


36 


21 


58 


38 


70 


44 


62 


43 


58 


42 


37 


24 


32 


09 


14 


-02 


6 


7 


04 


-20 


12 


-04 


12 


00 


50 


22 


46 


23 


55 


31 


65 


47 


60 


43 


64 


41 


40 


20 


39 


16 


24 


00 


7 


(> 


M 




20 


-05 


25 


-01 


47 


22 


52 


30 


58 


30 


61 


40 


62 


40 


59 


41 


48 


25 


37 


15 


12 


-01 


8 


9 


M 




24 


10 


40 


08 


14 


15 


55 


34 


59 


30 


68 


40 


57 


41 


53 


36 


53 


30 


42 


23 


M 




9 


IC 


M 




17 


10 


40 


16 


43 


13 


47 


30 


51 


31 


70 


43 


61 


39 


58 


36 


43 


31 


27 


21 


M 




10 


11 


M 


20 


17 


05 


39 


20 


48 


32 


46 


23 


50 


28 


66 


44 


62 


40 


59 


35 


55 


30 


44 


23 


M 




11 


12 


25 


09 


29 


12 


40 


18 


43 


21 


46 


22 


53 


27 


63 


41 


66 


41 


53 


26 


55 


28 


47 


28 


M 




12 


13 


20 


07 


34 


13 


38 


20 


24 


21 


33 


17 


48 


29 


69 


42 


64 


39 


48 


21 


56 


24 


45 


27 


04 


-03 


13 


14 


18 


15 


33 


15 


30 


18 


42 


19 


30 


14 


48 


31 


68 


46 


60 


35 


49 


29 


54 


22 


45 


30 


32 


10 


14 


15 


26 


14 


14 


00 


32 


07 


47 


23 


39 


19 


44 


29 


55 


42 


57 


35 


58 


28 


30 


16 


49 


29 


35 


21 


15 


16 


21 


-02 


07 


-01 


47 


18 


30 


8 


49 


28 


51 


29 


61 


39 


63 


35 


42 


30 


44 


15 


44 


27 


30 


01 


16 


17 


10 


-04 


10 


-01 


M 




46 


9 


52 


30 


60 


32 


58 


43 


66 


41 


52 


34 


50 


26 


44 


23 


09 


-09 


17 


18 


14 


02 


27 


10 


M 




50 


27 


51 


34 


66 


38 


65 


43 


62 


42 


44 


31 


55 


31 


44 


24 


M 




18 


19 


30 


06 


13 


00 


M 




49 


21 


51 


32 


57 


38 


65 


41 


55 


37 


48 


30 


51 


30 


36 


24 


M 




19 


2C 


34 


12 


15 


-10 


M 




34 


10 


46 


25 


59 


36 


67 


44 


63 


38 


54 


31 


54 


27 


35 


22 


M 




20 


21 


34 


18 


22 


-03 


M 




30 


7 


51 


28 


51 


35 


70 


46 


60 


38 


53 


38 


55 


32 


32 


17 


M 




21 


2i 


33 


22 


19 


-02 


44 


24 


39 


10 


56 


33 


55 


35 


75 


50 


50 


41 


66 


40 


51 


30 


22 


-7 


M 




22 


23 


37 


18 


18 


10 


49 


25 


33 


10 


61 


38 


66 


30 


62 


46 


69 


43 


65 


39 


39 


17 


19 


08 


M 




23 


24 


20 


U 


34 


12 


49 


26 


39 


14 


63 


41 


64 


28 


64 


43 


67 


44 


50 


38 


M 




22 


07 


H 




24 


25 


19 


08 


37 


18 


33 


14 


32 


16 


58 


38 


61 


34 


58 


45 


69 


45 


57 


37 


47 


26 


22 


06 


M 




25 


26 


16 


02 


26 


11 


43 


13 


44 


13 


40 


31 


62 


36 


71 


46 


67 


40 


44 


32 


27 


13 


18 


01 


M 




26 


27 


28 


U 


28 


05 


29 


19 


51 


28 


44 


31 


65 


38 


69 


44 


67 


42 


49 


27 


39 


14 


21 


-5 


M 




27 


28 


34 


14 


40 


12 


46 


21 


53 


27 


49 


33 


56 


36 


68 


39 


52 


39 


57 


34 


46 


19 


28 


01 


20 


08 


28 


29 


34 


18 






49 


25 


49 


16 


48 


30 


51 


34 


70 


44 


56 


42 


61 


39 


20 


9 


24 


11 


15 


05 


29 


30 


30 


17 






25 


4 


49 


IS 


46 


30 


71 


42 


70 


47 


54 


37 


51 


38 


27 


8 


28 


09 


14 


02 


30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 37 -20 40 -10 49 -07 53 7 63 2 71 27 75 38 70 35 68 21 64 8 49 -7 35 -09 

AVE 24 8 23 5 37 14 42 19 45 26 57 33 57 43 53 40 57 35 47 25 33 14 21 3 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 75, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 44, MINIMUM = -20. AVERAGE MINIMUM = 23 
M = MISSING DATA 



JAN 
fHX flu 



ELEV.-10,620 



FEB 
M4X «IN 



MAR 
MAX fIN 



APR 
MAX MIN 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
.E.F., CnLORADQ FOOL CK .-W INOTOWER 



MAY 
MAX MIN 



DAUY TEMPERATURES IFl 
JUNE JULY AUG 
MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



SEPT 
MAX MIN 



oc r 

MAX MIN 



Yl AR 196a 



NOV 
MAX MIN 



DEC 
MAX MIN 



in 
15 

n 

21 
22 



15 -3 

31 2 

2C B 

22 8 

31 7 



29 
31 
'.I 



22 
17 
2 
2 



5"^ 
53 
55 
53 
51 



60 
62 



71 
51 



6« 39 

60 '•i 

56 <.! 

70 39 

6<. 32 



35 

36 
26 
25 
28 



27 

30 
32 

30 



19 
19 
19 
10 



16 03 
07 -02 
16 -01 
30 13 
26 05 



12 -2 

26 -2 
2'i 3 

27 e 
26 8 



31 



17 
21 
18 



42 
16 

28 
39 



'.7 
32 
'V3 



52 
51 



72 
62 
72 
72 



39 
<.3 
AS 
'.2 



67 
68 
67 

70 
70 



28 
33 
22 
I'. 



22 08 

25 02 

25 OA 

25 13 

I'l 0<> 



26 
18 



37 



11 
12 
13 
lA 
15 



16 -10 

17 -10 
36 5 
35 7 
35 15 



36 
25 
31 



26 
35 
40 
23 

29 



52 
51 
37 
42 
48 



CO 
22 



17 
26 
20 
18 
16 



25 
31 
35 
32 
31 



62 
62 



60 



38 
28 
28 



70 
58 
59 
63 
56 



31 
31 
31 
35 
28 



27 
38 



35 06 
05 00 
09 -07 
28 04 
30 14 



U 

12 

13 



16 
17 

18 
19 
2C 



22 

30 
25 
29 
33 



38 9 

40 13 

27 7 

19 3 

22 I 



25 
14 
19 
13 



38 



32 12 

39 10 

43 19 

48 15 

43 28 



29 
33 

38 



60 30 

63 32 

66 32 

70 36 

68 40 



32 
31 
52 
58 
64 



27 13 

25 7 

39 7 

42 19 

52 27 



01 
03 
16 
15 



29 11 
15 00 
04 -04 
15 -09 
19 01 



17 
IB 
19 
20 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



37 17 
28 10 
30 10 

38 18 
37 18 



21 
17 
17 
18 
10 



17 

30 



39 15 

22 8 

33 -1 

41 7 

33 15 



62 



39 
39 
41 
32 
24 



76 
69 



39 
39 
42 



63 37 

67 35 
52 24 
69 26 

68 40 



30 
28 
18 
22 
25 



42 
43 
39 
45 
52 



41 20 

39 19 

22 10 

31 08 

25 02 



14 -09 
00 -12 
22 -06 
35 17 
2 5 09 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



26 
27 
28 
29 



32 
32 



27 
29 



36 
34 
17 
30 



11 
3 
17 
23 
26 



34 



21 
24 
27 
36 
33 



28 
40 
50 
27 
16 



59 
61 
66 
70 
59 



68 
53 
63 
52 



53 30 
56 28 
55 29 



2S 
24 



35 
27 



18 00 
25 05 
14 -01 
14 -08 
25 03 



21 
10 



20 
06 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 38 -10 



36 -3 52 -8 

29 13 35 12 

YEARLY MAXIMUM 



53 -1 62 5 84 16 82 30 
37 12 47 22 65 33 68 38 

84. AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 43, MINIMUM 



70 24 70 18 61 7 41 -06 37 -12 
62 36 57 31 46 25 26 9 20 3 
-12, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 20 



JAN 
MAX MIN 



ELEV.-10,620 



FEB 

MAX MIN 



MAR 
MAX MIN 



APR 
MAX MIN 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.E.F., COLORADO FOOL CK .-W INOTOWER 



MAY 
MAX MIN 



DAILY TEMPERATURES IF) 
JUNE JULY AUG 
MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN 



SEPT 
rAX MIN 



OCT 

MAX MIN 



YEAR 1969 



NOV 
MAX MIN 



DEC 
MAX MIN 



30 
24 
18 
19 
27 

33 
38 
32 
11 
20 



11 -03 

-02 -09 

15 -09 

38 07 

27 08 



23 
20 
21 
32 
31 



07 
05 
CO 
09 
08 



32 13 

26 04 

28 03 

28 07 

18 00 

21 00 

13 -04 

14 -06 
14 -07 

19 -04 



34 

33 



20 
18 
24 
21 
22 



17 
21 



52 
56 
52 
42 
40 

36 
35 
43 
52 



53 

56 



22 


78 


25 


81 


32 


82 



76 
74 
72 



74 

76 



81 
79 

80 



52 
50 



70 



38 
40 



38 
29 



69 30 

59 30 
72 30 

60 34 
58 34 



50 
57 
27 
23 
2S 



16 
24 
26 



16 
28 
42 
41 



1 

1 

14 

20 

20 
15 
10 
18 
18 



22 
22 
12 
14 



12 -2 

12 -4 

12 -4 

12 -2 

9 00 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



28 
32 
35 
36 
31 



13 
15 

18 
10 
05 



22 -03 

14 -08 

15 -04 
20 -03 
28 03 



25 
26 
24 
22 
23 



52 
52 
54 



42 

47 



30 
31 
32 



45 

46 



70 
68 
63 
68 
74 



63 
62 
56 



30 
31 
27 
28 
27 



18 2 
22 2 
32 2 



22 
26 
20 
28 
38 



2 
11 
16 
18 
20 



11 
12 
13 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



29 
21 
22 
27 
36 



26 12 

24 09 

29 03 

32 09 

I 7 07 



37 
41 
40 
25 
31 



27 
39 



28 
28 
35 
35 
42 



32 
34 
39 



63 

58 



46 
42 

40 



42 

40 
38 
40 



29 
29 
27 
28 
31 



25 
42 

40 



28 14 

14 -4 

4 -8 

20 -6 

35 10 



20 
17 
16 
18 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



35 16 
23 12 
13 -07 

08 -10 
26 07 



21 
21 
22 
27 
35 



41 
37 
25 
19 
16 



54 
55 
56 



26 
10 



50 
45 



44 
50 



70 
51 
50 



42 
45 

48 



71 
69 

70 



56 28 

48 26 

59 24 

55 23 

59 30 



28 
20 
17 
20 



41 
30 
32 
38 



32 
31 
24 
22 
17 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



33 18 
29 11 
20 06 

15 -C6 

16 -11 

13 -02 



10 
01 
14 



28 08 

38 10 

42 20 

4C 18 

44 22 

50 28 



25 
33 
47 



55 
58 



22 
28 
40 
31 
32 



70 
72 
76 
67 



63 33 



68 45 
58 40 
58 40 



60 
62 
56 



42 
41 
42 
19 
23 



32 
23 
31 



2 -8 
4 -8 



26 

27 
28 
29 
30 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 36 -11 



38 -09 50 -08 

25 6 28 6 

YEARLY MAXIMUM 



56 10 66 24 74 22 82 38 
42 22 51 30 55 32 70 45 

82. AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 43, MINIMUM 



81 37 72 23 57 2 44 
69 44 61 31 35 16 30 
-11, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 22 



M ' MISSING CATA 



CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
, COLORADO FOOL CK .-w IMDTOWER 



ELEV.-10.6?0 



DAILY TEMPERATURES (F) 

JAN FEP MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

DAY MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX M|N MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 

1 02 -12 C9 CO 36 12 17 -01 27 06 '.2 18 76 'i 1 77 '•S 69 '.2 53 3A 22 16 29 06 I 

2 -01 -15 O'l -02 35 15 29 07 '.1 08 50 26 7^ ^6 76 55 63 37 55 3A 22 04 32 12 2 
', CO -10 19 01 27 10 18 -03 <>» 19 50 30 7'. <i6 T< "la 66 38 59 33 2'. 08 20 06 3 
1, 10 -OS 18 03 31 0<. 27 -05 53 30 50 29 76 4 3 65 '.7 62 3'i 55 33 35 05 32 08 t, 

5 00 -17 26 05 2'- 08 32 12 52 29 55 29 70 'i3 71 <,6 55 34 54 30 38 18 30 08 5 

6 02 -18 28 14 30 04 44 15 54 32 54 34 66 42 68 48 48 31 45 28 39 27 34 15 6 

7 CO -09 31 10 38 10 46 22 48 30 56 35 54 45 59 44 54 34 38 09 37 21 36 19 7 
e 15 -07 35 07 44 06 41 16 38 18 55 34 68 44 68 45 68 34 24 04 22 12 32 20 8 
9 18 04 35 12 32 12 40 15 41 18 53 34 63 41 72 45 60 35 32 10 27 08 38 19 9 

IC 21 U 40 16 21 07 43 19 50 19 45 29 66 40 75 44 69 35 30 19 36 19 20 05 10 

11 20 07 38 18 21 05 35 09 52 29 36 25 62 43 74 44 67 40 34 12 29 04 22 00 11 

12 19 08 30 20 26 06 20 02 52 28 44 25 60 42 77 45 52 40 53 20 35 15 18 -04 12 

13 25 07 28 11 22 10 37 02 47 24 50 38 74 40 74 48 59 33 45 26 22 09 26 04 13 

14 28 07 18 04 33 14 39 09 36 14 64 38 77 48 70 47 57 34 36 13 17 03 25 10 14 

15 22 13 26 06 26 10 25 07 43 13 64 34 74 47 60 46 54 27 40 10 35 03 12 -01 15 

16 23 05 40 12 29 06 41 07 56 27 69 33 76 44 71 41 59 33 42 IB 36 14 30 -02 15 

17 23 14 39 05 32 04 40 IS 59 35 71 37 78 50 70 44 52 30 39 15 23 14 30 15 17 

18 19 11 12 -05 10 -10 22 12 60 42 73 37 59 47 71 41 63 37 41 15 19 10 15 03 18 

19 20 15 18 -07 18 -11 23 10 58 41 68 35 70 44 63 45 68 36 38 22 12 06 18 -01 19 

20 22 17 32 -02 20 -05 18 04 59 37 63 40 65 41 58 4' 53 35 48 20 28 06 21 01 20 

21 27 14 32 12 20 -04 33 04 60 33 66 39 76 44 58 35 4C 24 39 24 28 20 14 -02 21 

22 27 21 35 14 22 06 28 08 56 32 73 42 64 44 50 36 42 23 35 24 23 17 14 02 22 

23 38 24 30 12 34 07 26 06 56 32 69 41 64 42 63 42 48 21 38 18 29 15 08 -10 23 

24 35 15 28 09 38 11 38 04 57 32 78 44 69 42 54 42 46 22 39 19 40 28 08 -05 24 

25 24 12 25 08 12 -03 48 15 54 31 74 48 69 42 71 45 28 13 31 08 47 27 20 -04 25 

2t 30 14 31 05 14 -02 52 23 56 34 80 47 63 39 69 45 40 12 23 03 28 15 20 02 25 

27 38 17 30 07 23 -01 51 23 55 32 84 51 73 42 68 45 50 24 17 00 32 13 17 03 27 

28 14 -04 32 12 32 -03 22 10 50 30 80 50 75 42 73 44 55 31 25 03 27 13 12 -02 28 

29 02 -08 22 05 26 10 55 30 69 45 70 44 73 44 56 35 32 13 33 14 22 -02 29 
3C 19 -10 15 04 25 05 54 28 55 42 78 49 70 45 57 36 37 21 31 12 11 00 30 

31 28 03 18 02 45 23 75 45 67 44 • 36 20 24 05 31 

HtlNTHL Y 

EXTREMES 38 -18 40 -07 44 -11 52 -05 60 06 84 18 78 39 77 36 59 12 59 00 47 03 38 -10 

AVE 18 4 28 7 26 5 33 10 51 27 62 36 70 44 59 45 56 31 39 18 29 13 22 4 AVE 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 84, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 42. MINIMUM = -18, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 20 



CL IMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY 
F.E.F., COLORADO FOOL CK.-Wl NDTOWER 

ELEV.-10,620 YEAR 1971 

DAILY TEMPERATURES (F) 

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

DAY MAX MIN MAX MINI MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX M|N MAX MIN MAX MIN DAY 

1 18 10 39 22 09 -14 18 02 52 23 54 33 55 40 54 39 67 40 40 14 28 08 23 02 I 

2 17 -6 34 20 10 -12 37 02 56 27 55 32 72 42 62 43 58 43 26 14 18 05 22 04 2 

3 -06 -IS 21 02 26 -12 31 09 58 32 56 32 67 40 66 45 60 27 37 15 34 06 20 03 3 

4 -10 -22 13 -5 23 16 26 00 55 22 42 25 71 40 54 44 34 25 48 20 46 18 11 -02 4 

5 -13 -26 07 -4 18 -5 33 06 36 20 50 26 72 40 65 42 50 26 51 25 27 01 12 -08 5 

5 -05 -20 03 -10 05 -10 44 12 42 21 50 28 72 48 65 41 67 37 53 31 32 00 25 03 5 

7 -01 -24 03 -17 26 -9 47 24 42 22 57 26 65 44 56 38 54 33 54 32 40 10 16 04 7 

8 15 -8 13 03 34 08 38 19 39 24 55 34 67 42 67 38 51 31 50 28 40 12 16 -02 8 

9 24 13 24 -1 28 00 45 20 40 22 51 31 70 40 64 41 62 33 49 24 40 10 24 -02 9 

10 27 07 30 12 29 09 52 28 32 25 51 33 74 52 62 41 60 37 57 31 54 18 05 -10 10 

11 32 02 21 14 33 10 53 30 44 24 56 34 80 46 59 46 58 41 57 34 51 23 12 -05 11 

12 32 -4 31 08 40 12 48 24 52 24 50 33 80 52 59 42 68 45 52 28 45 28 07 -11 12 

13 13 01 35 16 32 10 44 14 55 28 5', 32 78 54 55 43 68 41 55 25 34 11 14 00 13 

14 10 -1 35 15 14 01 50 28 48 32 60 35 75 46 65 45 64 32 52 32 32 11 15 -05 14 

15 27 08 40 14 18 05 48 28 52 30 50 35 74 43 70 43 52 25 52 37 34 22 11 -02 15 

15 36 22 28 09 25 03 50 22 54 32 53 40 75 44 58 48 52 19 48 31 34 12 05 -07 16 

17 33 25 35 11 32 00 50 25 35 15 57 40 78 47 71 48 20 10 44 21 15 01 24 -04 17 

18 30 23 24 14 05 -7 46 25 36 14 68 36 65 43 55 46 76 10 28 13 08 -07 34 11 18 

19 32 IS 23 04 22 -8 29 IB 34 16 69 37 54 38 50 44 38 10 32 10 14 -07 22 03 19 

20 39 15 14 -5 40 03 23 16 50 20 70 44 55 38 60 44 44 20 43 15 40 10 22 04 20 

21 18 -2 06 -12 40 10 38 19 57 30 72 43 61 42 58 42 35 25 42 27 39 19 25 11 21 

22 15 -8 19 -12 37 18 35 20 52 25 79 37 58 39 58 47 41 20 42 23 20 14 30 16 22 

23 18 -3 16 -3 33 23 44 15 37 13 75 44 56 39 53 46 52 23 48 23 26 08 35 20 23 

24 22 -2 23 -4 30 15 45 19 44 13 80 52 66 39 60 43 53 30 45 27 35 12 42 19 24 

25 24 11 26 -7 30 i6 44 26 54 30 78 52 67 40 54 43 61 30 45 32 34 07 37 25 25 

26 25 12 04 -10 58 25 34 14 55 32 79 53 68 40 62 45 62 34 32 26 20 03 34 19 26 



28 


34 


10 


29 


36 


12 


3C 


36 


22 



34 


11 


40 


11 


60 


32 


45 


10 


38 


16 


51 


29 


49 


22 


48 


18 


38 


14 



41 


61 


43 


50 


22 


37 


?4 


15 


39 


57 


40 


57 


34 


29 


05 


17 


33 


65 


39 


58 


32 


18 


00 


19 



23 


02 


28 


14 


00 


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oe 


-06 


30 


19 


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31 



MONTHLY 

EXTREMES 39 -26 40 -17 58 -14 53 00 60 13 80 25 80 33 71 36 68 10 62 00 54 -07 42 -11 

AVE 21 3 21 2 29 6 40 18 47 24 52 38 59 42 64 43 54 29 44 23 31 9 20 2 AVE 

YEARLY MAXIMUM = 80, AVERAGE MAXIMUM = 42, MINIMUM = -26, AVERAGE MINIMUM = 20 

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•A Forest Service 
arch Paper RM-81 



cy Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station ''^ COLORADO 

St Service 

Department of Agriculture 

Collins, Colorado 



NATURAL MORTALITY OF THE 
WESTERN SPRUCE BUDWORM, 

CHORISTONEURA OCCIDENTAUS 



by M. E. McKnight 




ABSTRACT 

Most outbreaks of the western spruce budworm ( Choristoneura 
occidentalis Freeman) in the central and southern Rocky Mountains 
are eventually terminated by natural causes. This study was initiated 
to identify and determine the relative importance of natural mortality 
factors. Life tables were prepared for two generations of budworms 
at three locations on two host species. Relationships between sur- 
vival rates, fecundities, and sex ratios as dependent variables and 
budworm densities, survival from parasitism and predation, measures 
of food supply, and survivals in age-intervals as independent variables 
were analyzed by multiple regression. Considerable mortality was 
credited to unknown factors, possibly including infestation-induced 
changes in food quantity and quality, and weather. Mortality due to 
these factors was much higher in decreasing populations than in 
increasing. 

Key words: Choristoneura occidentalis, western spruce budworm. 



JSDA Forest Service December 1971 

Research Paper RM-81 



Natural Mortality of the Western Spruce Budworm, 
Choristoneura occidentalis, in Colorado 



by 



M. E. McKnight, Entomologist 
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 



Central headquarters maintained at Fort Collins in cooperation with 
Colorado State University; author is assigned to the Shelterbelt Laboratory at 
Bottineau in cooperation with North Dakota State University, Bottineau Branch. 



FOREWORD 

To plan the protection of forest resources, 
the land manager should be able to predict 
the trends of pest populations accurately. He 
cannot afford costly control programs against 
outbreaks which would have collapsed of natural 
causes, nor can he delay the protection of 
valuable stands on the chance that the out- 
break will terminate before the damage becomes 
intolerable. A fuller knowledge of the regu- 
lators of pest populations is needed to provide 
the essential evaluation procedures. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Methods 1 

The Study Areas 1 

Preparation of Life Tables 2 

Notation 3 

Age-intervals 3 

Estimation of Absolute Densities 4 

Techniques of Analysis 4 

Results 6 

Survival in the "Egg Through Instar III" Age-interval (Sp) 6 

Survival in the "Instar IV Through V" Age-interval (S jy ) 6 

Survival in the "Instar VI Through Early Pupa" Age-interval (S yj ) 6 

Survival in the "Pupa" Age-interval (Sp) 7 

Proportion of Females (Po) 7 

Proportion of Maximum Fecundity (P^ ) 7 

Survival of Moths 7 

Survivorship Curves 9 

Implications 12 

Literature Cited 12 



r 



Natural Mortality of the 
Western Spruce Su6\N0rm, Chor/stoneura occidentalis. 

in Colorado 



M E. McKnight 



INTRODUCTION 

Outbreaks of the western spruce budworm, 
Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidop- 
tera: Tortricidae), are common in the mixed 
conifer stands of the central and southern 
Rocky Mountains. Most are of short duration 
and remain localized; others may persist for 
10 years or longer and spread over thousands 
of acres. 

Most outbreaks, small and large, are termi- 
nated by identifiable natural factors. Some- 
times a late spring freeze kills the new buds 
or expanded shoots, and the budworm larvae 
starve without their preferred food. This prob- 
ably halted a 14-year outbreak in Cody Canyon 
on the Shoshone National Forest in Wyoming 
in 1936. A similar freeze helped end an infesta- 
tion which spread over the Front Range forest 
of Colorado from 1935 to 1945. 

However, some outbreaks disappear even 
though great numbers of larvae are present 
in apparently good health. In 1946, larvae 
were abundant in June in an infestation near 
LaVeta Pass on the San Isabel National Forest. 
A month later no larvae and very few pupae 
could be found; in August the needles on 
more than 600 linear feet of Douglas-fir branches 
were examined without finding a budworm 
egg mass. 

Similarly, larvae and pupae were very abun- 
dant in June and July 1962 in research plots 
on the Pike and Roosevelt National Forests. 
These areas were part of an outbreak which 
encompassed about 640,000 acres in Colorado 
that year. No new egg masses were found in 
those areas in August, and, in most other 
infestations in Colorado, densities of new egg 
masses were at their lowest levels since the 
outbreak began its general spread in 1958 and 
1959. In 1963, a braconid, Bracon politiventris 
'(Gush.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), normally 
rare, was abundant in some areas. It was 
perhaps the final factor to eliminate popula- 
tions from specific locations. The collapse 
jOf the outbreak seemed to be initiated by the 
Igreatly reduced egg deposition in 1962. 



This study was undeiiaken to achieve a 
better understanding of regulators of budworm 
populations. 



METHODS 

The Study Areas 

Three principal study areas were established 
on the San Isabel National Forest. The Ophir 
Creek I area in the Wet Mountain Range, and 
the Balman Reservoir area about 50 miles away 
on the eastern slope of the Sangre de Cristo 
Range, represented mature and overmature 
stands (about 90 and 120 years old, respectively) 
consisting mainly of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga 
menziesii var. glauca), and white fir ( Abies 
concolor ). The Ophir Creek II area, about 
1 mile from the Ophir Creek I area, represented 
young stands (about 40 years old) of white 
fir and Engelmann spruce ( Picea engelmanni ) 
under an aspen (Populus tremuloides) over- 
story. 

At the beginning of each budworm genera- 
tion, 10 trees of each of two host species were 
selected in each study area. Each such group 
of 10 trees constituted a "plot," and data were 
obtained from each plot in each study area 
for the 1964-65 and the 1965-66 generations of 
budworms. 

At each sampling time, two branches about 

24 inches long were taken from the middle 
one-third of the crown of each sample tree 
(fig. 1). The measured length and width of 
the foliated area of each branch were used to 
calculate foliage az'ea, which was regarded as a 
factor to equate branches of different sizes. 
The density of the budworm population was 
calculated by dividing the total count of insects 
by the total foliage area (in 100 square inches) 
examined. 

Hygrothermographs were installed about 

25 feet aboveground in Douglas-fir trees. Four 
moth traps baited with virgin female moths 
were installed at the same places each year 
to record the activity of male moths. 




Figure 1. — Scarries of foliage were gathered 
in a basket on the pole pruner. The 
foliage was examined for larvae and pupae 
in the field, but egg masses were counted 
in the laboratory. 



Preparation of Life Tables 

Changes in budworm density were recorded 
in life tables prepared according to the tech- 
niques described by Morris and Miller (1954) 
with some modification as suggested by V. M. 



Carolin. 



Table 1 is a mean life table based 



on the 12 life tables prepared, one for each of 
two generations on two host tree species at 
the three study areas (McKnight 1967). 



Principal Entomologist , Pacific Northwest 
Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Portland, Oregon. 



." ■■"»»S«J1»*»'.-- 



Table 1. — Mean life table for two generations of the western-spruce budworm on six plots 

on the San Isabel National Forest 



Age- 
interval, 

X 



Number alive per ^ ., , 

T __ . , „ Factor responsible 

100 square inches, N„, . ^ -, . ^ ■., 

^ Z ■ ■ c\ ^ for mortality, M^ 

at beginning of X • X 



\ 



percentage 

of N^ 



Survival 
rate, S^, 

within X 



Real 
mortality. 



V^ 



Egg through 
instar III 



Instar IV 
through V 

Instar VI 
through 
early pupa 



Pupa 



30.97 
20.10 

9.69 
3.97 



Moth 






3 


20 


Females x 2 






2 


88 


"Normal" 










females x 2 






1 


73 


Actual femal 


es 


X 2 




57 


Generation 











Parasitoids 

Other 

All 

Parasitoids 

Other 

All 

Parasitoids 
Predators 
Other 
All 

Parasitoids 

Predators 

Other 

All 

Sex ratio 
p4- = 0.45 

Reduced fecundity 

Adult mortality 
± dispersal 



1.0 
34. 1 
35.1 

20.0 
31.8 
51.8 

20.8 

1.1 

37.1 

59.0 

8.4 

5.0 

6.1 

19.5 

10.0 
39.8 
66.9 



98.2 



0.649 
.482 

.410 

.805 
.900 

.602 

.331 

.018 



0.351 
.336 

.185 

.025 
.010 

.037 

.037 

.982 



Expected eggs: 222.34 = 154.4 eggs x 1.44 females 

Actual eggs: 44.00 Maximum fecundity recorded: 256.5 eggs 

Index of population trend: Expected 718 percent; Actual 142 percent 



dotation 



Age-intervals 



The symbols used in the life tables and 

;he analyses are defined as follows: 

STx Population density of the western spruce 
budworm, expressed as the number of 
insects per 100 square inches of foliage, 
at the beginning of any age-interval X. 
Ng, Njv, Nvi, Np, Nm represent the 
number of eggs, instar IV larvae, instar 
VI larvae, "late" pupae, and moths, respec- 
tively. 

VIX The number of budworms dying in any 
age-interval X. 

5X The percentage of budworms surviving in 
any age-interval X. 

1 A generation of the western spruce bud- 
worm, 
m-l The generation following n. 

Dn The percent loss of needles from new- 
growth shoots in the year in which lai'vae 
of generation n matiu"e. 

Mi Mpar and Mpred represent mortality 
caused by parasites or predators, respec- 
tively. 

Si Spar and Sprg^ represent survival from 
parasitism or predation, respectively. 



The decrease in population density from 
one sampling time to the next was termed 
"mortality." The samplings were timed to 
delimit appropriate age-intervals which encom- 
passed significant instars, life stages, or bio- 
logical events. 

The "egg through instar III" age-interval.— 

Counts of egg masses were converted to counts 
of eggs, Njt;, from estimates of the average 
number of eggs per mass or by the use of 
egg mass regi'essions (McKnight 1969). The 
difference between Ng and Njy was Mg. 
Se = Niv/Ne = 0.649.^ 

The "instar IV through V" age-interval.— 

The sampling was made when the larvae had 
established their feeding sites in opening buds, 
usually when instar IV predominated. About 
half the sample of lai'vae was reared (fig. 2) 
to determine the percentage of parasitism by 
Apanteles sp. and Glypta fumiferanae (Vier. ). 
The difference between Njy and Nyi was the 
total mortality for this age-interval. Mortality 



See corresponding S survival percentages 
in table 1 . 




Figure 2. — Larvae of the westexm spruce bud- 
worm were reared on foliage in trays (A). 
Cocoons of parasitoids and budworm pupae 
were held in vials on wall racks (B) until 
adults emerged. 




due to parasitoids was determined from the 
rearings and the remainder was due to "other" 
causes. Sjv = Nyi/Niy = 0-482. 

The "instar VI through early pupa" age- 
interval.— The sampling was made when about 
40 percent of the budworm population had 
pupated, and the dipteran parasitoids had com- 
pleted their attack against the larvae but no 
mortality had occurred. Larvae and pupae 
from the sample were held for emergence of 
parasitoids or moths, which were used in fecun- 
dity trials (fig. 3). The Nyi was the number 
of larvae and pupae in the sample. Total 
mortality during the age-interval was the differ- 
ence between Np and Nyj reduced by the per- 
cent mortality in the reared sample due to 
Apanteles sp. and Glypta fimiiferanae , Syj = 
Np Nvi= 0.410. 



The "pupa" age-interval.— The sampling 
was made when 60 to 80 percent of the moths 
had emerged, and attack of the pupae by para- 
sitoids was considered complete. Living pupae 
were held for emergenceof parasitoids or moths. 
The moths were used in fecundity trials. Mor- 
tality due to Hymenoptera was tallied in this 
age-interval. The number of pupae killed by 
Diptera and the number of empty pupal cases 
showing holes left by escaping dipterans were 
ignored because this mortality was tallied in 
the previous age-interval. Pupal cases damaged 
by predators such as birds or budworm larvae 
were tallied. Np was the sum of the Nm plus 
the density of parasitized pupae from the rearing 
(ignoring Diptera) plus the density of pupae 
damaged by predators. Sp = Njyj Np = 0.805. 

The "moth" age-interval.— The density of 
moths, N]y[, was the sum of the number of 
pupal cases showing normal emergence of m-Oths 
at the time of sampling in the pupa age-interval 
plus the number of moths emerging in the 
collection. 



a budworm population .) The effect of reduced 
fecundity, Pp (0.602), was tallied in the females 
X2 age-interval. 

Actual females X 2.— The Nx was com- 
puted from the number of eggs (counted in 
August) divided by the mean fecundity (from 
fecundity trials) times 2. This computation 
allows for adult mortality and dispersal into 
and out of the area. Morris (1963) used the 
theoretical F instead of mean fecundity. Sm = 
actual females X2/"normar' femalesX2= 0.331. 

Expected eggs and actual eggs.— The ex- 
pected density of eggs was calculated from the 
mean fecundity times the number of females 
(Njvi times P?)- The actual density of eggs 
was measured in August. 

Index of population trend.— These indices 
are comparisons of expected and actual numbers 
of eggs to the density of eggs at the beginning 
of the generation, expressed as percentages. 



Estimation of Absolute Densities 

To estimate the survival of moths, it was 
necessary to express budworm numbers as 
absolute densities, or numbers per unit of 
land area. Morris (1955) described computations 
to estimate absolute densities using cone vol- 
ume, estimated from d.b.h., and branch surface 
regressions. Similar regressions were computed 
from data from the Opiiir Creek I study area. 
Crown lengths and widths were obtained from 
Douglas-fir, white fir, and Engelmann spruce 
trees. The crowns were regarded as cones and 
their volumes were computed. Measurements 
of branch surface were obtained from felled 
Douglas-fir trees. The density of each tree 
species and the mean diameters were avail- 
able from the stand description. 



Females x 2.— The Nx was two times the 
product of the percentage females and N^. 
The effect of an unequal sex ratio, P^ (0.900), 
was tallied in the "moth" age-interval. 

"Normal" females X 2.— The Nx was com- 
puted from the Nx for the females X 2 age- 
interval times the ratio between the mean 
fecundity and maximum fecundity recorded in 
the fecundity trial. (This maximum fecundity 
differs from the theoretical F that Morris (1963) 
used as the maximum fecundity per female of 



Techniques of Analysis 

Data in the life tables were analyzed by 
methods similar to those of Morris (1963) and 
coworkers. Survival rates, sex ratios, and 
fecundities (transformed to log 10,000 Sx, log 
10,000 P^ , log 10,000 Pp, respectively) were 
treated as dependent variables in stepwise multi- 
ple regression analyses. Budworm densities, 
survivals from parasitism and predation (trans- 
formed to log 10,000 Si), measures of food 
supply, and survivals in age-intervals (trans- 
formed) were treated as independent variables. 




Figure 3.— Fecundity 
trials were aonduoted 
by aonfining paired 
moths with foliage in 
cages (A) affixed to 
racks in the rearing 
room of the laboratory 
trailer. Needles 
bearing egg masses 
were collected (B), the 
eggs were counted, and 
the egg masses were 
held in sleeves of 
gauze in plastic 
vials (C). 





RESULTS 

Survival in the "Egg Tlirough Instar III" 
Age-interval (Sg) 

Dn-i, the defoliation caused by larvae of 
the preceding generation, was evaluated as a 
variable affecting Se because instar II larvae 
seldom mine needles more than 1 year old. 
Ne was used as another independent variable. 
Few observations of parasitism of eggs were 
available; therefore, Ng was corrected for para- 
sitism by dividing Se by (Ne - Mpai.)/NE on 
those plots where parasitism of eggs was ob- 
sei'ved. 

The multiple regression analysis indicated 
that Se was significantly correlated with log 
Ne but not with D^-i, and that the two inde- 
pendent variables were not significantly related. 
The model Se = 9.21 — 1.01 log Ne accounted 
for about 84 percent of the variation in Se- 

The population density increased and Se 
declined from the 1964-65 generation to the 
1965-66 generation on five of the six plots. 
Ne averaged 18 eggs in 1964 and 48 in 1965; 
Se dropped from 0.906 to 0.301. On the Doug- 
las-fir plot at Balman Reservoir, Ne dropped 
from 28 in 1964 to 11 in 1965; Se increased from 
0.816 to 0.932. 

The model for Se suggests that survival 
of this age-interval is density-dependent— the 
more eggs, the lower the survival. The degree 
to which the instar I and II larvae are dis- 
persed may be a function of the number of 
larvae moving about on the foliage and stimu- 
lating each other to drop by their threads. 
The occurrence of wind in this period must be 
an important factor. 

Survival in the "Instar IV Through V" 
Age-interval (Sjy) 

Instar IV and V larvae should be most 
affected by factors related to food, parasitism, 
and rate of development. No data were avail- 
able concerning the number of new shoots 
available to instar IV larvae. However, an 
index of food quantity (N^) was computed 
as the product of the average millimeters of 
shoot growth (G) times the average number of 
needles per millimeter (N). These data were 
taken at the end of the growing season as part 
of the defoliation analysis for each plot. 

Parasitism, largely by Apanteles fumifera - 
nae Vier. and Glypta fumiferanae , was care- 
fully evaluated throughout the study, and good 
data were available for most plots. Sp^j. = 
l-Mpai- was computed for each plot. 



Multiple regression analyses failed to show 
significant relationships between density of lar- 
vae, food supply, or parasitism and Sjv, or 
between the independent variables themselves. 

The data and the analyses suggest that 
Spar which ranged from about 69 percent to 
about 87 percent, was not a significant mortality 
factor in this age-interval. Sjv decreased on 
four of the six plots from the 1964-65 generation 
to the 1965-66 generation. On those four plots, 
mortality due to unidentified factors was high, 
from 42 percent to 71 percent in the 1965-66 
generation; this mortality was low, from 17 
percent to 21 percent, on the two plots on 
which Siv increased. 

The availability of food must certainly be 
one of the most important factors influencing 
survival during this age-interval. The analysis 
indicated that lengths of individual shoots and 
the numbers of needles on each were not 
related to SjV' t)ut there were no data to 
evaluate the numbers of shoots available. 
Future study of this age-interval should include 
counts of shoots at the time of sampling for 
Niv- 



Survival in the "Instar VI Through Early Pupa" 
Age-interval (Syj) 

Population density, parasitism, and food 
availability were evaluated as independent vari- 
ables. Because few assessments of predation 
were available, Syj was corrected for predation 
by dividing Syi by (Nyi - Mnred)/Nvi- 

Multiple regression analyses indicated that 

the model Syi = 2.29 yi S par - 0-48 Nyi ' ^ 
explained about 76 percent of the variation in 

Syj. Only Nyi was significantly correlated 
with Syi; none of the independent variables 
were correlated with each other. 

Syi decreased on all six plots from the 
1964-65 generation to the 1965-66 generation. 
Mortality due to parasitoids decreased on three 
plots. Mortality due to unidentified factors 
increased on five plots. 

Parasitism was low, about 7 percent, for 
both generations on Engelmann spruce in the 
Ophir Creek II area. Mortality due to para- 
sitoids varied from 10 percent to 35 percent 
on the other plots. 

Several species of Diptera attack larvae 
during instar VI and kill their hosts shortly 
before or after pupation (McKnight 1968). Both 
Madremyia saundersii (Will.) and Omotoma 



umiferanae (Tot.) deposit macro-type eggs on 
:he integument of instar VI larvae. Eggs of 
"eromasia auricaudata Tns. are deposited on 
he foliage and eaten by instar VI larvae. The 
losts do not die until pupation. C. auricaudata 
A'as the most important parasitoidattheBalman 
[leservoir area and on Douglas-fir at Ophir 
:;reek I, but M. saundersii caused more mortality 
)n white fir. O. fumiferanae was the most 
ibundant parasitoid on both species of host 
xees at Ophir Creek II. 

Immobile prepupae and pupae are subject 
:o predation by larvae of the spruce coneworm, 
Dioryctria reniculella (Grote) (Lepidoptera: 
Phycitidae) (Warren 1954) and instar VI bud- 
A^orm larvae. This predation can be expected 
to increase when defoliation is severe and new 
[oliage is scarce. 



Survival in the "Pupa" Age-interval (Sp) 

Parasitism and predation, expressed as 
pSpar = 1-Mpar and pS pred = IMpied^ were 
tested as independent variables against Sp, 
the dependent variable. Multiple regression 
analysis indicated that pSpar and pSpred were 
correlated with Sp, and with each other. The 
model 

Sp = 1.28 pSpar + 2.01 pSpred - 9.17 
explained about 99 percent of the variation 
inSp. 

Sp decreased from the 1964-65 generation 
on five of the six plots. On each of these 
plots, mortality due to parasitism and predation 
increased, and mortality due to unidentified 
factors increased or remained about the same. 
During this period, a group of hymenop- 
terous parasitoids, mainly Ichneumonidae, at- 
tack and kill the pupae. Occasionally chalcids 
or pteromalids also are reared from collections 
of pupae and these are tallied as primary para- 
sitoids; they may also be secondary parasitoids. 
Phaeogenes hariolus (Cress.) was the most 
important parasitoid of pupae on all plots where 
dn adequate assessment of parasitism was pos- 
sible. Itoplectis quadricingulatus (Prov.) and 
Apechthis Ontario (Cress.) were numerous in 
some collections in 1966. Their appearance 
night be only a function of slightly different 
iming of collections that year. 

During the late pupal period, the budworm 
Is attacked by predators which include late- 
Seveloping budworm larvae and spruce cone- 
\'orm larvae. Mortality by these predators 
lalUed in this age-interval cannot be separated 
from similar mortality caused by the same agents 
^ the previous age-interval. The carcasses 



remain on the foliage and are probably tallied 
in both age-intervals. 

Birds and squirrels remove pupae from the 
foliage; this loss is tallied with "other" factors. 



Proportion of Females (P ^ ) 

The proportion of female moths varied 
from 0.30 to 0.62; it was higher on all plots 
in the 1965-66 generation than in 1964-65. 

Several variables related to population den- 
sity, survival of instar VI and pupa age-inter- 
vals, and defr'iation were tested for correlation 
with P^ . Multiple regression analysis indicated 
that the model 



P ? = 10.32 + 0.09 Nvi"^ -3.47 N^ "^ 



-1.63 



P S pred explained about 78 percent of the 
variation in P^ . 

Of these components, only pSpred was 
significantly correlated with P^ indicating that, 
when the predation of pupae is great, the 
P o is high. This suggests a higher mortality 
of male instar VI larvae and pupae than of 
females. This differential mortality probably 
was due to the more rapid development of 
male pupae, which made them susceptible to 
predation by female instar VI larvae and spruce 
conewoi-m larvae. The model also indicates that 
the fewer needles per shoot (Nj*^), the greater 
the reduction of P ^ . The advanced develop- 
ment of male instar VI larvae may have been 
synchronized with the appearance of dipteran 
parasitoids, also. Among the components, 
ViSpar and pSpred > and pSpar and pSpj-gd 
were significantly correlated. 



Proportion of Maximum Fecundity (Pp) 

Expressions of population density, N jy 
and Nyi, and current defoliation, Dn, were 
evaluated as variables affecting Pp. Multiple 
regression analyses showed that none of the 
independent variables were significantly corre- 
lated with the dependent variable or with each 
other. 



Survival of Moths 

Greenbank (1963) did not develop a model 
for the survival of adults because interpre- 
tation of the survival percentage is difficult. 
Adult mortality is not separable from negative 
dispersal; positive dispersal is detectable only 



when more eggs are found on the plot than 
were expected from pupal densities and fecun- 
dity rates. 

On the supposition that adult dispersal would 
be related to densities of larvae and food sup- 
plies, Siv and Syi were tested as independent 
variables. Multiple regression analyses indi- 
cated that the model 

Sjyj = 7.65 - 1.15 Syj 
accounted for about 48 percent of the variation 
in S]y[. The analyses were repeated, substi- 
tuting the independent variables related to 
S VI . The model 

Sm = 17.73 - 3.72 viSpar+ 0.94 N vi "1 
accounted for about 86 percent of the variation 
in Sjyj. Of the independent variables only 
N VI ■■'^was correlated with the dependent vari- 
able; thus, the more instar VI larvae, the lower 
the survival of moths. 

Greenbank (1963) concluded that "... dis- 
persal when acting as a mortality factor removes 
a constant proportion of the population irrespec- 
tive of its density, but when supplementing 
populations it adds a proportion that varies 
with the density of the resident population." 
Both positive and negative dispersal could occur 
on the same plot the same year. The com- 
bined effect is estimated from the number of 
moths added to or subtracted from the plot. 
This appears in the life table as "Normal fe- 
males X 2" minus "Actual females X 2," 
each density divided by 2 because only female 
moths are of concern. 

The number of female moths lost from a 
plot increases with initial population density 
(Greenbank 1963). This was demonstrated with 
the life table data. The correlation between 
the number of "Normal" females and the differ- 
ence between "Normal" females and "Actual" 
females is highly significant (r = 0.932). Sur- 
vival of "Normal females X 2" (Sjy[) is not 
correlated with the initial population density, 
however. 

In the life tables, the decrease in popu- 
lation density attributed to adult mortality and 
dispersal is minimized by the method by which 
it is computed. The number of "Normal" 
females is related to the maximum fecundity 
recorded. The number of "Females" and 
"Actual" females are related to the mean 
fecundity. The loss of "Females" (the number 
of "Females" minus the number of "Actual" 
females) is significantly related to the initial 
population of "Females" (fig. 4). This also 
demonstrates that the number of moths lost 
from a plot by dispersal processes depends 
upon the density of the moth population. 

The data gathered in 1965 from the moth 
traps (fig. 5) help to define the factors in- 



22 
2.0 
1.8 

(A 
<D 

E 
> 1.2 

° 1.0 

f 0.8 

^ 0.6 

0.4 

0.2 




0.2 Q4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 
Density of "Females" ,■ 

VLquaq. 4. --Ro^tatioYiiiivip beM^ttn lyiiJxaZ dmnfi-L 
o{, "Fzmalz" moth^ and numbdn. loit ^xom plot 




flguA.d 5. --Mofie. maZt motiu, wnKt caught on 
downkctt than on upklM. iidu OjJ tAapi, baito-d 
w-Ltk vtKgin {^umatz motlu . 



fluencing flights of male moths. The total 
number of male moths on the Ophir Creek I 
study area (14.4 acres) was estimated to be 
2,806,042. The percentage of these moths that 
were available for trapping was estimated from 
data on emergence and moth longevity. Each 
total daily catch of moths on the four traps 
was converted to percentage of available moths, 
and the percentages were examined in relation 
to records of temperature and humidity. Graphi- 
cal analysis showed that neither minimum or 
maximum temperature nor humidity were re- 
lated to the percent catch. The moth catch 
was related, however, to the average tempera- 
ture between 2000 hours and 2300 hours (fig. 6). 



1.000 
.800 
.600 

.400 
.300 

.200 

' .100 
I .080 
'.060 



o 

E .040 

I .030 

o 

I .020 



c .010 
S .008 

1.006 

.004 
.003 

.002 



.001 



logy = l2.72 log X -20.36 
r= 0.849 



_J I I I I 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 100 

Average temperoture from 2000 to 2300 hours CF) 

iquAe. 6. --The. fiel-CLtlomltip bdtwztn avt^ag^ ajJi 
-CempeAotuAe and catch o^ male motive on Vuxpi. 



Thus a period of low nighttime temperatures 
tould severely limit activity of male moths 
md, consequently, fertilization of female moths, 
lireenbank (1963) reported that only minimum 
elative humidity was correlated with the catch 
)f male moths. 

In 1965, about 9 inches of rain fell in a 
-day period during the time of maximum moth 
vailability. Flight activity ceased during this 
eriod; many moths, some in copulo, were 



seen drenched but still clinging to the foliage. 
Many female moths were seen on the ground 
after the rain ceased. Most appeared to be 
carrying their full complement of eggs, but 
were unable to fly; presumably, these females 
laid no eggs. Despite these adverse conditions, 
densities of eggs in 1965 were the highest 
recorded during the study. 



SURVIVORSHIP CURVES 

Of the 12 life tables, seven were of popu- 
lations of western spruce budworm with in- 
creasing trends (actual trend indices more than 
100 percent) and five were decreasing (actual 
trend indices less than 100 percent). The 
survivorship curves in figure 7 were based on 
average life tables for the increasing and de- 
creasing situations, respectively. The differ- 
ences between them are closely related to the 
results of the analyses reported earlier. 

The average Ng initiating generations of 
decreasing trends was more than 2.5 times 
greater than the average Ne initiating genera- 
tions of increasing trends. Recorded egg para- 
sitism was low; mortality due to unidentified 



50 



< 



o 

5 30 



20 



■i 10 



figuAC 7.--Su>ivivoulilp 
cuAvc^ (jOA. popula^tioni 
o{, thu wUitcnn ipxace 
budwofm ii}-itk IncJicaAing 
and dzcAca^iing tAcndi . 



Trend index ^ 

More than 100 percent 

Less than 100 percent 



_i_ 



_i 



Egg Instariz Instarm Pupa 
Age-interval 



Moth 



factors was very much greater in decreasing 
populations, and resulted in very low survival 
and very high real mortality rates in the egg 
through instar III age-interval. 

The average Njy densities were nearly 
the same for increasing and deci'easing popula- 
tions. Mortality due to parasitoids was nearly 
equal but mortality due to unidentified factors 
was considerably higher in decreasing popula- 
tions. Although Siv was significantly reduced 
in decreasing populations, real mortality in 
the "instar IV through V" age-interval was 
twice as high in increasing populations as 
decreasing. 

In the "instar VI through early pupa" age- 
interval, the Nyj was nearly twice as high in 
increasing populations as in decreasing. Para- 
sitism was somewhat higher in increasing popu- 
lations; mortality due to unidentified factors 
was again considerably higher in decreasing 
populations. Real mortality in this age-interval 
was four times higher in the increasing popu- 
lations. 

In the"pupa" age-interval, mortalities due to 
parasitoids, predators, and unidentified factors 
were all higher in populations with decreasing 
trends. Compared to the preceding age inter- 
vals, Sp was relatively high in decreasing popu- 
lations; real mortality was low. 

The percentage of female moths was con- 
siderably higher in decreasing populations, but 
fecundity was nearly 10 percent lower than in 
increasing populations. Egg deposition was 
much less in decreasing populations than in 
increasing. Losses of moths were considerably 
higher in decreasing populations, largely be- 
cause of reduced fecundity and about half 
as many female moths. 

Survivorship curves for populations of the 
western spruce budworm on the three host 
species are compared in figure 8; four life 
tables were averaged for populations on Douglas- 
fir, six for white fir, and two for Engelmann 
spruce. The curves for Douglas-fir and white 
fir were similar, as were survival rates, real 
mortality rates, and fecundities. On Engel- 
mann spruce, Ne was nearly double and Sg 
was about half as large as on the other host 
species. In general, mortality due to para- 
sitism and predation was about 25 to 50 per- 
cent of similar mortality on Douglas-fir and 
white fir in all age-intervals. Total mortality 
on Engelmann spruce in the instar VI age- 
interval was about 37 percent compared to about 
61 and 65 percent on Douglas-fir and white 
fir, respectively, and, in the pupa age-interval, 
about 5 percent compared to about 27 and 16 
percent, respectively. Adult mortahty ± dis- 
persal was slightly higher on spruce. The net 



50 r 



o 

Q 30 



•S 20 



% 10 



Tig uAe S.-- 

SuAvlvofiiklp CUAV^/. 
ion. populatiorU) o(, 

budvonjm on Vougtca,- 
{^iA, whJJiz {lift, anc 
Engelmann ip^uce. 




Douglas-fir 
White fir 
Engelmann spri 



40 



o 

Q 30 



^ 20 



» 

J3 



10 



Egg Instar sr Instarm Pupa M 
Age-interval 



Tig aXd 9 .-- 

SuAvlvouklp CUJlVU 
{on. populatlonA o^ 
iiie weAte.An ip-Yuce 
budn)ofm at thxtz 
iitudy tocationi. 



\\ 



\ \ 

\^\ \ Ophir Creek i 

N\ \ BalmanReserv 

\\\ Ophir Creekn 



,\ 



Egg 







\ 







1 


\— 




1 


1 




Instar 12 


Instorm 


Pupa 


Mo 


Age 


-interval 







10 



40 



30 - 



20 - 



10 - 



~ 




A. 

\ 


OPHIR CREEK I 


\ 


DougiOS-fir 


\ 


White fir 


\ 


,_ , 




\ 


spruce 


- 


\ \ 








\ 


- 


\ \ 


1 


\ \ 
\ \ 
\ \ 

III! 



40 r 



o 

Q 30 



9> 

a. 



a> 

^ 20 
o 



o 
a> 



0) 

E 

3 
Z 



B. BALMAN RESERVOIR 




Egg Instarm Instarsi Pupa 
Age-interval 



Moth 



50 



I 



iguA^ 10.--SuAvivouhlp cuAveA ^o>i popuZaZLoM 

ol tkt WdMttnn ipfiuce. budwonm on tu}o hoit 
j ipzclu cut zach 0^ tkt thfito. itudij locautiovii, . 



esults were actual trend indices of 98 percent 
in Engelmann spruce, 111 percent on Douglas- 
r, and 105 percent on white fir. 
I The survivorship curves in figure 9 were 
iken from the averages of the four life tables 
each location. The curves for the Ophir 
reek I and Balman Reservoir areas were similar 
<cept that parasitism, predation, and total 
ortality in the pupa age-interval were about 
ouble and mean fecundity was somewhat higher 

■ the latter location. As a net result, the 

■ tual trend indices were 98 percent at Ophir 
'eek I and 123 percent at Balman Reservoir. 

Populations on Engelmann spruce were 
■'udied only at Ophir Creek II, and the differ- 
tices on that species (noted above) were largely 
isponsible for the differing curve for Ophir 
(eek II. Ng was much higher and, conse- 
oently, Sg was much lower. Parasitism, es- 
icially in the instar IV age-interval and the 
istar VI age-interval, was about half as great; 
rbrtality in the pupa age -interval was about 



o 

2 30 



o 

C7I 

c 
'c 
c 

o 



•5 '0 
w 

E 



Egg Instar Bt Instarm Pupa Moth 
"• Age-interval 

''■■ C. OPHIR CREEK H 






J 



Egg Instar DC Instarm Pupa Moth 
Age-interval 



11 



the same as at Ophir Creek I; P? was lower. 
The actual trend index at Ophh- Creek II was 
266 percent. 

The survivorship curves for populations 
on different hosts at the same locations are 
compared in figure 10. However, averages 
of only two life tables per host at each location 
are of limited value. At Ophir Creek I (fig. 
10a) Ng was higher and Sg lower on Douglas- 
fir compared to white fir. In the instar VI 
age-interval, parasitism was higher on Douglas- 
fir but mortality due to unmeasured factors, 
probably starvation, was high on white fir. 

At Balman Reservoir (fig. 10b) populations 
were initially higher on white fir and survival 
of the first age-interval was lower. On white 
fir, mortaUty due to unidentified causes, prob- 
ably starvation, was high in the instar VI 
age-interval and mortality due to predation 
within the pupa age-interval was especially 
high. Although final population levels were 
nearly equal, the actual trend index was 150 
percent on Douglas-fir and 104 percent on white 
fir. 

As noted previously, population levels were 
especially high on Engelmann spruce at Ophir 
Creek II (fig. 10c); otherwise trends were nearly 
identical on the two hosts. Mortality due to 
parasitism in the instar VI age-interval and the 
pupa age-interval was considerably higher on 
white fir and P ? was especially low on this 
species. Final population levels were nearly 
twice as high on spruce; actual trend indices 
were 102 percent on white fir and 98 percent 
on Engelmann spiuce. 



IMPLICATIONS 

Each year pest control organizations conduct 
biological evaluations of spruce budworm infes- 
tations to determine the probable needs for 
suppression the following season. These evalu- 
ations are usually surveys in late summer or 
fall to learn if densities of new egg masses 
are higher or lower than in previous years and 
the degree of defoliation to be expected. Some- 
times data on defoliation in the current year 
and on growth of the hosts are taken also. 

The results of this study indicate that high 
densities of eggs may foretell decreasing popu- 
lation trends. The critical egg density separating 
decreasing and increasing populations remains 
unknown. Actual trends seem to depend largely 
upon unknown mortality factors during fall 
and spring periods of dispersal and during the 



winter months. To add accuracy to biologica 
evaluations, egg mass surveys in late summer 
or fall should be followed in the spring by 
surveys when instar IV larvae predominate 
to determine overwinter survival. Trend anc 
damage predictions can then be updated tc 
confirm suppression needs. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Greenbank, D. O. 

1963. The analysis of moth survival and 
dispersal in the unsprayed area. p. 87 
89. In Morris, R. F. [Editor] 1963 
The dynamics of epidemic spruce bud 
worm populations. Can. Entomol. Soc 
Mem. 31. 332 p. 

McKnight, Melvin E. 

1967. Ecology of the western budworm 
Choristoneura occidentalis Freemar 
( Lepidoptera: Tortricidae ) , in Colorado 
Ph. D. Thesis. Colo. State Univ. 206 p 
(Diss. Abstr. 28: 1977b.) 



1968. A literature review of the spruce 
western, and 2-year-cycle budworms, 
USDA Forest Serv. Res. Pap. RM-44 
35 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and Range 
Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. 



1969. Estimating numbers of eggs in westerr 
budworm egg masses. USDA Forest 
Serv. Res. Note RM-146, 4 p. Rocky Mt. 
Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, 
Colo. 
Morris, R. F. 

1955. The development of sampling tech 
niques for forest insect defoliators, witl 
particular reference to the spruce bud 
worm. Can. J. Zool. 33: 255-294. 

[Editorl 

1963. The dynamics of epidemic spruce 
budworm populations. Can. Entomol. 
Soc. Mem. 31. 332 p. 

and C. A. Miller. 

1954. The development of life tables for 
the spruce budworm. Can. J. Zool. 
32: 283-301. 
Warren, G. L. 

1954. The spruce needleworm, Dioryctria 
reniculella Grt., as a predator of spruce 
budworm. Can. Dep. Agr. Sci. Serv. 
Forest Biol. Div. Bi-mon. Progr. Rep. 
10(3): 2-3. 



Agriculture— CSU, Ft. CoUins 



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JbDA Forest Service 
Research Paper RM-82 

anuary 1972 

!ocky Mountain Forest and 
ange Experiment Station 

crest Service 

. S. Department of Agriculture 

ort Collins, Colorado 



VENEER RECOVERY 
FROM BLACK HILLS 
PONDEROSA PINE 



by Vern P. Yerkes 
and R. O. Woodfin, Jr. 








...«^^> • 



pi 



Abstract 

Veneer recovered from a selected sample of 144 Black Hills 
ponderosa pine sawtimber trees was sufficient in both volume 
and grades to allow production of at least 3/8-inch C-D. plywood. 
Proportions of C and better grades of veneer increased with 
veneer block diameter but decreased with tree d.b.h. and block 
heights in the tree. This apparently conflicting trend results 
from the greater number of large knots in the middle-stem blocks 
of larger trees. Recovery ratios increased with both tree diameter 
and block diameter and were higher for defective blocks than 
sound blocks, due to the smaller net scale for defective blocks. 
Nearly 45 percent of the cubic-foot volume was utilized as veneer. 

Key words: Pinus ponderosa, veneer, plywood. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



The methods used in this study, the data obtained, and the 
analysis of the data represent the cooperative efforts of several 
organizations. The authors wish to express their appreciation to 
the organizations and individuals whose help made this study 
possible. 

Methods and analyses were developed by the authors and 
their colleagues in the Forest Products Marketing and Utilization 
Research Units of the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experi- 
ment Station and the Timber Quality Research Unit of the Pacific 
Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. The Rocky 
Mountain Region of the Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest, 
supplied the timber sample and field assistance. 

Veneer and plywood production facilities and crew were fur- 
nished under a cooperative agreement with the Montezuma Ply- 
wood Company, Dolores, Colorado. Without the mill's excellent 
cooperation, this study would not have been feasible. Garhart 
and Poole of Spearfish, South Dakota, contracted to haul the 
study logs from the Black Hills to southwestern Colorado under 
extremely adverse weather conditions. Their care in transporting 
the logs without damage and without loss of identity was impor- 
tant and much appreciated. The American Plywood Association's 
contribution of special veneer grading services provided a standard 
for comparing results with other studies and industry experience. 
Special thanks are due to their Division For Product Acceptance 
(DFPA) for this essential service. 



USDA Forest Service January 1972 

Research Paper RM-82 



VENEER RECOVERY 
FROM BLACK HILLS PONDEROSA PINE 



by 

Vern P. Yerkes, Market Analyst 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 
Fort Collins, Colorado-/ 

and 

R. O. Woodfin, Jr., Wood Technologist 

Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station 

Portland, Oregon 



1/ Station's central headquarters maintained in cooperation with Colorado State University; 
Yerkes' present address is Cooperative Forest Management Field Office, Northeastern Area 
^tate and Private Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Morgantown, West Virginia. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction i 

Methods i 

Sample Tree Selection i 

Production Facilities 3 

Veneer Production 3 

Statistical Methods 4 

Results and Discussion 4 

Sample Trees 4 

Application of Results 6 

Veneer Blocks 6 

Veneer Recovery 6 

Veneer Grades 7 

Recovery Ratio 7 

Veneer Sizes 10 

J Block Classes 10 

|| Cubic-Foot Volume 1 1 

;i Core Use 12 



Conclusions 12 

Summary 13 

Literature Cited 13 

Appendix 15 



VENEER RECOVERY FROM BLACK HILLS PONDEROSA PINE 



Vern P. Yerkes and R. O. Woodfin, Jr. 



f INTRODUCTION 

Softwood plywood demand is expected to 
continue to rise during the 1970's and beyond 
(American Plywood Association 1971). At least 
part of the expansion of production capacity 
to meet this demand will likely be in areas 
where timber supplies are not now fully uti- 
lized, or could be more efficiently used as raw 
material for plywood. 

To make sound decisions about locating 
new plywood facilities, detailed information 
is needed on the suitability of local timber 
resources for veneer production. The purpose 
of this study was to provide such information 
specifically for Black Hills ponderosa pine, Pinus 
ponderosa , which previously has not been used 
commercially for plywood. 

Three previous Forest Service studies of 
veneer production, which included ponderosa 
pine from the Black Hills, provided background 
for this research (Barger 1967, Mueller et al. 
1968, U. S. Forest Service 1956). These studies 
demonstrated the technical feasibility of pro- 
ducing plywood from this species, but the 
amount of timber tested was too limited to 
predict with confidence the amounts and kinds 
of veneer that could be produced from the 
Black Hills ponderosa pine resource as a whole. 

This study was therefore designed primarily 
to obtain detailed veneer recovery data— by 
volume, grade and size— for a larger sample of 
typical Black Hills ponderosa pine, and then 
jto expand the results for the sample to charac- 
terize the resource as a whole. A second 
objective was to provide veneer recovery and 
tree and log quality data for use in evaluating 
log and tree grades for Black Hills ponderosa 
ipine. 



METHODS 

'Sample Tree Selection 

A sample of 144 trees was selected for this 
study from eight widespread locations in the 
Black Hills National Forest (fig. 1). Selections 
.vere made from stands identified by National 
"orest personnel as typical of sawtimber that 
fVill be available for harvest during the next 
(.0 to 20 years. Once these areas were desig- 
lated, trees were sampled in six diameter- 



breast-high (d.b.h.) classes by a systematic 
method described later. 

This sampling plan was designed to meet 
two major conditions. First, trees included 
in the sample would be similar to, and cover 
the range of, sawtimber potentially available 
for veneer production. Second, the sample 
would be small enough to meet the limitations 
of logging the sample trees and hauling them 
nearly 800 miles to a plywood plant. While 
the resulting sample was smaller and less repre- 
sentative in a statistical sense than desired, 
it goes considerably beyond previous samples 
and, in our judgment, provides a reasonable 
basis for estimating veneer recovery from Black 
Hills ponderosa pine. 

Previous research and experience indicated 
that tree size and knot characteristics of Black 
Hills ponderosa pine would limit high-volume 
veneer recovery from this resource to C and 
lower grades. It was also assumed, as Barger 
(1967) had found for southwestern ponderosa 
pine, that only the lower 16 feet of the tree 
stems would yield sufficient C grade veneer 
for production of 3/8-inch C-D grade plywood; 
above this height the proportion of C and 
better grades of veneer recovered would be 
insufficient to produce the required C grade 
face plies. 

Accordingly, the sample was selected from 
trees that could be expected to yield economi- 
cal quantities of at least D grade veneer with 
a sufficient proportion of C and better grades. 
These trees were termed "high-yield" and met 
the following defect criteria, as judged by visual 
inspection: 

1. No dead knot greater than 4 inches in 
horizontal diameter. 

2. No crook greater than one-third the top 
diameter of the 8-foot section containing it. 

3. No fire scars. 

4. No lightning scars (regardless of height in 
tree). 

5. No butt rot. 

6. Bottom two veneer blocks must be 
"chuckable."-' 



2/ Blocks were considered chuckable if the wood 
ivas~ at least 50 percent sound in the area where the 
lathe chucks would strike the block. This was determined 
after the tree was felled. 



BELLE FOURCHE 



WHITEWOOD 



RAPID CITO 




Figure 1. --Fight localions in the IJIack Hills of South [)akota 
and Wyoming where the 144 veneer recovery study trees 
were selected. 



With the exception of lightning scars, these 
standards were applied to the bottom 16 feet 
of the tree stem (Ffolliott and Barger 1965). l^ 
The presence of lightning scar anywhere in 
the merchantable stem of a tree was cause 
for rejecting that tree from the sample. 

These defect criteria were based on pub- 
lished grade requirements for D grade veneer 
(American Plywood Association 1966), and esti- 
mates of potential veneer volume and grade 
recovery expected from blocks with various 
defects. 

The d.b.h. classes included in the sample 
and the proportions of the total resource vol- 
ume -^ represented by each class are tabulated 
below. Note that approximately equal pro- 
portions of the volume are in each d.b.h. class. 



D.b.h. 


Diameter 


Percent of 


class 


class range 


resource volume 


(Inches) 


(Inches) 


(Scribner bd. ft.) 


10 


10.0 - 10.9 


19 


12 


11.0 - 12.9 


21 


14 


13.0 - 14.9 


18 


16 


15.0 - 16.9 


17 


18 


17.0 - 18.9 


12 


19+ 


19.0 + 


13 



The sample included 24 trees in each of 
the d.b.h. classes, three from each of the eight 
sampling locations. Eighteen trees from each 
location (three from each d.b.h. class) were 
selected as encountered along a compass line 
run at right angles to the contours of the 
local topography. Trees within 1 chain of 
the compass line were selected if they met 
the diameter and defect criteria set for this 
study. 

The bottom 32 feet of the stem of each 
sample tree was diagramed to show knot and 
defect size, type, and location. The trees were 
cruise graded by the 5-grade ponderosa pine 
log grading system (Gaines 1964). Each felled 
tree was bucked into logs from 8.5 to 35 feet 
long (8.5-foot multiples plus trim) and then 
iscaled by the National Forest check scaler 
according to the U. S. Forest Service ScaUng 
Handbook (1964). 

After proper tagging and identification, the 
logs were yarded, loaded, and trucked to the 
Montezuma Plywood Company plant at Dolores, 
polorado, for peeling into veneer. 

] 5/ Subsequent work indicates that nearly 80 percent 
\>f the standing Black Hills ponderosa pine sawtimber 

rees meet these appearance standards. 

I 4/ As reported in the 1963-73 Timber Management 

"Ian for the Black Hills Working Circle, Black Hills 

National Forest . 



Production Facilities 

The Montezuma Plywood Company produces 
primarily softwood sheathing plywood from 
Engelmann spruce ( Picea engelmannii ) and 
ponderosa pine. The mill equipment and oper- 
ating methods of this plant are considered 
representative of the type of facility that might 
be suitable for plywood production in the Black 
Hills. Basic green-end mill equipment includes 
a ring debarker, steaming chambers, an 8-foot 
lathe, and a six-deck tray system with two 
clippers. The dry-end and panel-layup equip- 
ment includes two natural gas jet dryers, patch- 
ing equipment, two glue spreaders, and a 30- 
opening hot press. Panel-sizing equipment and 
one sanding unit complete the basic mill 
equipment. 



Veneer Production 

The woods-length logs were debarked, 
bucked into 102-inch veneer blocks, and steamed 
for 24 hours. Each block was measured for 
cubic volume calculations, scaled in board feet 
(Scribner scale), and identified as class I or II. 
Following are the knot sizes used to classify 
the blocks: 



Maximum size of- 
Live knots 
Dead knots 



Class I 

2 inches 
2 inches 



Class II 

No limit 
4 inches 



Class I blocks were expected to produce pre- 
dominantly C and better (C+) grades of veneer, 
while class II blocks were expected to produce 
predominantly D grade veneer. 

Normal plant veneer production techniques 
were followed. Only occasional slowdowns 
at the lathe were needed to meet study require- 
ments. The veneer blocks were peeled into 
1/10-inch veneer to a SVi-inch core. Veneer 
was clipped as in normal plant production 
and separated into four size groups for drying- 
full width, half width, random width, and "fish- 
tails" (tapered veneer sheets developed in block 
roundup that yield 4-foot veneer). The veneer 
was dried for 7 minutes in a jet dryer which 
had an input-end temperature of 390° F. and 
an output-end temperature of 410° F. Grading 
of the dry veneer was supervised by a DFPA 
Quality Supervisor. All veneer was sorted 
and tallied in seven grades— A, A patch (Ap), 
B, B patch (Bp), C, D, and E. A, B, C, and 
D grades were as described in U. S. Product 



standard PS 1-66 (American Plywood Associ- 
ation 1966). Ap veneer could contain up to 
14 patchable defects in a 4- by 8-foot sheet. 
Bp veneer could contain up to 20 patchable 
defects in a 4- by 8-foot sheet. E veneer is 
grade D veneer with admissible rot. 

Veneer recovery study methods and a color- 
coding system (fig. 2) developed by the Timber 
Quality project of the Pacific Northwest Forest 
and Range Experiment Station were used (Lane 
1971). These permit identification of veneer 
by individual veneer block, woods-length log, 
and tree from which it came. 




^\a^:<iMki^^S^A<9v'«i . 



Figure 2.— Color coding veneer with a dye spraying nnit lor 
identilieation. 



Statistical Methods 

Data from this study were compiled and 
processed by means of two ADP programs 
specifically developed for veneer recovery data 
(Woodfin and Mei 1967). Outputs from these 
two programs provide veneer grade yield vol- 
umes and values on log input units ranging 
from the individual peeler block to the com- 
plete tree. These data were grouped by tree 
d.b.h. classes, position of the peeler block in 
the tree, block diameter, and block class (re- 
flecting knot size). The veneer recovery data, 
summarized by these variables, were then sub- 
jected to regression analysis using the poly- 
nomial regression program (POLY) developed 
by the Biometrics Staff of the Pacific North- 
west Forest and Range Experiment Station 
in 1968. This program calculates first, second, 
and third degree regression equations. Ninety- 
five percent level of significance has been 
used throughout this report. 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Sample Trees 

Trees for this study were selected from six 
d.b.h. classes and were required to meet given 
defect criteria. The sample included both "black- 
jack" and "yellowbark"i/ trees in all diameter 
classes without regard to tree heights: 



I 



D.b.h. class Blackjack trees 


Yellowbark trees 


(Inches) (Number) 


(Number) 


10 22 


2 


12 21 


3 


14 14 


10 


16 7 


17 


18 2 


22 


19+ _J^ 


M. 


Total 67 


11 



Many of the sample trees had numerous 
limbs lower than 8 feet from the ground. In 
fact, persistent dead limbs extending nearly to 
the ground were not uncommon in blackjack 
trees of all diameters. Figures 3 and 4 show 
examples of trees and logs used in the study. 

Tables 9 and 10 (see appendix) describe 
the sample trees by d.b.h. class and block 
position. 



Figure ;i.— Black Hills ponderosa pine Irees. Trees numbered 
and banded were selected for the veneer recovery study. 
ISands are about 4 feet aboveground. 



A. Size and quality of study trees ranged from small blackjack 
to large vellowbark trees. 

B. Note limbincss about half way up large yellowbark tree; 
this causes lower yields of C+ veneer in higher block 
positions. 

(,. Note numerous limbs extending nearly to the ground on 
large blackjack tree. 

I). Small yellowbark tree shows an acceptable degree of 
sweep. (Ihe 8-fool range pole has 1-foot graduations.) 



5/ Blackjack trees are those with dark gray to black 
bark. This bark color usually indicates a vigorously 
growing tree under 100 years of age. Yellowbark trees 
are those with orange-colored bark, which usually indi- 
cates a slow-growing tree over 100 years old. 



Table 1. --Average scaled volumes of sample 
trees by d.b.h. classes 



■^■i^" - --•*s?^.»- ■■"•*• j: ' 




figure 4. —Deck of fSlack Hills pondcrosa pine logs used in 
the veneer recover^ study- Note range in diameters and 
numerous knots. 

The 144 sample trees were bucked into 
236 woods-length logs, which were in turn 
bucked into 712 8-foot veneer blocks. The gross 
Scribner scale volume of the woods-length logs 
was 27,460 board feet; the net scale was 26,450 
board feet, giving a defect factor of 4 percent. 
The 8-foot blocks scaled a gross volume of 
27,980 board feet, Scribner scale, and a net 
volume of 25,320 board feet, giving a defect 
factor of about 10 percent. Approximately 
49 percent of the trees contained some red 
and/or brown rot. Average scaled volumes 
and percentage of defects for trees in each of 
the six d.b.h. classes are shown in table 1. 
Utilized height of the trees in each d.b.h. class 
varied, (table 2). 

Application of Results 

The sampling procedure used resulted in 
an equal number of trees in each of the six 
d.b.h. classes. As a consequence, the larger 
d.b.h. classes in the sample had considerably 
greater volumes than the smaller classes. This 
distribution of volume among the d.b.h. classes 
was considerably different from that for the 
resource as a whole. Therefore, in applying 
these recovery data to the entire resource, 
the study data for each d.b.h. class must be 
weighted by the proportion of the total resource 
volume in that d.b.h. class. 

Veneer Blocks 

A quality classification was assigned to each 
of the 712 veneer blocks cut from the sample 
trees; 272 were identified as class I (blocks 
with knots under 2 inches) and the remaining 
440 as class II. Class I blocks came primarily 
from smaller trees and lower stem positions 
(see appendix, table 10). Red rot ( Polyporus 
anceps Pk.) and/or brown rot (not identified) 
in incipient and advanced stages were detected 
in 235 blocks from 70 trees. 







Average 


scaled 


'Defect 


D.b.h. 


Diameter 


volume/tree 




class 


class 


(Scribner scale) 




(Inches) 


range 


Gross 


Net 






Inches 


Board 


feet 


Percent 


10 


10.0-10.9 


43.8 


43.8 





12 


11.0-12.9 


70.8 


66.7 


6 


14 


13.2-14.9 


125.0 


120.8 


3 


16 


15.1-16.9 


199.2 


190.4 


4 


18 


17.2-18.8 


275.0 


267.1 


5 


19+ 


19.0-24.3 


430.4 


414.2 


4 



Table 2. --Average top diameters and range in 
utilized heights of sample trees by 
d.b.h. classes 



D.b.h. 


Average 
top 




Utilized 


heighl 




class 










(Inches) 


diameter 


Maximum 


Minimum 








Number 




Number 








of 




of 




Inches 


Feet 


blocks 


Feet 


blocks 


10 


7.4 


35.0 


4 


17.2 


2 


12 


7.5 


43.7 


5 


17.3 


2 


14 


8.0 


61.2 


7 


26.2 


3 


16 


8.7 


69.9 


8 


26.3 


3 


18 


8.6 


70.1 


8 


34.8 


4 


19+ 


9.8 


79.4 


9 


43.6 


5 



Seventy-eight of the blocks were, for various 
reasons, either not peeli^d down to the intended 
core diameter (514- inch) or not peeled at all. 
Fifty-three blocks spun out of the chucks, and 
seven broke in the lathe before the desired 
core diameter was reached. Sixteen were drop- 
ped before peeling due to roughness or flexing. 
Two had diameters too small for the lathe 
charger to handle and could not be peeled. 

Table 3 summarizes block volumes and 
diameters. The average block diameter of 
this sample was 11.4 inches, slightly larger 
(0.2 inch and 0.5 inch, respectively) than the 
average log diameters reported for two previous 
random samples of Black Hills ponderosa pine 
saw logs (Landt and Woodfin 1959, Yerkes 1966). 

Veneer Recovery 

The 80,577 square feet (3/8-inch basis) of 
dry untrimmed veneer produced in the study 
was sufficient in grades and sizes to produce 
C-D grade plywood panels (fig. 5). Forty-seven 
percent of this veneer was in C-i- grades. 



Table 3. --Veneer block scale volume and defect by block 

diameter class 



Block diameter 
class 



Number of 
blocks 



Block volume 
[Scribner scale] 



Gross 



Net 



Defect 



Inches 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

Total 



4 
47 
98 
81 
88 

76 
74 
60 
60 
46 

36 

23 

10 

5 

4 



Board feet 



Percent 












470 


430 


9 


980 


930 


5 


1,620 


1,490 


8 


2,640 


2,300 


13 


2,280 


2,060 


10 


2,960 


2,740 


7 


3,000 


2,790 


7 


3,600 


3,270 


9 


3,220 


2,790 


13 


2,880 


2,530 


12 


2,070 


1,930 


7 


1,100 


990 


10 


600 


560 


7 


560 


510 


9 



712 



27,980 25,320 



1/ 



10 



]_/ Total defect as a percent of total gross scale, 



B 

L 




^T*"". 



• • 



- :f*^ 



-^^ 



^ 



-4 



Figure "i-'-Ixamples of 1 /2-incli plywood panels fabriiatril from IJIack Hills pondcrosa pine veneer. 
\. (.rade 1} face. C. (.rade I) face (high H or low C). 

B. Grade t face (high (!). I). Grade f) face. 



The ratio of dry untrimmed veneer output 
(3/8-inch basis) to log-volume input was 3.02 
on a net woods-log scale -^ and 3.18 on a net 
block scale. 

The percent of C-i- veneer recovered from 
blackjack and yellowbark trees did not differ 
significantly (95 percent level). 

Veneer grades.— Some veneer was recovered 
in all seven dry-veneer grades (table 4), but 
only negligible amounts were recovered in 
grades above C. 

Figures 6, 7, and 8 present scatter diagrams, 
regression lines, and confidence intervals for 
the whole line for the percentage of C-i- veneer 
recovered as related to tree d.b.h., block posi- 
tion, and block diameter, respectively. These 
regression lines are statistically significant even 
though the data points vary widely. The impli- 
cations are that the average recovery of C-i- 
veneer will tend to fall within the confidence 
intervals shown and that the trend of C-i- 
recovery should follow the general slope of 
the regression. 

There was a slight decrease in the pro- 
portion of veneer in C+ veneer grades from 
trees in larger d.b.h. classes. The regression 
curve indicates that blocks from positions 1 and 
2 yielded over 50 percent C-i- veneer, while 
blocks from the fourth position and above 
yielded between 20 and 33 percent C-i- veneer. 
The percentage of C-i- veneer recovered in- 
creased only slightly with block diameter. 

The apparently conflicting trends of increase 
in C+ recovery with block diameter and de- 



6/ Recovery ratio indicates the square feet of dry 
untrimmed veneer (3/8-inch basis) produced from each 
board foot (net Scribner scale) of logs or blocks. 



crease with tree size is a result of the greater 
number of large knots, both live and dead, 
in the middle stem positions of larger trees. 
The increasing number of knots is sufficient 
to reduce the proportion of C-i- veneer in larger 
trees. Larger diameter blocks in lower stem 
positions rarely have the larger knots, so the 
proportion of C-i- veneer recovered improves 
in both lower block positions in the tree and 
larger diameter blocks. 



Recovery ratio.— Computing veneer recov- 
ery ratios is the accepted means of estimating 
total veneer or plywood output for a given 
log volume input. Analysis of the recovery 
ratios (net log scale) by tree d.b.h. indicated 
an increasing recovery ratio with increasing 
d.b.h.: 

Tree d.b.h. Veneer recovery ratio 

class Maximum Minimum Average 

( Inches) 



10 


2.80 


0.33 


1.36 


12 


3.63 


0.60 


2.07 


14 


3.35 


1.37 


2.74 


16 


4.25 


1.83 


3.01 


18 


4.78 


2.17 


3.26 


19+ 


4.38 


2.68 


3.27 



The 10-inch and 12-inch d.b.h. classes had 
ratios below 2.5, often considered to be a favor- 
able recovery figure by the industry, while 
larger d.b.h. classes had ratios above this value. 

When recovery ratios (net block scale) were 
analyzed by block position, the average recov- 
ery ratios tended to remain fairly constant 



Table 4 .--Percentage of total veneer recovered from tree 

d.b.h. classes in seven dry veneer grades 

r, L u Veneer ~ ~ 

dass' '°^'''^ Veneer grade 

(Inches) ^^^basisf A Ap B Bp C D l^ 

Sq. ft . ----__ Percent ------ 

10 1,426 - - - - 51.9 47.4 0.7 

12 3,441 - — — 0.7 66.7 30.1 2.5 

14 8,059 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.9 59.5 33.1 4.3 

16 13,734 — — 1.0 2.6 50.2 40.7 5.5 

18 21,391 .6 .1 2.0 1.3 41.0 51.5 3.5 

19+ 32,526 — - .8 1.6 37.6 56.9 3.1 

All trees 80,577 0.2 0.0 1.1 1.7 44.3 49.1 3.6 



1_/ E is grade D veneer with admissible rot, 




I' igiirc <>.— Scalier (I iii{;riini iiiid ('i>iiliili'ii('<' intervals C) pcrccnl) 
lor line ol mean \aluis (rcfrrcssion) lor pcrccnl ( +\cnccr 
recovered by tree diamclcr. 



—Scalier diagram and conlidcnce intervals C).') percent) 
ne of mean values (regression) lor percent C+ veneer 
ered by block position (plot of 20 percent of all points) 



2 3 4 5 6 

(144) (134) (113) (82) (53) 

Block position and number of blocks 




Figure 8.— Scatter diagram and confidence 
intervals C^") percent) for line ol mean 
values (regression/ for |)erc!'nl ol ( + 
veneer recovered by bloik diameter 
class (plot of 20 percent ol all points). 



J_ 



6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
(4) {47)(98) (8I)(88)(76)(74)(60)(60)(46)(36)(23) (10) (5) (4) 

Block diameter and number of blocks 



to the sixth block, then decreased with higher 
block positions: 

Block position Veneer recovery ratio 

Maximum Minimum Average 

1 6.00 0.00 3.22 

2 7.00 .25 3.23 

3 7.25 .00 3.16 

4 7.75 .00 3.14 

5 9.00 .00 3.22 

6 7.00 .00 3.36 

7 5.00 .25 2.77 

8 4.50 .00 1.93 

9 0.50 .00 0.10 



No strong relationship was found between 
recovery ratios (net block scale) and block 
diameter. However, as shown below, average 
recovery ratios increased through the 11-inch 
blocks, leveled out between the 11- and 17-inch 
blocks, then declined slightly in the larger 
diameter blocks: 



Block diameter Veneer recovery ratio 

class Maximum Minimum Average 

6 1^ - 

7 - 0.00 0.77 

8 - .00 1.80 

9 ~ .00 2.33 

10 ~ .00 2.49 

11 - .97 3.56 

12 - .75 3.36 

13 7.85 1.08 3.41 

14 - 1.95 3.42 

15 - 1.89 3.63 

16 6.90 2.23 3.53 

17 5.74 1.77 3.48 

18 4.53 2.51 3.16 

19 3.52 2.52 3.01 

20 3.46 1.84 2.98 

Table 5 compares recovery ratios for sound 
and defective veneer blocks. Average recovery 
ratios for sound blocks increased rapidly from 
0.77 for 6-inch blocks to about 3.20 for i2-inch 
blocks, only slightly to 3.36 for 17-inch blocks, 
then dropped to 2.65 for 20-inch blocks. This 
drop in recovery ratio for larger diameter blocks 
that are apparently sound may result from 
hidden defects. It could be anticipated that 
any inaccuracy in estimating defect would direct- 



_7/ No recovery ratios are shown for block diameter 
classes in which there were one or more blocks with 
zero scale volume. A zero volume in the denominator 
gives a mathematically infinite recovery ratio, which 
obviously is not meaningful. 



ly affect the recovery ratio, whether due to 
inaccurate scaling or to the inability of the 
scaler to see hidden defects. Recovery ratios 
for blocks scaled as defective (average 4.32) 
are therefore considerably higher than those 
for blocks scaled as sound (average 2.47). The 
lowest average recovery ratio for defective blocks 
was 2.99 in the 19-inch diameter class. Highest 
recovery ratios in these defective blocks were 
also reached in the middle diameter classes 
(11- to 13-inch classes), with lower ratios in 
both diameter extremes. 

Veneer sizes.— Veneer in this study was 
clipped and sorted into sheets of four size 
groups— 8-foot lengths in full widths (54 inches), 
half widths (27 inches), and random widths, and 
4-foot lengths in random widths. Fifty-two 
percent of the veneer recovered was full width, 
7 percent was half width, and 31 percent was 
random width (table 6). Four-foot lengths 
in random widths accounted for the remaining 
10 percent of the veneer. 

Over half of the veneer recovered in the 
14-inch and larger d.b.h. class was full width. 
Recovery in the 12-inch d.b.h. class was roughly 
equal between full width and random widths 
(including the 4-foot lengths), while the 10-inch 
d.b.h. class produced over 50 percent 8-foot 
random widths (see appendix, table 11). 

The summary of veneer recovery in the 
four width and length classes by block position 
(table 7) shows that blocks from positions higher 
in the trees yielded lower percentages of 8-foot 
veneer in full widths. The opposite is true 
of 4-foot veneer in random widths. Percentages 
of both half widths and random widths in 8-foot 
lengths were nearly constant in all nine block 
positions (see appendix, table 12). 



Block Classes 

The potential of each block to produce 
predominantly C+ or predominantly D grade • 
veneer was visually judged before the blocks 
were peeled. The purpose of this classification 
was to determine whether recovery could be 
predicted by a simple sorting system. Each i 
block was assigned a designation of class I I 
or class II, depending on maximum knot sizes. 
Class I blocks, expected to produce predomi- 
nantly C-i- veneer, were those with no knot 
greater than 2 inches in horizontal diameter. 
Blocks designated class II, expected to produce 
mostly D grade veneer, had dead knots between 
2 and 4 inches in horizontal diameter and live 
knots over 2 inches. 



10 



Table 5. --Recovery ratios for 687 sound and 

defective blocks, by diameter class 



Table 7. --Percentage of veneer recovered in 

block positions by width and lenqth 

















Block 
position 


Veneer 

volume 

(3/8-inch 

basis) 


8-foot lengths 




Block 
diamete 


r 
)Max. 

6.00 


Sound 
Min. 
0.0 


Ave. 
0.77 


Defective-' 


4-foot 
lengths 


class 
(Inches 


Max. 


Min. 


Ave. 


Full 
width 


Half 
width 


Random 
width 


Random 
width 


6 
7 




Sq. ft. 


- - 


- - Percent - 


- - - 


8 

9 

10 


5.90 
4.75 
3.77 


.0 
.0 
.0 


1.72 
2.14 
2.22 


6.70 
11.10 


1.20 
1.30 


3.39 
3.66 


1 
2 
3 


22,316 
18,991 
15,185 


50 
61 
56 


8 
7 
6 


33 
25 
29 


9 
7 
9 


11 
12 


4.60 
4.80 


.97 
.75 


3.17 
3.20 


12.80 
5.20 


2.80 
1.67 


5.40 
3.89 


4 
5 


11,200 
7,020 


50 
47 


7 
5 


32 
36 


11 
12 


13 
14 
15 


4.06 
4.17 
4.29 


1.08 
1.95 
1.89 


3.12 
3.13 
3.10 


7.85 

10.60 

5.47 


3.07 
2.28 
3.38 


4.62 
4.27 
4.20 


6 
7 
8 


3,965 

1,549 

347 


38 
25 
19 


8 

7 

11 


40 
48 
46 


14 
20 
24 


16 


4.34 
3.80 
3.45 
3.52 


2.57 
2.90 
2.69 
2.52 


3.22 

3.36 
2.94 
3.02 


6.90 
5.74 
4.53 
3.78 


2.23 
1.77 
2.51 
2.64 


3.93 
3.69 
3.33 
2.99 


9 

Total 


4 








100 





17 
18 


80,577 


52 


7 


31 


10 


19 














20 


3.46 


1.84 


2.65 


3.53 


3.26 


3.38 















V Cull blocks not included since a re- 
covery ratio of infinity results if any amount 
of veneer is realized from a block with zero 
scale. 



The 273 class I blocks produced 63.2 per- 
cent C+ veneer, while the 439 class II blocks 
produced 32.3 percent C+ veneer. When the 
recovery of C-i- veneer from class I and II 
blocks was analyzed separately, neither class 
had regression curves that were statistically 
significant. However, the difference between 
the means of the two classes was significant 
(see appendix, tables 13 and 14). 



Cubic-Foot Volume 



Table 6. --Percentage of veneer recovered 
within each tree d.b.h. class 
by width and length 



D.b.h. 

class 

[Inches) 



10 
12 
14 
16 
18 
19+ 

All 
classes 



Veneer 

volume 

3/8-inch 

basis) 



8-foot lengths 



4-foot 
lengths 



Full Half Random Random 
width width width width 



Sq. ft . 

1,426 

3,441 

8,059 

13,734 

21,391 

32,526 



80,577 



Percent - 



21 
43 
51 
56 
56 
52 



52 



52 
36 
30 
27 
28 
33 



31 



17 
12 

n 

10 
9 



10 



The study trees contained 5,378 cubic feet 
of merchantable wood— the sum of veneer block 
cubic volumes as calculated by Smalian's for- 
mula. Of this volume, 2,413 cubic feet, or 
45 percent, was recovered as dry untrimmed 
veneer: 

Average tree Proportion 

D.b.h. volume to recovered 

class utilized top as veneer 

(Inches) (Cu.ft.) (Percent) 

10 10.45 17.0 

12 15.95 26.8 

14 26.95 37.2 

16 38.68 44.3 

18 54.26 49.2 

19+ 77.76 52^ 

Total 44.9 

The remaining 55 percent was residue in 
the form of cores, roundup waste, and green 
veneer clippings. Larger d.b.h. classes yield 



n 



a higher percentage of their cubic-foot volume 
as veneer. This is due primarily to the nearly 
constant volume of individual cores, regardless 
of tree or block diameters. 

Table 8 summarizes the distribution of total 
cubic-foot volume among veneer recovered, 
cores, and roundup and clipper losses for veneer 
blocks. Table 15 (see appendix) breaks down 
the cubic-foot volume into various products 
and residues by tree d.b.h. class. 



Core Use 

The 712 veneer blocks produced 683 cores 
that were sawn into 2- by 4-inch by 8-foot 
studs; 1,650 studs were produced from these 
cores with an avei'age of 2.4 studs per core. 
Of the remaining 29 cores, 21 contained un- 
acceptable rot or were otherwise unsuited for 
studs, and 8 were withdrawn for use in pre- 
servative treating tests. 



CONCLUSIONS 

1. A sample of 144 Black Hills ponderosa 
pine trees from six d.b.h. classes, meeting 
defect criteria of the study, yielded veneer in 



a proportion of grades and sizes that was more 
than adequate to produce C-D grade 3/8-inch 
3-ply plywood. 

2. Trees in larger d.b.h. classes yielded 
a higher percentage of veneer but lower per- 
centages of C+ grades than trees in smaller 
d.b.h. classes. 

3. Larger diameter veneer blocks yielded 
slightly higher percentages of C-i- grades than 
smaller diameter blocks. 

4. Blocks in lower tree positions yielded 
larger proportions of C-i- grades of veneer than 
blocks in higher tree positons. 

5. Recovery ratios appeared favorable for 
conversion of trees to plywood except for trees 
and blocks of small diameters. 

6. More than enough full width sheets of 
C-I- and D grades of veneer were recovered 
to provide one-piece face plies, even if all 
plywood that could have been produced in this 
study were 3/8-inch 3-ply panels. 

7. Knot size, as estimated on the veneer 
blocks, was a useful means of separating the 
blocks into two classes yielding significantly 
different proportions of C-i- veneer. 

8. Recovery data varied widely with all 
classes of trees and blocks; however, it is 
believed that any large sample of Black Hills 
trees in these diameters would give nearly the 
same veneer recovery as those in this study. 



Table 8. --Summary of average cubic foot volume 

by diameter class 



1/ 



of veneer blocks 



Block 












Roundup 


and 


diameter 


Total 


Veneer 


Co 


re 


cli 


ppe 


r 


class 












losses 




Inches 


Cu. ft. 


Cu. ft. 


Pet. 


Cu. ft. 


Pet. 


Cu. ft. 




Pet. 


6 


2.89 


0.17 


6 


1.86 


64 


0.86 




30 


7 


2.85 


.21 


7 


2.08 


73 


.56 




20 


8 


3.73 


.51 


14 


2.00 


54 


1.22 




32 


9 


4.61 


1.28 


28 


1.77 


38 


1.56 




34 


10 


5.48 


1.95 


35 


1.74 


32 


1.79 




33 


11 


6.71 


2.88 


43 


1.62 


24 


2.21 




33 


12 


7.84 


3.73 


48 


1.64 


21 


2.47 




31 


13 


9.05 


4.75 


52 


1.61 


18 


2.69 




30 


14 


10.39 


5.59 


54 


1.61 


15 


3.19 




31 


15 


11.98 


6.59 


55 


1.65 


14 


3.74 




31 


16 


13.53 


7.43 


55 


1.71 


13 


4.39 




32 


17 


15.48 


8.75 


56 


1.80 


12 


4.93 




32 


18 


17.81 


9.38 


53 


1.76 


10 


6.67 




37 


19 


17.97 


10.11 


56 


1.75 


10 


6.11 




34 


20 


22.84 


11.40 


50 


1.68 


7 


9.76 




43 



1/ Based on block volume computed by Small an 's formula. 



12 



SUMMARY 

Some of the first and most important infor- 
mation needed to determine the economic feasi- 
bility of producing plywood from a timber 
resource not previously used for this purpose 
is the amount and grades of veneer that the 
resource will yield. This study developed such 
information for Black Hills ponderosa pine 
timber. 

A sample of 144 trees in six diameter 
classes was selected and processed into veneer. 
The selected trees were considered to be similar 
to those which will be harvested as sawtimber 
in the next 20 years. Veneer from each of 
712 blocks cut from the sample trees was identi- 
fied, graded, and tallied separately. This ap- 
proach allowed accounting for veneer from 
each tree and tree section throughout the 
process. 

These Black Hills ponderosa pine trees 
produced more than sufficient grades and pro- 
portions of veneer to produce C-D plywood 
entirely in 3/8-inch thickness. The proportion 
of the total veneer recovered in C and better 
grades increased with block diameter but de- 
creased with tree diameter and the height of 
the block in the tree. The ratio of dry un- 
trimmed veneer to board feet of log input 
appeared favorable except for small-diameter 
trees and blocks. Sufficient full width (4-foot) 
veneer sheets were produced to provide face 
plies for all the 3 8-inch C-D sheets of plywood 
that could have been made from the study 
1 veneer. 

I Knot size was found to be a useful means 

jof separating blocks into two classes. One 

class yielded a larger proportion of C-i- veneer, 

while the other yielded a larger proportion of 

D veneer. 

The volume of dry untrimmed veneer pro- 
duced was about 45 percent of the cubic-foot 
volume of the sample trees. 



LITERATURE CITED 

American Plywood Association. 

1966. U. S. product standard PS 1-66 for 
softwood plywood— construction & in- 
dustrial—together with DFPA grade - 
trademarks. 28 p. (Reproduced from... 
Nat. Bur. Stand.) 



Barger, Roland L. 

1967. Veneer volume and grade recovery 
from ponderosa pine in the Southwest. 
U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note RM-88, 8 p. 
Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., 
Ft. Collins, Colo. 

Ffolliott, Peter F., and Roland L. Barger. 

1965. A method of evaluating multiproduct 
potential in standing timber. U.S.Forest 
Serv. Res. Pap. RM-15, 24 p. Rocky Mt. 
Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Ft. Collins, 
Colo. 

Gaines, Edward M. 

1964. Pocket guide to the improved grading 
system for ponderosa pine and sugar 
pine saw logs in trees. Pacific South- 
west Forest and Range Exp. Sta., U.S. 
Forest Serv., Berkeley, Calif., 52 p. 

Landt, E. F., and R. O. Woodfin, Jr. 

1959. Amounts and grades of lumber from 
Black Hills ponderosa pine logs. U.S. 
Dep. Agr.,ForestServ., Rocky Mt. Forest 
and Range Exp. Sta., Sta. Pap. 42, 
24 p. Ft. Colhns, Colo. 

Lane, Paul H. 

1971. Identifying veneer in recovery studies. 
Forest Piod. J. 21(6): 32-33. 

Mueller, Lincoln A., Donald C. Markstrom, 
and John F. Lutz. 

1968. Preliminary evaluation of small-diam- 
eter Black Hills ponderosa pine for 
veneer and plywood. U.S.D.A. Forest 
Serv. Res. Note RM-117, 11 p. Rocky 
Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Ft. 
Collins, Colo. 

U. S. Forest Service. 

1956. Veneer cutting and drying properties 
ponderosa pine. Forest Prod. Lab. 
Rep. 1766-12, 8 p. Madison, Wis. 



1971. Plywood demand forecast 1970-1979. 
Forest Indus. 98(1): 37. 



1964. National Forest Log Scaling Handbook. 
U.S. Dep. Agr., Forest Serv. Handb. 
2443.71, 193 p. 

Woodfin, R. O., Jr.. and Mary Anne Mei. 

1967. Computer program for calculating 
veneer recovery volume and value. 39 
p. U. S. Dep. Agr., Forest Serv., Pacific 
Northwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta., 
Portland, Oreg. 

Yerkes, Vern P. 

1966. Weight and cubic-foot relationships 
for Black Hills ponderosa pine saw logs. 
U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Note RM-78, 
4 p. Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Exp. 
Sta., Fort (Collins, Colo. 



13 



APPENDIX 



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D 




0) _ 


c 


J3 


n) 


CJ 


■ r 


H 


C 


Q 


a • 


H 



0) 
XI 

e 

3 
Z 



m 


^D 


T-H 

.-H 


I-H 


in 

(N 


00 


o 
o 

rH 


o 


in 
in 


On 

in 


(N 


o 




(Nl 


o 


in 


-J- 


00 
(^ 


O 


rH 


OO 


o 


vo 


rsi 


<f 


in 


<T 


<t 


ro 


r^ 


<r 




r^ 


rsi 


o 


O 

in 
o 


o 
o 


o 

On 


o 
in 


o 

CNl 


O 


O 

in 


t-H 


.H 


(Nl 


<r 


VD 


cr. 


(Nl 


o 
in 
o 


O 

o 


O 

o 
o 


o 
00 


O 
O 


O 


o 


.H 


.— 1 


(^ 


nT 


•~D 


o 

rH 


(N 


O 

00 


o 

in 


o 

00 


o 
oo 


O 

(N 

in 


o 


o 
rsi 




■-I 


(N 


^ 


^ 


(J^ 


in 

(N 


o 
00 


o 


o 

00 
(3^ 


o 
o 

00 


o 
o 
o 


O 


o 

00 




.-{ 


04 


-d- 


r^ 


O 

I-H 


(N 


LO 


o 


O 


t-^ 


CN 


1-H 




rsi 


(Nl 


(N 


-3- 


in 


(3\ 

in 




in 


a^ 


o 


o 


o 


,H 




o 


.—1 


nT 


i-H 


00 


O 

CM 




o 


00 
00 


f-H 


(T\ 

i-H 




(N 

.— 1 


(Nl 

r-t 




(Nl 


(N 


(N 


(N 


<r 

(N 


Nl- 

rH 

u 



OJ 
XI 





■d 






o 






o 






S 






<u 






J2 






u 






c 


60 




•H 


C 
•H 




T) 


fH 




<U 


0) 




■M 


(U 




(U 


<X 




^ 






a 


0) 




B 


>-i 




O 


o 




o 


14H 
01 


' 


01 


XI 


60 


rH 




C 


CO 


iJ 


iH 


tj 


3 


tH 


01 


X3 


QJ 






0) 


B 


60 


a. 


3 


C 




B 


•H 


1) 


•H 


B 


(J 


X 


to 


o 




OJ 


14H 


Q 


4-1 


01 




01 


Xi 


4-1 






O 


-o 


4-1 


o 


c 


3 


14H 


(fl 


XI 


1 






o 


60 


60 


(Nl 


c 


C 




•H 


•H 


.*s 


j«: 


-^ 


•Ul 


u 


(J 


(U 


to 


tfl 


11 


XI 


XI 


14H 


0) 


11 




XI 



T) 





.i; 


11 


o 


o 


W 


(H 


o 


OJ 


14H 


Xl 


a 


01 




B 


60 


Hh 


o 


O 





a 


.H 


C 


u 


in 


O 



60 
O 



13 
O 
O 

3 



-Hi '»\ 



3 
XI 

c 

60 

c 



ro| 



15 



Table 10. — Summary of veneer block characteristics by position in the tree within tree d.b.h, 
classes for 144 Black Hills ponderosa pine veneer recovery study trees 



Block position 

and d.b.h. 
class (inches) 



Blocks 



Average 
scaling 
diameter 



Scribner seal 



1/ 



Gross 



Net 



Defect 



Blocks 



2/ 



Class I Class II 



Position 
10 
12 
14 
16 
18 
19+ 



Total or 
average 



Number 



24 
24 
24 
?4 
24 
24 



Inches 



144 



8 
9 
11 
13 
15 
17 



Boa 


rd 


feet 


Percent 


390 




370 


5 


620 




580 


6 


850 




840 


1 


1,330 




1,230 


8 


1,730 




1,640 


5 


2,460 




2,260 


8 



7,370 



6,920 





Percent 


67 


33 


71 


29 


79 


21 


83 


17 


75 


25 


83 


17 



76 



24 



Position 2: 
10 
12 
14 
16 
18 
19+ 

Total or 
:iverage 

Position 3: 
10 
12 
14 
16 
18 
19+ 

Total or 
average 



24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



144 



17 
21 
24 
24 
24 
24 



134 



8.1 
9.0 
10.6 
12.8 
14.5 
16.8 



6.4 
8.1 
10.2 
11.6 
13.5 
15.8 



280 


280 


490 


460 


760 


730 


1,150 


1,050 


1,560 


1,460 


2,130 


1,900 




6 

4 

9 

6 

11 



6,370 



5,880 



170 


170 


330 


310 


670 


660 


940 


820 


1,300 


1,200 


1,880 


1,650 




6 

1 

13 

8 

12 



5,290 



4,810 



62 

42 
42 
62 
54 
67 



55 



53 
48 
29 
42 
25 
29 



37 



38 
58 
58 
38 
46 
33 



45 



47 
52 
71 
58 
75 
71 



63 



Position 4: 
10 
12 
14 
16 
18 
19+ 

Total or 
ave rage 



5 
15 
22 
23 

24 

24 



113 



7.0 

7.5 

9.2 

10.7 

12.4 

14.4 



50 


40 


160 


150 


460 


410 


720 


630 


1,060 


1,010 


1,610 


1,330 



20 
6 

11 

12 
5 

17 



4,060 



3,570 



12 



40 
20 
27 
9 
17 
17 



19 



60 
80 
73 
91 
83 
83 



il 



Position 5: 
10 
12 
14 
16 
18 
19+ 

Total or 
average 



4 
13 
20 
22 
23 

82 



7.3 

8.2 

9.4 

10.9 

13.2 



40 


30 


180 


170 


460 


320 


720 


660 


1,180 


1,000 



2.580 



2,180 



25 
6 

30 
8 

15 

16 





31 

10 

9 

9 

12 



100 
69 
90 
91 
91 

88 



1 6 



Table 10. — Summary of veneer block characteristics by position in the tree within tree d.b.h. 
classes for 144 Black Hills ponderosa pine veneer recovery study trees — Continued 



Block position 

and d.b.h. 
class (inches) 



Blocks 



Average 
scaling 
diameter 



Scribner seal 



1/ 



Gross 



Defect 



Net 



Blocks 



2/ 



Class I Class II 





Number 


Inches 




Board 


feet 


Percent 




Percent 


Position 6: 




















10 


-- 


— 




— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


12 


-- 


— 




-- 




— 


-- 


-- 


-- 


14 


5 


7.8 




50 




40 


20 





100 


16 


10 


8.4 




150 




80 


47 





100 


18 


18 


9,8 




430 




360 


16 


6 


94 


19+ 


20 


12.0 




810 




700 


14 


5 


95 


Total or 


53 




1 


,440 


1 


,180 


18 


4 


96 


average 




















Position 7: 
10 




















12 
14 


2 


7.1 




10 




10 





50 


50 


16 


3 


7.7 




40 




40 








100 


18 


10 


8.7 




170 




160 


6 





100 


19+ 


14 


10.7 




420 




350 


17 





100 


Total or 
average 


29 






640 




560 


12 


3 


97 






















Position 8: 
10 
12 
14 
16 


— 


— 




— 




— 


— 


-- 


— 


1 


8.0 




10 




10 








100 


18 


3 


8.0 




30 




30 








100 


19+ 


7 


9.4 




150 




140 


7 





100 


Total or 
average 


11 






190 




180 


5 





100 






















Position 9: 
10 


.. 


^^ 




„ 




_^ 


WM 


.. 


— — 


12 
14 
16 


-- 


~ 




— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


18 
19+ 


2 


8.6 




40 




40 








100 


Total or 


2 


8.6 




40 




40 








100 


average 








































All positions: 




















10 


70 






890 




860 


3 


60 


40 


12 


88 




1 


,640 


1 


,530 


7 


45 


55 


14 


114 




2 


,980 


2 


,860 


4 


41 


59 


16 


129 




4 


,800 


4 


,180 


13 


38 


62 


18 


149 




7 


,000 


6 


,520 


7 


30 


70 


19+ 


162 




10 


,670 


9 


,370 


12 


31 


69 


Total or 
average 


712 




27 


,980 


25 


,320 


10 


38 


62 



j^/ Eight-foot block scale completed after debarking but before peeling. 

2J Based on classification of blocks after debarking and steaming but before peeling, 



17 



Table 11. — Percent of veneer in various length and width classes by C+ and D grades 
within each tree d.b.h. class 



D.b.h. class 


Veneer 


volume 


8 


-foot lengths 


4-foot lengths 


and grade 


Full 
Width 


Half 
Width 


Random 
Width 


Random 
Width 




Sq. ft. 

740 
686 


Percent- 

52.0 
48.0 




. ^ _ _ P^-^^y^^*- 




10 inches: 
C+ 
D 


10.3 
10.2 


3.4 
6.9 


26.4 
26.1 


11.9 
4.8 


Total 


1,426 


100.0 


20.5 


10.3 


52.5 


16.7 


12 inches: 
C+ 
D 


2,320 
1,121 


67.4 
32.6 


30.7 
12.1 


4.4 
4.4 


23.5 
12.6 


8.8 
3.5 


Total 


3,441 


100.0 


42.8 


8.8 


36.1 


12.3 


14 inches: 
C+ 
D 


5,054 
3,005 


62.7 
37.3 


33.4 
17.8 


4.1 
3.5 


17.6 
12.9 


7.6 
3.0 


Total 


8,059 


100.0 


51.2 


7.6 


30.6 


10.6 


16 inches: 
C+ 
D 


7,384 
6,350 


53.8 
46.2 


29.5 
26.7 


3.9 
2.8 


13.8 
13.6 


6.5 
3.1 


Total 


13,724 


100.0 


56.2 


6.7 


27.4 


9.6 


18 inches: 
C+ 
D 


9,630 
11,761 


45.0 
55.0 


24.8 
31.4 


4.0 
3.0 


10.8 
16.8 


5.5 
3.8 


Total 


21,391 


100.0 


56.2 


7.0 


27.6 


9.3 


19+ inches: 
C+ 
D 


12,997 
19,529 


40.0 
60.0 


19.9 
31.5 


2.9 
3.5 


12.0 
21.4 


5.2 
3,7 


Total 


32,526 


100.0 


51.4 


6.4 


33.4 


8.9 


All classes: 
C+ 
D 


38,125 
42,452 


47.3 
52.7 


24.5 
28.1 


3.5 
3.3 


13.3 
17.7 


6,0 
3.6 


Total 


80,577 


100.0 


52.6 


6.9 


31.0 


9.6 



1/ Rounding errors may cause some totals to be slightly different from the sum 
of the parts. 



18 



Table 12. — Percent of veneer in various length and width classes by C+ and D grades 
within each block position 



Slock position 
and grade 



Veneer volume 

(3/8-inch 
basis) 



8-foot lengths 



Full 
Width 



Half 
Width 



Random 
Width 



4-foot lengths 



Random 
Width 



sition 1: 


Sq. ft. 


Percent— 






Percent - - - 




C+ 


15,673 


70.2 


33.6 


5.7 


23.2 


7.7 


D 


6,643 


29.8 


16.8 


2.0 


9.6 


1.5 



Total 



22,316 



100.0 



50.4 



7.7 



32.8 



9.2 



Position 2: 














C+ 


11,198 


59.0 


38.2 


4.2 


11.8 


4.7 


D 


7,793 


41.0 


23.1 


2.4 


13.4 


2.2 



Total 



18,991 



100.0 



61.3 



6.6 



25.2 



6.9 



Position 3: 














C+ 


5,632 


37.1 


19.6 


2.4 


9.9 


5.2 


D 


9,553 


62.9 


36.7 


3.6 


18.8 


3.8 



Total 



15,185 100.0 



56.3 



6.0 



28.7 



9.0 



Position 4: 














C+ 


3,257 


29.1 


12.4 


1.9 


8.4 


6.4 


D 


7,943 


70.9 


37.8 


5.4 


23.3 


4.4 



Total 



11.200 



100.0 



50.2 



7.3 



31.7 



10.8 



Total 



Position 5: 
C+ 
D 


1,219 
5,801 


17.4 
82.6 


4.8 
42.3 


1.4 
4.0 


6.6 
29.1 


4.7 
7.1 


Total 


7,020 


100.0 


47.1 


5.4 


35.7 


11.8 


Position 6: 
C+ 
D 


751 
3,214 


18.9 
81.1 


5.3 
33.1 


1.4 
6.8 


6.1 

33.4 


6.1 

7.9 



3,965 



100.0 



38.3 



8.2 



39.5 



14.0 



l_l Rounding errors may cause some totals to be slightly different from the sum 
of the parts. 

(Continued) 



1 9 



Table 12. — Percent of veneer in various length and width classes by C+ and D grades 
within each block position — Continued 



Block position 
and grade 



Veneer volume 

(3/8-inch 
basis) 



8- foot lengths 



Full 

Width 



Half 
Width 



Random 
Width 



4-foot lengths 



Random 
Width 



Position 7: 


Sq. ft. 


Percent 






Percent - - - 




C+ 


303 


19.6 


1.9 


1,3 


9.1 


7.2 


D 


1,246 


80.4 


23.1 


5.6 


38.9 


13.0 



Total 



Position 8: 
C+ 
D 



Total 



1,549 



347 



100.0 



92 26.5 
255 73.5 



100.0 



24.9 



6.9 



48.0 



19.3 



9.5 
1.4 



4.3 
41.2 



19.3 



11.0 



45,5 



20.2 



12.7 
11.5 



24.2 



Position 9: 
C+ 
D 

Total 



100.0 



100.0 



100.0 



100.0 



All positions: 












C+ 


38,125 


47.3 


24.5 


3.5 


13.3 


D 


42,452 


52.7 


28.1 


3.3 


17.7 



Total 



80,577 100.0 



52.6 



6.8 



31.0 



6.0 
3.6 



9.6 



1/ Rounding errors may cause some totals to be slightly different from the sum 
of the parts. 



20 



Table 13. — Percent of veneer recovered in seven dry veneer grades by block class I and II and 
by block diameter 



Block class 


Number 

of 
Blocks 


Veneer 

vo 1 ume 

(3/8-inch 

basis) 


Veneer grade 


Grade Groups 


and diameter 
(inches) 


A 


Ap 


B 


Bp 


C 


D 


Ei/ 


C+ 


D 



Class 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 
19 
20 



14 
33 
28 
23 
28 

23 
26 
23 
24 
20 

17 
8 
2 
3 



Sq. ft . 



169 

609 

1,258 

1,752 

2,680 

3,240 
4,308 
4,629 
5,386 
5,161 

4,990 

2,533 

783 

1,034 











■ Percent - - - 
36.1 62.1 


1.8 


36.1 


63.9 


-- 


-- 


-- 


-- 


58.8 


40.4 


0.8 


58.8 


42.2 


-- 


-- 


-- 


-- 


65.7 


33.7 


0.6 


65.7 


34.3 


-- 


__ 


0.5 


0.6 


72.8 


21.1 


5.0 


73.9 


26.1 


-- 


— 


0.7 


2.5 


65.0 


30.8 


1.0 


68.2 


31.8 


.3 


0.3 


1.2 


2.4 


55.5 


31.6 


8.7 


59.7 


40.3 


-- 


— 


0.9 


2.9 


56.3 


33.4 


6.5 


60.1 


39.9 


-- 


-- 


1.1 


1.7 


53.7 


37.7 


5.8 


56.5 


43.5 


.6 


— 


5.8 


6.1 


60.5 


17.8 


8.2 


74.0 


26.0 


.6 


-- 


3.8 


1.4 


57.5 


30.1 


6.6 


63.3 


36.7 


__ 


._ 


0.7 


3.1 


69.1 


20.8 


6.3 


72.9 


27.1 


-- 


_- 


5.8 


7.5 


49.5 


28.5 


8.7 


62.8 


37.2 


-- 


-- 


1.1 


-- 


86.4 


5.5 


7.0 


87.5 


12.5 


-. 


-- 


0.9 


2.3 


56.3 


33.0 


7.5 


59.5 


40.5 



All class I 



272 



38,532 



0.3 (2/) 2.2 2,9 



60.1 



28.2 6.3 



65.5 34.5 



Class II: 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 

14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



4 23 39.1 

33 163 38.7 

65 1,062 " -- 39.5 

53 2,210 -- -- 0.9 0.9 37.9 

65 3,986 — — 0.4 0.2 36.7 

48 4,645 -- — -- 0.2 35.2 

51 5,979 0.1 -- — 0.3 28.2 

34 5,211 - 0.1 24.9 

37 6,561 0.4 25.0 

22 4,742 — 0.6 0.1 1.0 17.9 

16 3,761 -- — 0.1 1.6 26.1 

6 1,721 1.1 35.3 

2 594 82.0 

3 902 56.3 

1 485 - — 13.6 



60.9 


— 


39.1 


60.9 


58.2 


3.1 


38.7 


61.3 


58.5 


2.0 


39.5 


60.5 


59.1 


1.2 


39.7 


60.3 


62.6 


0.1 


37.3 


62.7 


62.3 


2.3 


35.4 


65.6 


68.9 


2.5 


28.6 


71.4 


75.0 


— 


25.0 


75.0 


74.2 


0.4 


25.4 


74.6 


80.0 


0.4 


19.6 


80.4 


70.7 


1.5 


27.8 


72.2 


58.5 


5.1 


36.4 


63.6 


16.3 


1.7 


82.0 


18.0 


43.4 


0.3 


56.3 


43.7 


85.8 


0.6 


13.6 


86.4 



All class II 



u 



asses I 
and II 



440 



712 



42,045 



(2/) 



0.1 



0,1 0.5 29.8 68.3 1.2 



80,577 



0.2 (2/) 1.1 1,7 44.3 49.1 



3.6 



30.5 69.5 



47.3 52.7 



1^/ E is grade D veneer with admissible rot. 
2l Less than 0.05 percent. 



21 



Table 14. — Percent of veneer in various length and width classes by C+ and D grades 
within each block class 



Block class 
and grade 


Veneer 
(3/8- 

bas 


volume 
-inch 
is) 




8- 


-foot lengths 


4- foot lengths 


Full 


Half 


Random 


Random 




Width 


Width 


Width 


Width 




Sq. ft. 


Percentl' 




















Class I: 
















C+ 


25,287 


65.6 




36.7 


5.1 


17.7 


6.1 


D 


13,245 


34.4 




21.3 


2.2 


9.4 


1.5 


Total 


38,532 


100.0 




58.0 


7.3 


27.1 


7.6 


Class II: 
















C+ 


12,838 


30.5 




13.2 


2.1 


9.2 


6.0 


D 


29,207 


69.5 




34.3 


4.4 


25.4 


5.4 


Total 


42,045 


100.0 




47.5 


6.5 


34.6 


11.4 


All classes: 
















C+ 


38,125 


47.3 




24.5 


3.5 


13.3 


6.0 


D 


42,452 


52.7 




28.1 


3.3 


17.7 


3.6 


Total 


80,577 


100.0 




52.6 


6.8 


31.0 


9.6 



\/ Rounding errors may cause some totals to be slightly different from the sum 
of the parts. 



22 



Table 15. — Cubic foot volume summary by d.b.h. class 



D.b.h. 

class 

(inches) 



Average 

utilized 

tree 

volume 



Volume 



Total 
volume- 



Veneer 



Core 



Roundup and 
clipper loss 



Veneer 
Recovery 



10 


10.45 


250.88 


- Cubic feet 
42.54 


127.26 


81.08 


Percent 
17.0 


12 


15.95 


382.79 


102.64 


165.66 


114.49 


26.8 


14 


26.95 


646.90 


240.93 


196.31 


209.66 


37.2 


16 


38.68 


928.35 


411.01 


222.20 


295.14 


44.3 


18 


54.26 


1302.33 


640.97 


258.09 


403.27 


49.2 


19+ 


77.76 


1866.36 


975.16 


278.86 


612.34 


52.2 


All classes 




5377.61 


2413.25 


1248.38 


1715.98 


44.9 



\l Based on block volume computed by Smalian's formula. 



Agriculture— CSU, Ft. CoUins 



23 



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DA Forest Service 
search Paper RM-83 
jruary 1972 

cky Mountain Forest and 
ige Experiment Station 

est Service 

S. Department of Agriculture 

-t Collins, Colorado 



PHYSICAL 
CHARACTERISTICS 
AND UTILIZATION 
OF MAJOR 
WOODLAND 
TREE SPECIES 
IN ARIZONA 



Roland L. Barger and Peter F. Ffolliott 




PREFACE 

This report has been prepared principally for those inter- 
ested in, involved in, or contemplating utilization of the 
major woodland tree species of Arizona. The report attempts 
to bring together, from widely scattered sources, available 
information relating to the stand and stocking characteristics, 
physical attributes, and utilization of the species. The in- 
fluence of other land management activities upon resource 
availability, and implications for utilization, are discussed 
briefly in the final section. 

The authors acknowledge the direct and indirect con- 
tributions of information from a multitude of sources, both 
published and unpublished, as reflected by credit references 
and the bibliography. Particularly significant were the contri- 
butions from the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, College 
of Natural Resources, and Economic Research Center, Utah 
State University; the Northern Arizona University School of 
Forestry; and the USDA Forest Products Laboratory. 

Detailed physical data have generally been excluded from 
the text throughout the report. Data describing in detail 
the resource, its characteristics, and its utilization will be 
found in the appendices, which also include a glossary of 
terms that may be unfamiliar to some readers. 



ABSTRACT 

Woodland species, principally pinyon and juniper, cover over 
51 million acres in Arizona and adjoining States. The occurrence, 
physical characteristics, and utilization potential of pinyon, juniper, 
and Gambel oak are reported here. Products for which they may 
be especially suited include veneer, particleboards, charcoal, pulp, 
and chemical extractives. In addition, pinyon is valuable for 
Christmas trees and nuts. 

The report is a reference handbook of all available information 
relating to stand and stocking characteristics and physical and 
chemical properties of the species. 



Key words: 



Woodland species, 
wood properties. 



pinyon-juniper, forest products, 



U S D A Forest Service February 1972 

Research Paper RM-83 ^ 



Physical Characteristics and Utilization 
of Major Woodland Tree Species in Arizona 

by 

Roland L. Barger, Wood Technologist 

and 

Peter F. Ffolliott, Associate Silviculturist 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 



Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, with central headquarters 
maintained at Fort Collins, in cooperation with Colorado State University; 
research reported here was conducted at Flagstaff, in cooperation with Northern 
Arizona University. Dr. Ffolliott is currently Assistant Professor, Department 
of Watershed Management, University of Arizona, Tucson. 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 1 

THE MAJOR WOODLAND SPECIES 1 

Distribution 1 

Occurrence and Silvical Characteristics 2 

Stand, Stocking, and Growth Characteristics 7 

Pinyon 10 

Utah Juniper 11 

Alligator Juniper 12 

Gambel Oak 13 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 14 

Specific Gravity 14 

Strength and Related Properties 15 

Factors Affecting Strength 16 

Shrinkage Characteristics 17 

UTILIZATION— PAST AND POTENTIAL 17 

Solid Wood Products 17 

Sawn Products 17 

Veneer 19 

Particleboards 19 

Firewood 21 

Fenceposts 25 

Chemical Products 27 

Charcoal 27 

Pulping 32 

Extractive-based Products 34 

Additional Pinyon Products 38 

Pinyon Nuts 38 

Pinyon Christmas Trees 42 

MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS OF UTILIZATION 44 

Removal of Woodland Species as a Land Treatment 45 

Methods 45 

Costs 46 

Influence on Utilization 46 

Effects of Removal on Other Resources 48 

Range 48 

Wildlife 48 

Watershed 48 

Implications for Resource Availability 49 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 50 

APPENDICES: 

A. Glossary 55 

B. Timber Statistics 57 

C. Physical Properties 69 

D. Wood Product Utilization 73 



Physical Characteristics and Utilization of 
Major Woodland Tree Species in Arizona 



Roland L. Barger and Peter F. Ffolliott 



INTRODUCTION 

Woodland species occupy about one-fifth 
of the land area of Arizona, or more than three 
times the area of commercial forests (Spencer 
1966). Although these species are of less com- 
mercial value than the saw log forests of higher 
elevations, they represent a vast potential forest 
resource. Since the earliest days of Spanish ex- 
ploration and settlement, the woodland species 
have been a source of fuelwood, posts, poles, 
and some food (Fogg 1966, Hamilton 1965, 
Randies 1949, Reveal 1944). More recently 
they have gained attention as a potential source 
of raw material for such products as paper, 
particleboard, charcoal, extractives, and novelty 
items. 

Four species comprise most of the Arizona 
woodland resource, and achieve sufficient size 
and form to encourage utilization for wood 
products. These major woodland species are 
common pinyon,^ Utah juniper, alligator juni- 
per, and Gambel oak. Utah juniper is associ- 
ated with and occasionally replaced by a physi- 
cally similar species, one-seed juniper, in parts 
of northern and east-central Arizona. This 
report presents information describing the occur- 
rence, physical characteristics, and past, present, 
and potential uses of these species. Although 
much of the information is based upon studies 
conducted in Arizona, or on sample materials 
from north-central Arizona, it is broadly appli- 
cable to tne four species throughout their range. 
Information relating to these species outside 
Arizona is included where applicable and desir- 
able. 

The common and botanical names of plants men- 
tioned are listed on page 80. 



We have attempted to present directly com- 
parable information for all species. Some of 
the woodland species have not been studied as 
extensively as others, however, and comparable 
data are frequently unavailable. 



THE MAJOR WOODLAND SPECIES 

Distribution 

Pinyon, Utah juniper, alligator juniper, and 
Gambel oak are widely distributed across the 
western States. The pinyon-juniper type ex- 
tends from New Mexico west into southeastern 
California (Soc. Amer. Forest. 1954) (fig. 1). 
Common pinyon and Utah or one-seed junipers 
make up the type composition through southern 
Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and eastern 
Utah. Singleleaf pinyon and Utah juniper ;ire 
predominant in western Utah and Nevada. 
Singleleaf pinyon and other junipers form the 
type in California. Scattered stands of these 
pinyon and juniper species are also found in 
southwestern Texas and the Oklahoma Pan- 
handle, and as far north as southwestern Wyo- 
ming and southern Idaho (Critchfield and Little 
1966, Harlow and Harrar 1950). 

There are 51 million acres of the pinyon- 
juniper type in Arizona and the adjoining States 
of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Nevada 
(U.S. Forest Serv. 1958, p. 117), plus another 
10 million acres in other western States. Over 
12.2 million acres of the type occur in Aiizona 
alone, containing an estimated 953 million cubic 
feet of pinyon and 1,040 million cubic feet of 
juniper (Spencer 1966). 



- 1 - 



N. 




figu-^e. 7.-- 
G2.n1in.aZ lange 0^ thz 
puiLjon- juyiiptn tijpz, 
and o(, common pZnyon 
Loltliln tilt type, in 
6 oi/iwei ttnji Unitzd 
Statu . 



COMMON PINYON (P. EPULIS) 
IN THE TYPE 



Alligator juniper occurs from southwestern 
Texas through New Mexico and Arizona, while 
Gambel oak covers a somewhat wider range, 
extending into Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, and 
Nevada. Both species occur intermixed through 
much of the ponderosa pine type, as well as 
in the upper pinyon- juniper type. Gambel oak 
is found through practically all of the ponderosa 
pine type in Arizona, an area of 3.6 million 
acres. 

Occurrence and Silvical Characteristics 

Woodland species in Arizona grow in both 
a tioie woodland vegetation type and as inter- 
mingling species in a commercial timber vege- 
tation type. Species distribution is determined 
primarily by precipitation patterns; the bulk 
of the woodland species grows at lower ele- 
vations where precipitation is insufficient for 
commercial timber species (fig. 2). Localized 
variations are due to physiographic factors such 
as slope, aspect, and soil characteristics. 



Patterns of occurrence and stand charac- 
teristics vary substantially between species. 
Pinyon and the junipers are found principally 
in the extensive pinyon-juniper woodland type, 
the largest single forest vegetation type in 
Arizona (fig. 3). The type typically occupies 
intermediate elevations from 4,500 to 7,500 feet 
(Little 1950). Pinyon and one or more species 
of juniper commonly grow intermixed in the 
type. Generally speaking, pinyon and alligator 
juniper are most common at the higher ele- 
vations of the type, pinyon and Utah juniper 
occur intermixed at middle elevations, and Utah 
juniper is predominant at lower elevations down 
to the short-grass rangeland (Arnold et al. 
1964) (fig. 4). Both pinyon and Utah juniper 
also frequently form relatively pure stands. 
Pure juniper stands are characteristically open, 
whereas pure pinyon stands on better sites may 
be dense and forestlike. Alligator juniper rarely 
forms pure stands, but often exists as an inter- 
mingling species throughout the lower pon- 
derosa pine type. 



- 2 - 



8000 » 



S 7000 ^ 



z 
o 

N 

z 
o 

< 

> 



- 6000 - 



5000 




LOWER WOODLAND 



UPPER WOODLAND 

VEGETATION ZONE 



PONDEROSA PINE 



VlqvJiz 3. --Location and zxttnt Oj^ tl^^ plmjon- 
jimlpzfi and pondeAoia plm (^on.u>t typeM 
in knizona. 




mH PONDEROSA PINE 
^g PINYON -JUNIPER 



- 3 







IJifc. ''• .'iwJfiM;"-'.: 



'ilk. 






-<3f 






F-cguAe. 4.--Thz occuMA.e.nct o{, p-tnyon and tkz jiivilpzu KangeA ^n.om 

fLzlatLvuly dzMt, puA^. itandi> oi piny on (A) , to InteAmixtuAUi o^ thz 
ip^clu (8). M: low^fi QjiQ.va;tioM> Utali jun^ipe,^ (^ofuni zxten-iiv^ ope,n 
6tand6 (C). AttlgaX.0^ jixnlpoJi occuAi in both tht pinyon-junipe.^ typ^ 
and thfiough tht lowtK p-im type. [V] . Gambzt oak occuM pnlndpalty OA 
an -intzfimlngling iipzcleA in thz pondzKoi,a pirn type. 



Below the MogoUon Rim, species composi- 
tion of the pinyon-juniper woodland type differs 
from that found farther north. Two vegetation 
zones, referred to as upper and lower woodland 
zones, are recognized in the sub-Mogolion region 
of the Inland Southwest (Lowe 1961). The 
lower woodland zone, which extends up to 
approximately 5,900 feet elevation, contains pri- 
marily Utah juniper with occasional intermixed 



pinyon. The upper zone occupies elevations 
from 5,900 to 6,500 feet, and is commonly 
stocked with alligator juniper. Minor volumes of 
Utah juniper and pinyon are also occasionally 
included, and Gambel oak and ponderosa pine 
are found at the upper elevations of the zone. 

Pinyon is a small pine tree rarely exceed- 
ing 35 feet in height and 24 inches in diameter 



J.S. Forest Serv. 1965). The trees are typically 
igle stemmed, with a short straight trunk 
id many lai-ge branches forming a rounded, 
reading crown (fig. 5). Open-grown trees 
nd to be shrubby, with little or no limb-free 
ank. The common pinyon, sometimes re- 
rred to as Colorado pinyon, is the principal 
ecies of the tree found in the Southwest, 
vo very similar species, Mexican pinyon and 
igleleaf pinyon, occur in limited areas (Little 
50). The wood of pinyon is similar to that 
other western pines— soft, even textured, 
id resinous. 
Utah juniper, the most common juniper 
Arizona, is also a small tree, usually less 
an 30 feet tall; it closely resembles one-seed 
niper (fig. 6). Better trees may have a 
igle, short trunk 1 to 2 feet in diameter, 
east high (d.b.h. ), but multiple stems ex- 
nding from the ground or from a short basal 
ank are also common. Open-grown trees 
nd to be bushy and multiple stemmed. The 
ecies has a soft, fine-textured wood with light 
own heartwood and creamy white sapwood. 
Alligator juniper, the largest of the western 
mipers, occasionally reaches 65 feet in height 



and 7 feet in d.b.h. (Little 1950). The tree 
commonly has a single short, heavy trunk, 
and a massive, spreading crown (fig. 7). Alli- 
gator juniper grows in mixture with pinyon 
and other junipers in the upper pinyon-juniper 
type, and as a minor intermingling species in 
the ponderosa pine type up to approximately 
8,000 feet elevation. Many of the larger trees 
are found in the ponderosa pine type. Older, 
larger trees often exhibit dead strips up the 
trunk and extending along larger limbs. The 
wood is soft and fine textured, with reddish- 
brown heartwood and light sapwood. It has 
a strong characteristic "cedar" fragrance. 

Gambel oak is widely distributed across the 
Southwest, both as a brush or shrub species 
and a tree species (Brown 1958, Little 1950). 
Although it typically forms shrubby thickets 
over much of its range, it also forms respect- 
able trees under favorable conditions (Amer. 
Forest. Ass. 1956). Gambel oak trees occur 
principally as a minor or inteimingling species 
in the ponderosa pine type. In the lower pine 
type, Gambel oak may make up as much as 
25 to 30 percent of the stand. At elevations 
below the ponderosa pine type, it is occasionally 




*!^^ F-cgate 5.- -A typical matuAe. pinyoyi, wiZk 
loJige bfuxndieA and ipfizading cAown. 



Figure, 6.-- „.- o 

UatuAz Utah junipeJi -a oiUn mixuxple- 
itmrmd and hcUi a dznMZ, 6pn.e.adlng cAom. 




- 6 



found with pinyon and juniper, particularly 
ilong creek bottoms and water courses. 

Gambel oak trees range from 20 to 70 feet 
in height and up to 3 feet in d.b.h. (fig. 8). 
rhe trees grow both singly and in scattered 
slumps. On poorer sites, short irregular trunks 
and large, spreading, limby crowns characterize 
the trees. On good sites, however, straight 
well-formed stems are common. The species 
sprouts prolifically, and tends to spread follow- 
ing fire, cutting, or other disturbance (Brown 
1958). The wood of Gambel oak is hard, heavy, 
and similai- in appearance to that of the eastern 
white oaks. 



Stand, Stocking, and Growth Characteristics 

Stand and stocking characteristics of each 
of the major woodland species vary considerably. 
Some, but not all, of the species occur in each 
of the vegetation zones previously discussed— 
pinyon-juniper woodland, sub-Mogollon wood- 
land zones, and lower ponderosa pine type. 
Figures 9 through 12 illustrate typical stand 
and stocking conditions in the four vegetation 
associations or zones. Detailed data describing 
stand, stocking, and gi'owth characteristics are 
in appendix B, tables 20 through 29; tree vol- 
ume tables are included as tables 30 through 33. 




HguAe. 8.--MatuAe. Gambol oak tAZdM occuA cu> an IntzAmingtLng ipzcle^ in 
ikn pondzHX)i,a plm type.. Good 4-6te6 iappofit toAqt, wM.-{^ofun(id tn.(iu>. 
The, Gambel oak tn.ee pictuAed In tkz ImeX -O, 3S.3 Inches In diajtrntzK, 

. 76 {^eet taZt, and hoi an a\)zn.age cAou)n diamzteA o{, 40 {^eeX. 



7 - 



140 




—rf^ 



Milium ^amtSBBi— 



9- 12 13-16 17-20 21-24 
TREE DIAMETER (INCHES) 



VLquah 10.-- 
Huji]bti 0(5 tiee6 and volurm pe-^ 
acA^ 0() woodland tfitt ipzalu 
in tkt toiXSQji woodland zont bztow 
tiid hkogotlon R-tm. 



25-28 29+ 



160 

140 
120 
100 
80 
60 
40 
20 

40 



30 - 



20 - 



1-4 



FlguAd 9.--MwnbeA o{, tfizzi. and volume 
poji acAn o{i woodland tA.?,z 6pzcA.e^ in 
the. pimjon-junlpzA type in nofitiienn 
A/ilzona and We/o Mexico. [Adapted {,Koni 
Howell 1940.) 



i 



1— H — ^_j — I 



I 



n 



PINYON 
JUTAH JUNIPER 






5-8 



9-12 13-16 17-20 21-24 25-28 29* 
TREE DIAMETER (INCHES) 




ALLIGATOR JUNIPER 
I UTAH JUNIPER 



14 5 8 912 13-16 17-20 21-24 25-28 29* 

TREE DIAMETER (INCHES) 



FcguAc 11.-- 
NtmbeA. ojj tfiaoji and votumo, peA acAe. 
0/) woodland Vite. iptclti -in the. uppeA 
woodland zone boJiow thz UogolZon Rim. 
In addttlon to thz ip^cie^ ■iLtuntAoXed, 
imatl amounts o{) pondexoia pirn, 
ptnyon, and Gambit oak occu/i In tho, 
zone.. 





PONDEROSA PINE 



GAMBEL OAK 



ALLIGATOR JUNIPER 



FtguAe 12 .--NumbeK 0(5 tAzeA and volume pe.n acne oj^ woodland Viee 
6pecA.eJ> and ponde.noia pine in the ponden.oi>a pine type. The 
iiZixitAated itand compoiition ii Kepn.e6entative o{, pine, standi 
that have been toQQzd in the pa.bt. 



^^^^=zi_ 



5 8 



13 16 1720 

TREE DIAMETER (INCHES) 



21 24 



25 28 



29 • 



Pinyon 

Howell (1940) reported an average of 282 
pinyon trees per acre on sample plots repre- 
senting the range of size and form charac- 
teristics typical of pinyon-juniper woodlands 
in northern Arizona and New Mexico (fig. 9). 
Almost 90 percent of the stems were less than 
10 inches in diameter at stump (1 foot) height. 
Pinyon in the stand accounted for 44 square 
feet of basal area per acre, and contained 393 
cubic feet or 5.9 cords of wood per acre. Gross 
annual growth of pinyon in the stand averaged 
6 cubic feet per acre, approximately 1.5 percent 
of existing gross volume. 

Below the Mogollon Rim, pinyon occurs pri- 
marily as a minor species in tne lower wood- 
land zone (fig. 10). Pinyon in the stand aver- 
ages 16 stems per acre, exclusive of reproduction. 
Volume averages 23 cubic feet per acre, mostly 
in trees 9 inches and larger in d.b.h. Gross 
annual increment is 0.2 cubic foot per acre, 
or 1 percent of existing gi'oss volume. 



Pinyon grows relatively slowly, and rarely 
exceeds 0.75 inch diameter growth per decade. 
Howell (1940) reported decadal growth rates 
ranging from 0.7 inch in young pinyon trees 
to 0.4 inch in older trees. Reveal (1944) re- 
ported diameter growth of approximately 1 
inch per decade for the first 100 years, decreas- 
ing to 0.2 inch at 200 years, in singleleaf pinyon 
in Nevada. 

Young pinyon trees grow more rapidly 
than older trees, and also grow more rapidly 
than associated juniper species in both diameter 
and height (Howell 1940, Jameson 1965). Growth 
rates are similar in larger trees